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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2017 year, number 3

1.
Solid particle spreading in gas-dispersed confined swirling flow. Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches

M.A. Pakhomov and V.I. Terekhov

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mails: pakhomov@ngs.ru, terekhov@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: two-phase swirling flow, solid particles, flow separation, numerical simulation, model of Reynolds stress transport, Eulerian and full Lagrangian descriptions
Pages: 325338
Abstract >>
Dynamics of a disperse phase in a swirling two-phase flow behind a sudden tube expansion is simulated with the aid of Eulerian and full Lagrangian descriptions. The carrier phase is described by three-dimensional Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations with consideration of inverse influence of particles on the transport processes in gas. The velocity profiles calculated using these two approaches are practically the same. It is shown that the main difference between the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches is presented by the concentration profile of the dispersed phase. The Eulerian approach underpredicts the value of particle concentration as compared with the Lagrangian approach (the difference reaches 15-20 %). The dispersed phase concentration predicted by the Lagrangian approach agrees with the measurement data somewhat better than the data obtained through the Eulerian approach.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030015
																								



2.
Dynamics of two-phase swirling flow in a vortex chamber with a lower end swirler

R.Kh. Abdrakhmanov1, N.A. Dvornikov1, and V.V. Lukashov1,2

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: luka@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: vortex chamber, centrifugal fluidized bed, velocity of two-phase flow
Pages: 339346
Abstract >>
The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique and laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were used to measure the components of tangential and axial velocities of gas and particles in a vortex chamber with a fluidized bed, particle layer dynamics was estimated qualitatively, and the flow in the vortex chamber with a centrifugal fluidized bed of solid particles was simulated numerically. It is shown that with the growth of gas velocity in the swirler slots, the rotation velocity of bed grows almost linearly, and with an increasing bed mass, the rotation velocity decreases. Data on distributions of the volume fraction of particles and gas flow velocity inside the bed were obtained by numerical calculation.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030027
																								



3.
Mixing in a model gas turbine combustor studied by panoramic optical techniques

L.M. Chikishev1,2, V.M. Dulin1,2, O.A. Gobyzov1,2, A.S. Lobasov1,2, and D.M. Markovich1,2

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: l.chikishev@gmail.com
Keywords: particle image velocimetry, laser-induced fluorescence, acetone vapor, passive tracer concentration, turbulent flow, gas turbine combustor
Pages: 347353
Abstract >>
Using planar optical methods based on laser-induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry instantaneous velocity fields and passive tracer concentration are measured simultaneously in a model of GT-combustor at realistic flow rates. Spatial distributions of velocity pulsations and passive tracer concentration pulsations are measured at air flow rate about 0.4 kg/s. Correlations of velocity and concentration pulsations are measured. The most intense turbulent mass flux in the region of swirling flow mixing layer was observed. The contribution of advective and turbulent components in the transfer of a passive tracer in the axial direction was estimated.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030039
																								



4.
Laminar incompressible viscous flow past a cylinder performing rotary oscillations

I.V. Morenko 


Institute of Mechanics and Engineering, Kazan Science Center RAS, Kazan, Russia

E-mail: morenko@imm.knc.ru


Keywords: circular cylinder, rotary oscillations, drag coefficient, lift coefficient
Pages: 355360
Abstract >>
The numerical simulation of the laminar viscous flow past a cylinder performing rotary oscillations around its axis is carried out. The NavierStokes equations are solved by finite volume method using the program package OpenFOAM. The values of the amplitude and frequency of forced oscillations are found, at which the maximum reduction of the drag coefficient of the cylinder is achieved.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030040
																								



5.
Formation of vortex wakes at flow separation from plate

D.N. Gorelov and A.I. Govorova

Omsk Branch of Sobolev Institute of Mathematics SB RAS, Omsk, Russia

E-mail: gorelov@ofim.oscsbras.ru, govorovaai@mail.ru


Keywords: separated flow past plate, self-sustained vortex-wake oscillations, Karman street
Pages: 361368
Abstract >>
The plane nonlinear initial boundary value problem about the separated flow past a plate set in motion at a constant velocity from the state of rest has been considered. Results of a numerical experiment which have allowed us to trace in detail the vortex-wake formation process behind a vertical plate are reported. It is shown that, after the beginning of the plate motion, several stable vortical structures, including a Karman street, form in succession behind the plate. It is found that, on the emergence of the Karman street, there occurs a sharp and substantial growth of vortex-wake intensity and hydrodynamic drag force with a pulsating time behavior. A conclusion about the origination, in this regime, of self-sustained oscillations of the liquid in the vicinity of the plate is drawn.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030052
																								



6.
On the question of starting conditions for frontal axisymmetric inlets tested in hot-shot wind tunnels

Yu.P. Gounko1 and I.I. Mazhul1,2

1Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: gounko@itam.nsc.ru, mazhul@itam.nsc.ru


Keywords: numerical simulation, supersonic axisymmetric flow, hot-shot wind tunnels, frontal axisymmetric inlets of internal compression, critical conditions of the realization of flow regimes
Pages: 369381
Abstract >>
The work presents the results of an analysis of starting conditions for some frontal axisymmetric inlets of internal compression tested at freestream Mach numbers  = 3-8.4 in the hot-shot wind tunnels based at Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM). The results of these inlets test are compared with the data of numerical computations of inviscid, laminar, and turbulent flows carried out by the pseudo-unsteady method. There were determined the inlet throat areas limiting either with regard to the inlet starting or with regard to providing the maximally possible degree of geometric compression of the inlet-captured supersonic airstream at its deceleration in the already started inlet. Reshaping of computed flow patterns in the inlets depending on the variation of the mini-mal cross section of the inlet internal duct is analyzed.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030064
																								



7.
Dry spot growth criterion for isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate

L.I. Maltsev1, Yu.S. Podzharov1, and O.A. Kabov1,2

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: Maltzev@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: liquid film, dry spot, dry spot growth criterion, gravity, capillary effect, contact angle
Pages: 383387
Abstract >>
A criterion was elaborated for the phenomenon of dry spot evolution in isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate. The formulas are presented for gravity force and surface tension acting upon an element of the rim around the dry spot. The forces balance gives the evolution of initial dry spot: to expand or to contract.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030076
																								



8.
On the form of interfacial surface at evaporation front propagation along the heater in the layer of metastable liquid

O.V. Sharypov


Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: sharypov@itp.nsc.ru


Keywords: evaporation front, the shape of the interfacial surface, analytical methods
Pages: 389397
Abstract >>
Within the framework of approximate physical and mathematical model, we considered the stationary problem of propagation of evaporation front in superheated liquid along the flat heater. The analytical dependence of the vapor layer thickness on the coordinate and physical parameters has been obtained. The solution is presented in invariant dimensionless form. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical results and new experimental data is shown.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030088
																								



9.
Calculating thermal radiation of a vibrational nonequilibrium gas flow using the method of k-distribution

A.M. Molchanov, L.V. Bykov, and  D.S. Yanyshev

Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow, Russia

E-mail: bykov@mai.ru
Keywords: adiation in gases, k-distribution, non-equilibrium flow, chemical reaction, numerical simulation
Pages: 399419
Abstract >>
The method has been developed to calculate infrared radiation of vibrational nonequilibrium gas based on k-distribution. A comparison of the data on the calculated nonequilibrium radiation with results of other authors and with experimental data has shown satisfactory agreement. It is shown that the results of calculation of radiation intensity using nonequilibrium and equilibrium methods significantly differ from each other. The discrepancy increases with increasing height (decreasing pressure) and can exceed an order of magnitude.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431703009X
																								



10.
Evolution of disturbances in the shock layer on a flat plate in the flow of a mixture of vibrationally excited gases

S.V. Kirilovskiy, T.V. Poplavskaya, I.S. Tsyryulnikov, and A.A. Maslov

Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: kirilov@itam.nsc.ru, popla@itam.nsc.ru, tsivan@itam.nsc.ru, maslov@itam.nsc.ru


Keywords: hypersonic flows, non-equilibrium, stability
Pages: 421430
Abstract >>
The results of the numerical and experimental investigations of the evolution of the disturbances in a hypersonic shock layer on a flat plate streamlined by a flow of the mixture of vibrationally excited gases are presented. The experimental study was conducted in the hot-shot high-enthalpy wind tunnel IT-302 of the ITAM SB RAS. The numerical simulation was carried out with the aid of the ANSYS Fluent package using the solution of the unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with the incorporation of the user-created modules and enabling the con-sideration of the vibrational non-equilibrium of the carbon dioxide molecules within the framework of the model of the two-temperature aerodynamics. It was obtained that an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration in the mixture with air leads to a reduction of the intensity of pressure disturbances on the surface. The efficiency (up to 20 %) of the method of sound absorbing coatings in the vibrationally excited flows of the mixture of the carbon dioxide and air has been shown.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030106
																								



11.
Ejectors for pressure recovery systems of supersonic chemical lasers

V.M. Malkov1,2, I.A. Kiselev2, I.V. Shatalov1, A.A. Duk1, and A.V. Emelyanova2 


1SPE Advent, Saint Petersburg, Russia

2Ustinov Voenmekh Baltic State Technical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

E-mail: v.m.malkov@gmail.com


Keywords: supersonic ejectors, nozzles, multi-nozzle ejectors, parametric numerical studies, ejection coefficient, compression ratio, supersonic chemical lasers, pressure recovery system, experimental data, verification
Pages: 431447
Abstract >>
Results of a numerical study of performance characteristics of supersonic ejectors with nozzles of different types are reported. The work was carried out with the aim of developing a high-performance ejector for pressure recovery systems of supersonic chemical lasers. A specific feature of the operation of ejectors in pressure recovery systems consists in that, in this case, the ejecting and ejected gases, as they undergo mixing, have different thermodynamic properties, and the ejection coefficient depends on the ratio between the temperatures of the gases and on the ratio of their molecular masses. Since the operation of an ejector is based on the mixing process, the task consisted in intensification of this process using nozzles of special geometries. The performance of ejectors was judged considering an integral parameter, the product of induction by compression ratio. The calculations of the 3D viscous gas flow in the ejector channel were performed using ANSYS software. In verifying the numerical model, a comparison with experimental data obtained earlier on a model ejector facility and during tests of real pressure recovery systems in operation with supersonic chemical lasers was performed.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030118
																								



12.
Performance comparison of supersonic ejectors with different motive gas injection schemes applicable for flowing medium gas laser

G. Singhal1, P.M.V. Subbarao2, Mainuddin3, R.K. Tyagi1, and A.L. Dawar1


1Laser Science and Technology Centre, Delhi, India

2Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India

3Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi, India

E-mail: singhal_g@rediffmail.com


Keywords: chemical oxygen iodine laser, supersonic ejector, peripheral ejector, central ejector
Pages: 449457
Abstract >>
A class of flowing medium gas lasers with low generator pressures employ supersonic flows with low cavity pressure and are primarily categorized as high throughput systems capable of being scaled up to MW class. These include; Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) and Hydrogen (Deuterium) Fluoride (HF/DF). The practicability of such laser systems for various applications is enhanced by exhausting the effluents directly to ambient atmosphere. Consequently, ejector based pressure recovery forms a potent configuration for open cycle operation. Conventionally these gas laser systems require at least two ejector stages with low pressure stage being more critical, since it directly entrains the laser media, and the ensuing perturbation of cavity flow, if any, may affect laser operation. Hence, the choice of plausible motive gas injection schemes viz., peripheral or central is a fluid dynamic issue of interest, and a parametric experimental performance comparison would be beneficial. Thus, the focus is to experimentally characterize the effect of variation in motive gas supply pressure, entrainment ratio, back pressure conditions, nozzle injection position operated together with a COIL device and discern the reasons for the behavior.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431703012X
																								



13.
Synthesis of silicon carbide nanopowders in a two-jet plasma-chemical reactor

A.S. Anshakov1,2, E.K. Urbakh 1, A.E. Urbakh1, V.A. Faleev1, and V.S. Cherednichenko2


1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia

E-mail: anshakov@itp.nsc.ru


Keywords: two-jet plasmatorch, silicon carbide, plasma-chemical reactor, silicon dioxide, carbon, methane, synthesis, nanosized particle
Pages: 459467
Abstract >>
Results of experimental studies on production of nanostructured silicon carbide powders in a plasma-chemical reactor based on a two-jet plasmatorch are presented. The conditions of SiC formation as a function of temperature and composition of the initial components are determined by thermodynamic calculations. Possibility of silicon carbide synthesis with the size of particles of 5-20 nm is shown experimentally.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030131
																								



14.
Surface pressure characteristics of a highly loaded turbine blade at design and off-design conditions; a CFD methodology

S. Vakilipour, M. Habibnia, M.H. Sabour, R. Riazi, and M. Mohammadi 


University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: vakilipour@ut.ac.ir


Keywords: highly loaded low-pressure turbine, off-design performance, turbulence modeling, flow separation, OpenFOAM
Pages: 469482
Abstract >>
The flow field passing through a highly loaded low pressure (LP) turbine cascade is numerically investigated at design and off-design conditions. The Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) platform is used as the computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. In this regard, the influences of grid resolution on the results of k-ε, k-ω, and large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models are investigated and compared with those of experimental measurements. A numerical pressure undershoot is appeared near the end of blade pressure surface which is sensitive to grid resolution and flow turbulence modeling. The LES model is able to resolve separation on both coarse and fine grid resolutions. In addition, the off-design flow condition is modeled by negative and positive inflow incidence angles. The numerical experiments show that a separation bubble generated on blade pressure side is predicted by LES. The total pressure drop has also been calculated at incidence angles between -20 and +8. The minimum total pressure drop is obtained by k-ω and LES at design point.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030143
																								



15.
Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorpo-rated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

A.M. Kler, Yu.B. Zakharov, and Yu.M. Potanina 


Melentiev Energy Systems Institute SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia

E-mail: contain@mail.ru, kler@isem.irk.ru


Keywords: comprehensive optimization, GT and CCPP cycles, gas turbine flowpath, water injection into air compressor, economy and power efficiency
Pages: 483 491
Abstract >>
The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment System of machine building program was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plants power efficiency.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030155
																								



16.
90th Anniversary of Alexander I. Leontyev

Editorial Board 


Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia 


Pages: 493 494
Abstract >>
May 24, 2017 is the 90th anniversary of a famous scientist in the field of thermophysics, Professor, academician of RAS Alexander I. Leontyev.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030167
																								



17.
80th Anniversary of the birth of Eduard P. Volchkov

Editorial Board 


Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia 


Pages: 495 496
Abstract >>

On May 6, 2017 Eduard P. Volchkov, the prominent scientist worked in the area of thermophysics, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, and Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences would have celebrated his 80th anniversary.

Eduard P. Volchkov died on February 8, 2013. Time passed since then allowed for a more clear evaluation of his significant contribution in the development of thermophysics in our country. We remember and honor the prominent scientist and the remarkable person.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030179
																								



18.
80th Anniversary of Galina M. Zharkova

Editorial Board 


Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia 


Pages: 497 498
Abstract >>
June 7, 2017 is the 80th anniversary of a prominent researcher in the field of materials science, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Galina M. Zharkova.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864317030180