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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2017 year, number 2

1.
Bistatic optoelectronic communication in the UV wavelength range. Field experiments 2016

V.V. Belov1,2, V.N. Abramochkin1, Yu.V. Gridnev1, A.N. Kudryavtsev1, S.P. Kulaev2, M.V. Tarasenkov1,2, V.O. Troitskii1, A.V. Fedosov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: УФ-излучение, бистатическая связь, полевые эксперименты, вероятности ошибок связи и их СКО, UV radiation, bistatic communication, field experiments, probabilities of communication errors and their SD

Abstract >>
In the report results of the first field experiments on multiple-address bistatic (over-the-horizon, non-line-of-sight (NLOS)) optoelectronic communication systems in the UV wavelength range performed at the IAO SB RAS are considered. Experimental estimates of the error probabilities and their standard deviations are presented.
																								



2.
Resonance functions in the theory of collisional broadening of molecule spectral lines for low temperatures

V.I. Starikov1,2
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: столкновительное уширение, резонансные функции, низкие температуры, collisional broadening, resonance functions, low temperatures

Abstract >>
Eleven resonance functions of the theory of the broadening of molecular lines by foreign atomic gases are calculated for very low temperatures. These functions correspond to the atom-atom potential and to the potential V ( R , ) written as a series in Legendre functions. The functions are presented in the analytical form. The calculations of the broadening coefficients g are performed for the CO lines perturbed by the He and Ar for the temperatures T from 300 to 2 K. It is shown that the dependence g( T ) for low temperatures T is determined by the deep of the potential. For CO-He system the comparison with the experimental data is presented.
																								



3.
Sorption of water molecules by silicon (SiO2) airgel nanopores

A.A. Lugovskoi, K.Yu. Osipov, B.A. Tikhomirov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: кремниевый аэрогель, водяной пар, адсорбция, десорбция, буферная камера, галогенная лампа, silica airgel, water vapor, adsorption, desorption, buffer chamber, halogen lamp

Abstract >>
We suggest a technique for preparing nanoporous samples with adsorbed gas for the spectrometric experiments, which allows one to determine the concentration of the absorbed sample gas molecules using a buffer chamber of a large volume in the vacuum system. We also suggest a method which allows a decrease in the sample cleaning time from the absorbed molecules by about an order of magnitude comparing with the sample cleaning time at a room temperature using simultaneous pumping and contactless gas sample heating by radiation of a halogen lamp. The technique and the method tested in simple laboratory experiments of water vapor sorption by silicon (SiO2) airgel.
																								



4.
Radiative transfer code for thermal and near infrared with multiple scattering

I.V. Zadvornykh1, K.G. Gribanov1, V.I. Zakharov1, R. Imasu2
1Institute of Natural Sciences, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
2Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8568, Japan
Keywords: перенос излучения, дистанционное зондирование, многократное рассеяние, GOSAT, radiative transfer, remote sensing, multiple scattering

Abstract >>
FIRE-ARMS software was supplemented with the vector radiative transfer model VLIDORT. The new version of the software allows a simulation of the outgoing thermal infrared radiation (TIR) from Earth and solar short infrared radiation (SWIR) reflected from the surface, taking into account multiple scattering for the same model and atmospheric sensing geometry. We performed spectra simulation of the outgoing radiation in TIR and SWIR with multiple scattering in a cloudless atmosphere and comparison of the spectra simulated with the spectra measured by GOSAT satellite spectrometers in cloudless atmosphere over Western Siberia. Calculated weighting functions show that simultaneous use of TIR and SWIR will improve the height resolution in vertical profiling of methane concentrations in the atmosphere.
																								



5.
Correlation spectroscopy in the analysis of the spectrum of outgoing radiation of the atmosphere

S.A. Shishigin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: ИК-излучение, температура, однородный слой, корреляция, радиометр, атмосфера, IR radiation, temperature, homogeneous layer, correlation, radiometer, atmosphere

Abstract >>
The model of the atmosphere in the form of thin homogeneous layers is considered, which is converted into two homogeneous layers without changing the power of the outgoing radiation in the studied spectral region of the methane absorption bands 1220-1260 cm-1. The observed distortion of the spectrum of outgoing radiation of the Earth with consideration of atmospheric model in an equivalent homogeneous layer does not affect the correlation analysis. The system of equations relating changes of methane content in each of the homogeneous layers with the change of power of the outgoing radiation is given.
																								



6.
Optimization of optical radiation absorption by multilayer spherical microparticles

Yu.E. Geints, E.K. Panina, A.A. Zemlyanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: сферическая многослойная микрокапсула, метод численной электродинамики, spherical multilayer microcapsule, numerical electrodynamics method

Abstract >>
The spatial distribution and amplitude characteristics of the absorbed power inside multilayer particle-microcapsules consisting of a liquid core and one or more polymer shells when changing the thickness and refractive index of the external shell was studied in detail. The position of the field localization when varying these parameters was defined. This is important for the solution of practical tasks associated with opening the microcapsule shells in appropriate spatial areas.
																								



7.
Impact of Siberian wildfires on the content of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere over European Russia in summer 2016

S.A. Sitnov1, I.I. Mokhov1,2, A.V. Dzhola1
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Keywords: монооксид углерода, СО, дальний перенос, атмосферное блокирование, лесные пожары в Сибири 2016, спектрометр ЗНС ИФА РАН, carbon monoxide, anomalous long-range transport, atmospheric blocking, Siberian wildfires 2016, ground-based spectroscopic CO measurements, AIRS

Abstract >>
With the use of ground-based and satellite measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) an analysis of the reason of the increase in CO over European Russia (ER) in the summer of 2016 was carried out. The results showed that the increase in the CO content was due to the long-range transport of combustion products from wildfires in Siberia. Predominant location over the central part of Northern Eurasia of the high-pressure area to the north of the area of low pressure, which is characteristic for the dipole type of atmospheric blocking, contributed to the anomalous transport of CO from east to west.
																								



8.
Use of the method of allocation of structures for the study of dynamics of the surface air pressure field in the Northern hemisphere

E.V. Ivanova1,2, S.G. Kataev3
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2Tomsk State University of Architecture and Construction, Solyanaya sq., 2, 634003, Tomsk, Russia
3Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634041, Tomsk, 60, Kievskaya str., Russia
Keywords: циркуляция атмосферы, поле давления, классы, Северное полушарие, карты распределения, atmospheric circulation, pressure field, classes, Northern hemisphere, distribution map

Abstract >>
The dynamics of the surface air layer in the Northern hemisphere is studied by the method of allocation of structures with the use of the air pressure field. The spatial distribution of the fields of monthly average values of pressure in the Northern hemisphere is found and mapped; their dynamics is estimated in the period 1955-2000. The pressure field class distribution maps have been built over the Northern hemisphere and the typical fields were found.
																								



9.
Diurnal behavior of the flux and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the surface water in “solar time” coordinates (the period of open water in littoral of the South Baikal in 2004-2015)

D.A. Pestunov1,2, A.M. Shamrin1, V.M. Domysheva3, M.V. Sakirko3, M.V. Panchenko1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: углекислый газ, парциальное давление, поток, инсоляция, суточный ход, фотосинтез, деструкция, планктон, оз. Байкал, carbon dioxide, partial pressure, flux, solar radiation, diurnal variation, photosynthesis, destruction, plankton, Lake Baikal

Abstract >>
The long-term series of regular measurements of the carbon dioxide concentration in the surface water and СО2 fluxes in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal has shown that diurnal variations are observed during all open-water period (May through December), which are related to the processes of photosynthetic activity of plankton. In order to isolate the role of photoperiodic process on the background of the effect of many factors of different nature on the change of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the surface water and its fluxes in the atmosphere - water system, the scheme of diurnal behavior of the concentration and fluxes of CO2 in the littoral zone of Southern Baikal in 2004-2015 is considered in the coordinates of the sunshine duration. It was calculated on the basis of theoretically possible sunshine duration (from sunrise until sunset under cloudless sky and open horizon conditions). The proposed parameterization algorithm for retrieval of the values of these characteristics for any time moment can be used in the models of the carbon dioxide cycle and will be useful for planning the study of biological and chemical processes in Lake Baikal.
																								



10.
The empirical assessment of the errors of different instrumentation for total ozone measurements

Ya.A. Virolainen1, Yu.M. Timofeyev1, A.V. Poberovskii1, A.V. Polyakov1, A.M. Shalamyanskii2
1Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaja nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
2The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, 7, Karbyshev street, 194021, St Petersburg
Keywords: атмосферный озон, погрешности, валидация, IASI, OMI, М-124, Добсон, atmospheric ozone, errors, validation, Bruker 125HR, Dobson

Abstract >>
The knowledge of the errors of measurement methods is very important for the assessment of the quality of experimental data. We compare the results of various measurements of total ozone content (TOC) near St. Petersburg between 2009 and 2015. We considere the TOC datasets of ground-based measurements in Voeykovo (Dobson spectrophotometer and M-124 ozonometer) and in Peterhof (Bruker 125HR spectrometer) as well as OMI and IASI satellite measurements. With the aim to assess the errors of the each individual method, we formed three datasets of coincident TOC measurements, depending on the number of comparisons and different criteria for selection. First, we calculated the means and the standard deviation from the means for the TOC differences in pairs of coincident datasets. Second, under the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous and stationary ozone field during each day of measurements, we assessed the random and systematic errors of the individual methods. The mean random error of the TOC measurements totals 2.9 ± 0.5%, 2.8 ± 0.7%, 1.2 ± 0.2%, and 1.4 ± 0.1% for IASI, M-124, OMI, and Bruker 125HR, respectively. The systematic error relative to the standard Dobson measurements amounts to -1.7% and -2.1% for OMI and IASI, respectively, and is equal to + 0.5% and + 2.1% for M-124 and Bruker 125HR, respectively. OMI and Bruker 125HR TOC measurement errors are resistant to atmospheric condition, whereas errors of IASI and M-124 TOC measurements are highly dependent on the state of atmosphere.
																								



11.
Adaptive monitoring system for assesment of the scale of pollution of territories of oil and gas enterprises

L.I. Svarovskaya, I.G. Yaschenko, L.K. Altunina
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: нефтезагрязнение, почвенная микрофлора, биодеструкция, геоинформационные технологии, нормализованный вегетационный индекс, водосборный бассейн рек, oil pollution, biocoenosis, biodegradation, geoinformation technologies, normalized differential vegetation index, catchment basin of rivers

Abstract >>
A system has been developed to monitor anthropogenic pollutions of remote inaccessible wetlands in the northern oil-producing areas of the Tomsk region. It combines the use of geoinformation and remote technologies with laboratory investigations. To assess the scale of pollution and identify pollutants and processes of hydrocarbon transformation we used simulation techniques based on the analysis of the materials obtained in field investigations and processing of ASTERGDEM and Landsat satellite data. The state of vegetable cover has been estimated depending on the pollutant concentrations and the activity of biocenosis enzymatic system. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which reflects the vitality of the vegetation in the polluted area, has been calculated, as well a pollution factor of small rivers flowing through the territory of the Sovetskoye oilfield. We have mapped catchment area of the Vasyugan river, tributary of the Ob river, with a high risk of pollution, where there are nearly 400 sites of the pipeline crossings through a network of small rivers - tributaries of the Vasyugan river. The values obtained were proved by the data of physicochemical and microbiological analyses of the soil and water sampled in the area under study. The number and destructive activity of soil microflora has been determined depending on the pollutant concentrations.
																								



12.
Evaluation of the atmospheric particles properties in the snow of the taiga zone background territories of European North-East of Russia

M.I. Vasilevich1, R.S. Vasilevich1, V.I. Mikhailov2, P.V. Krivoshapkin2
1Institute of Biology of the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Division RAS, 28 Kommunisticheskaya st., 167982, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russia
2Institute of Chemistry of the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Division RAS, 48 Pervomaiskaya st., 167982, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russia
Keywords: атмосферные взвеси, размеры частиц, элементный состав, нерастворимая фракция снега, фоновые территории, atmospheric suspensions, particle size, elemental composition, insoluble fraction of the snow, background areas

Abstract >>
The article presents primary results of the study of sediments in the composition of the snow cover background territories of taiga zone of European North-East of Russia using the method of dynamic light scattering. The average size of particles in the snow is 828 ± 311 nm, and the average volumetric fraction of particles less than 1000 nm in samples of melt water is 66.6%. Spatial differentiation in the distribution of particle sizes in the snow of the areas under study is detected. The conclusion about the possible impact of the relief on the granulometric composition of the particles is made. The relationship between the content of elements in suspended particles of snow and their size fractions is shown.