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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2017 year, number 8

1.
Estimation of the turbulence energy dissipation rate in the atmospheric boundary layer based on measurements of wind radial velocity by a micropulsed coherent Doppler lidar. I. Numerical analysis

V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: скорость диссипации, доплеровский лидар, моделирование, интенсивность турбулентности, отношение сигнал-шум, dissipation rate, Doppler lidar, simulation, turbulence strength, signal-to-noise ratio

Abstract >>
The results of numerical study of accuracy of the method of azimuthal structure function for estimation of the dissipation rate of kinetic energy of turbulence from measurements by low energy coherent Doppler lidars are presented. Conical scanning of probing beam of a lidar around the vertical axis is considered. Applicability of the azimuthal structure function method depending on turbulence strength and signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed.
																								



2.
Estimation of the turbulence energy dissipation rate in the atmospheric boundary layer based on measurements of wind radial velocity by a micropulsed coherent Doppler lidar. II. Experiment

V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: скорость диссипации, доплеровский лидар, турбулентность, атмосферные внутренние волны, струйные течения, dissipation rate, Doppler lidar, turbulence, atmospheric internal waves, jet streams

Abstract >>
The results of lidar study of wind turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal are presented. 2D spatiotemporal distributions of the turbulent energy dissipation rate in the presence of atmospheric internal waves and low level jet streams are obtained for the first time.
																								



3.
Stream Line Doppler lidar measurements of wind speed and direction with the duo-beam method in the atmospheric boundary layer

V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, A.V. Falits, E.V. Gordeev, A.A. Sukharev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, акустический анемометр, ветер, двухлучевой метод, coherent Doppler lidar, sonic anemometer, wind, duo-beam method

Abstract >>
The results of retrieval of wind speed and direction from measurements of radial velocity by a Stream Line pulsed coherent Doppler lidar using the duo-beam method and conical scanning are presented. These results are compared with data of a sonic anemometer (point sensor).
																								



4.
Comparative estimates of the transversal wind velocity component from optical and acoustic measurements in the surface air layer

A.L. Afanasiev, V.A. Banakh, D.A. Marakasov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: некогерентный источник, корреляция изображений, интегральная скорость ветра, пассивный оптический измеритель, акустический анемометр, турбулентность, non-coherent source, image correlation, path-averaged wind velocity, passive optical measurer, acoustic anemometer, turbulence

Abstract >>
A passive optical method for measurement of the crosswind velocity averaged over an atmospheric path is developed. The crosswind velocity estimation is based on the correlation algorithm operating with the shifts of energy centroids of images of topographic objects under natural daylight. Testing results of a measurer prototype based on this algorithm are discribed. The wind velocity estimates recorded by passive optical measurer and acoustic weather station are compared. The optimal duration for averaging the mutual correlation function providing the stability of real-time wind measurements is estimated.
																								



5.
Verification of passive correlation optical crosswind velocity meter in experiments with Doppler wind lidar

A.L. Afanasiev, V.A. Banakh, E.V. Gordeev, D.A. Marakasov, A.A. Sukharev, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: поперечный ветер, корреляционный пассивный измеритель, доплеровский лидар, crosswind, passive correlation meter, Doppler lidar

Abstract >>
The results of comparative experiments on measurement of the crosswind velocity by the passive correlation optical method and with a coherent Doppler wind lidar are analyzed. A crosswind velocity meter, developed at Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, was used in the passive correlation optical measurements.
																								



6.
Measurements of aircraft wake vortex parameters by a Stream Line Doppler lidar

I.N. Smalikho, V.A. Banakh, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, самолетные вихри, coherent Doppler lidar, aircraft wake vortices

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of measurements of parameters of aircraft wake vortices by a Stream Line coherent Doppler lidar during the three-day experiment on the airfield of Tolmachevo Airport. We have analyzed spatial dynamics and evolution of the wake vortices generated by aircrafts of various types: from Airbus A319 passenger aircraft to heavy Boeing 747-8 cargo aircraft entering the landing at Tolmachevo airport. It is shown that Stream Line lidars may well be used to obtain reliable information about the presence and intensity of aircraft wake vortices in the vicinity of а runway.
																								



7.
Coherence of Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating in the turbulent atmosphere

I.P. Lukin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: бесселев пучок, вихревой пучок, оптическое излучение, атмосферная турбулентность, когерентность, радиус когерентности, интегральный масштаб степени когерентности, Bessel beam, vortex beam, optical radiation, atmospheric turbulence, coherence, coherence length, integral scale of coherence degree

Abstract >>
Coherent properties of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating in the turbulent atmosphere are theoretically studied. The approach to the analysis of this problem is based on the analytical solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of the optical radiation field. The behavior of coherence degree, coherence length and integral scale of coherence degree of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams depending on parameters of a beam and characteristics of the turbulent atmosphere is particularly considered. It is shown that the coherence length, and integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam essentially inversely depend on the topological charge of a vortex beam. Thus, in process of increase in a topological charge of a vortex beam the increase in reduction of values of coherence radius and integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam becomes less. The value of the given effect also essentially depends on characteristics of the turbulent atmosphere: at weak and strong fluctuations of optical radiation the given effect is not great, it reaches a maximum in the transition region from weak to strong fluctuations of optical radiation.
																								



8.
Retrieval of crosswind velocity based on the analysis of remote object images. Part 2. Drift of turbulent volume

V.V. Dudorov, A.S. Eremina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: турбулентная атмосфера, скорость ветра, некогерентное изображение, turbulent atmosphere, wind velocity, incoherent image

Abstract >>
Possibilities of the crosswind profiling along an observation path of a distant object from the analysis of distortions of atmospheric object images are studied in this work by numerical simulation. The proposed method for wind velocity determination is based on the analysis of two adjacent incoherent images and exhibit higher performance in comparison with counterparts, which is explained by the absence of accumulation of analyzed statistical characteristics. A new method for filtration of turbulent distortions of an image by their characteristic sizes is suggested with the aim of determining the wind velocity at different segments of an observation path. The work shows a possibility of determining the motion velocity under certain turbulent conditions for several (no less than three) layers of turbulent atmosphere, which are located at different positions between observed object and optical system.
																								



9.
Remote detection of traces of high energetic materials on an ideal substrate using the Raman effect

S.M. Bobrovnikov1,2, E.V. Gorlov1,2, V.I. Zharkov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: лидар, комбинационное рассеяние света, дистанционное обнаружение, высокоэнергетические материалы, lidar, Raman scattering, remote detection, high energetic materials

Abstract >>
We present experimental results on the remote detection of surface traces of some high energetic materials using a Raman lidar designed on the basis of an excimer KrF laser with a narrow generation line and a multi-channel spectrum analyzer based on diffraction spectrograph and time gated CCD camera. Sensitivity of the system is evaluated for the detection range 10 m. A detection limit of 0.5 μg/cm2 is reached for the surface density of traces of nitrogen-containing chemical materials at the signal accumulation over 1000 laser pulses.
																								



10.
Retrieval of microstructure parameters of coarse aerosol using their regression relationships with spectral extinction of light in the IR

V.V. Veretennikov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толщина, микроструктура аэрозоля, корреляция, регрессия, aerosol optical depth, aerosol microstructure, correlation, regression

Abstract >>
Possibilities of estimating the microstructure parameters of atmospheric aerosol from regression equations that describe their relationships with spectral measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) are considered. Special attention is given to the volume concentration, total cross section, and average radius of coarse aerosol particles. The urgency of this problem is stipulated by large errors in the retrieval of the above-indicated parameters in the case of direct АОD retrieval from measurements in an insufficiently wide spectral range. The coefficients of simple and multiple linear regressions are estimated and the results of retrieval on their basis of coarse aerosol parameters from data of solar photometry in Tomsk are presented.
																								



11.
Interannual variability of aerosol microstructure parameters retrieved from the data of solar photometry in Tomsk

V.V. Veretennikov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толщина, микроструктура аэрозоля, обратные задачи, aerosol optical thickness, aerosol microstructure, inverse problems

Abstract >>
Results of investigations of the time variability of aerosol microstructure parameters retrieved by inversion of spectral measurements of the aerosol optical depth (АОD) are presented. The input data were obtained at the IAO SB RAS using solar photometers of SP type in the observation periods 2003-2006 and 2011-2014. During the first period of measurement, the АОD was measured at 13 wavelengths in the range 0.37-4 mm. In the second observation period, the upper limit of the spectral range of measurements was 2.14 mm. The total volume of the data processed included over 7000 hourly average spectra. The geometric aerosol cross section, volume concentration, and average particle radius are analyzed.
																								



12.
Organic aerosol in air of Siberia and the Arctic. Part 1. Geographic features and temporal dynamics

M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.D. Belan1, N.G. Voronetskaya2, A.K. Golovko2, D.K. Davydov1, A.S. Kozlov3, G.S. Pevneva2, D.V. Simonenkov1, A.V. Fofonov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 4, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный аэрозоль, состав, углеводороды, atmospheric aerosol, composition, hydrocarbons

Abstract >>
The concentrations of normal hydrocarbons are studied on the basis of measurements in the surface air layer in different Siberian regions and in the free atmosphere over the Kara Sea water area. The total content of normal hydrocarbons in the aerosol composition is found to change from 244.56 ng/m3 in the surface air layer to 0.08 ng/m3 in the free atmosphere over the Kara Sea. Most organic compounds are from the C15H32-C22H46 range independently of the season; lighter compounds beginning from C9H20 are detected in the mid-seasons (spring and autumn); C18H38 concentration is maximal in autumn; C19H40, in spring and summer, and C20H42, in winter.
																								



13.
Personalia