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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2016 year, number 4

1.
SPECIFIC NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF THE EURASIA FOREST-FORMING SPECIES IN TRANSCONTINENTAL GRADIENTS: METHODS AND UNCERTAINTIES

V. A. Usoltsev1,2
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620100 Russian Federation
Keywords: подрод Pinus, Larix Mill, Picea Dietr, Abies Mill, Betula L, фитомасса, чистая первичная продукция, удельная чистая первичная продукция, природная зональность, континентальность климата, subgenus Pinus, biomass, net primary production, specific net primary production, natural zoning, climate continentality

Abstract >>
The paper is devoted to a new aspect in the study of biological productivity of forest ecosystems on a geographical basis, expressed indirectly by climate parameters. Some features of change of specific net primary production (SNPP) of forest-forming species in Eurasia in the transcontinental gradients are shown for the first time using the voluminous factual material. SNPP represents the ratio of net primary production (NPP) to biomass and is expressed in relative units or percentage (by analogy with the percentage of the current stem volume increment that is used in traditional forest mensuration). An overview of methods and results of studying the percentage of the current stem volume increment and relationships between NPP and biomass involving into SNPP as the numerator and the denominator correspondingly is given. The database on biomass and NPP of forest ecosystems (t/ha) in a number of 920 definitions for 2-needled pines (subgenus Pinus ), 116 - for larches ( Larix Mill.), 480 - for spruce-fir forests ( Picea Dietr., and Abies Mill.) and 230 definitions for birch forests ( Betula L.) on the territory from Britain to South China is compiled. Using multiple regression analysis technique, the statistically significant changes in SNPP of aboveground, underground and understorey biomass according to two transcontinental gradients, namely by zonal belts and continentality of climate, are stated. The age dynamics of different species SNPP has a common pattern of decline with the age of a tree stand, but various quantitative parameters. Regularities of SNPP change according to zonal belts and in relation to the index of climate continentality are statistically significant, but substantial differences between woody species are found, to explain that is not possible yet. Because the term SNPP means «the rate of the transformation of organic substances» or, in other terms, the intensity of nutrient cycling, one apparently must include into the formula for SNPP the current biomass quantity plus all its litter, timber and root falls during the given time period, instead of biomass stock taken from the database formed. However, information on the forest detritus pool is on the level of expert evaluations yet.
																								



2.
BASIC PROBLEMS OF MANAGEMENT IN THE SPHERE OF FOREST RELATIONS IN RETROSPECT OF PUBLIC PROSECUTOR

I. A. Kuzmin1,2
1Irkutsk Law Institute, Shevtscov str., 1, Irkutsk, 664035 Russian Federation
2Law institute, Karl Marx str., 1, Irkutsk, 664003 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесное законодательство, прокуратура, лес, городские леса, управление в сфере лесных отношений, проблемы управления, судебная практика, forest legislation, public prosecutor, forests, urban forests, management in the sphere of forest relations, problems of management, the practice of court cases

Abstract >>
Public administration of forests is one of the most important sectors of ecological public administration at the national and local levels. Forest legislation is the legal basis for management, whose quality and regulatory capacity ensure the effectiveness of state power activities aimed at sustainable use, protection and regeneration of forests. The need for reforming and properly updating forest legislation and law enforcement is long overdue, which is confirmed by scientific studies and actual facts. A basic problem of forest management is the absence of an official definition of «forest» and «urban forest». Problems of forest fire protection and management problems in the forest sector (e.g. related to the provision of forest plots and the sale and purchase of forest stands) are widespread. Management problems also cover a mismatch of legislative activity of the competent entities regarding the regulation of forestry relations, the one-time combination of regulatory and supervisory functions in the same bodies, as well as the lack of a single current and objective system of state cadastral registration. The paper mentions peculiarities of identifying legal responsibility for forest offenses. It is noted that office of public prosecutor, being a central supervisory agency of the state due to the nature of its job and position in a system of separation of powers, has vast (if compared with other subjects of administrative relations) opportunities to identify, overcome and eliminate the problems of management of forests. The paper considers separate case materials that show an active role of the national public prosecutor’s office in supporting law and order in the examined field. Generalized conclusions are drawn based on the results of the study.
																								



3.
ON RELIABILITY OF THE STATE FOREST REGISTER DATA OF THE FORESTS STUDIED AND WAYS TO ELIMINATE DEFECTS

L. N. Vashchuk
Federal State Budgetary Enterprise В«Roslesinforg» В«Pribaikallesproekt», Rose Luxemburg str., 150, Irkutsk, 664040 Russian Federation
Keywords: государственный лесной реестр, лесоустройство, таксационные показатели, земли лесного фонда, способ таксации, разряд лесоустройства (таксационный разряд), state forest register, forest planning, forest inventory indicators, forest fund lands, forest inventory methods, forest planning grades (forest inventory grade)

Abstract >>
Russian Federal Forestry Agency has published a Reference Book that contains current characteristics of Forest Fund lands by subjects of the Russian Federation, federal districts, and aggregated data for the entire country. The book does not contain reliable data on areas of forests, for which forest inventory materials either do not exist or have been lost, as well as on details and accuracy of presented forest inventory data. The published information about temporal remoteness of forest inventory data are in contradiction with those that were reported in presentations of official representatives of the Federal Forestry Agency and Roslesinforg, which have been done at different conferences and meetings devoted to forest inventory problems. Four methods of forest inventory and planning, which are used in the State Forest Register (SFR) do not cover all diversity of the methods, which have been used in the Russian forests. There is a clear inconsistency in information on the application of different methods of forest inventory in the country. It follows from the lack of any guidance materials about the account for areas inventoried by aerial survey, rational combination of ground inventory with office deciphering of aerial photographs, and inventory of reserve forests based on remote sensing products. Compatibility of terminology and comparability of information, which have been published in previous reference books and other official publications are not considered. This does not allow understanding of the dynamics of Russian forests for any long periods. Based on analysis of published materials on history of forest inventory in Russia (areas of inventoried forests by a definite date, change of methods and technology etc.), we suggest relevant ways for elimination of the above shortcomings. They include: a) necessity of a strict formal regulation of filling in the forms of the SFR; b) need to use relevant and compatible terminology which would prevent ambiguous or contradictive interpretation; c) relevance to account for all methods of forest inventory which were used in Russia during the last six decades; and d) need to take into account changes of parameters of forest inventory grades, which followed the introduction of the Forest Inventory Manual of 2008.
																								



4.
ON ELABORATION OF STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPING FOREST COMPLEX OF KRASNOYARSK KRAI UNTIL 2030

V. A. Sokolov, O. P. Vtyurina, N. V. Sokolova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесной комплекс, стратегия развития, лесопромышленный комплекс, лесное хозяйство, биосферное использование лесов, Красноярский край, forest complex, strategy for development, forest industry, forestry, biosphere forest utilization, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
In 2016 it has been suggested for the Public Council of the Krasnoyarsk Ministry of Nature Resources and Ecology to draw up «Strategy and the Guidance for Developing the Krasnoyarsk Forest Complex until 2030». It suggested setting up a working group of leading researchers and technical experts affiliated with the ministry. Continuity principle should be applied, wherefore analysis of previous experience in elaboration and implementation of such documents is realized. Study of forest fund dynamics for a long-term period of time is an important indicator. Thus, the Krasnoyarsk forest dynamics for the last 50 years (1961-2011) shows extensive development of the regional forest complex. The total growing stock decreased by 12 % and growing stock of coniferous species - by 35 %. «The Concept and Basic Guidelines of Developing the Krasnoyarsk Forest Complex for the Period 2004-2015», that were elaborated by the Moscow State Science Center of Forest Industrial Complex, have been analyzed and principle shortcomings have been noted. In essence, this concept was the basis of developing forest industry, but forestry, as an integral part of forest complex, and biosphere role of forests was not considered. Forest resources were overestimated by tradition. Ecological and economic accessibility of forests were not taken into consideration. Subsequent strategies and programs of the Krasnoyarsk forest complex development, elaborated by the ministry, reduplicated shortcomings of the concept. Following «Strategy of the Krasnoyarsk Forest Industry Development until 2020», the annual allowable cut consists of 81.9 million m3, therefore it may educe increasing harvesting volume of the region without limitation. Meanwhile, the annual allowable cut, which is economically accessible, amounts to 26.8 million m3 (32.7 % of the operating annual allowable cut). Applies and the structure of «Strategy and the Guidance for Developing the Krasnoyarsk Forest Complex until 2030» have been proposed.
																								



5.
FOREST CRIMES AS A THREAT TO SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT

S. Ozden1, S. Ayan2
1Cankiri Karatekin University, Ismail Hakki Karadayi Cd., 10, Uluyazi, Cankiri, 18200 Turkey
2Kastamonu University, Kuzeykentmh. Org. Atilla Ates Pasa cd., Kastamonu, 37100 Turkey
Keywords: развитие сельских территорий, лесные преступления, урбанизация, общественные лесные отношения, Турция, rural development, forest offences, urbanization, forest-public relations, Turkey

Abstract >>
From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, ​​deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of ​​the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a decrease of forest crimes in rural areas. On the other hand, legal and illegal forest attacks have been increasing due to urbanization in this process. This study was conducted to evaluate Yeşilirmak river basin forest crimes of the last 11 years. Yeşilirmak river basin occupies 3 964 375 ha, which is approximately 5 % of Turkey’s total area and 519 km in length.
																								



6.
ERRORS OF FOREST INTERPRETATION IN ANGARA RIVER REGION BY THE METHOD OF SATELLITE SCENE PIXEL CLASSIFICATION

S. K. Farber1, N. S. Kuz'mik1, N. V. Bryukhanov2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Federal State Budgetary Enterprise В«Roslesinforg» В«Vostsiblesproekt», N. K. Krupskaya str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660062 Russian Federation
Keywords: спутниковые снимки, спектральная яркость, классификация пикселей изображения, страты местоположений, лесные земли, таксационные показатели, satellite images, spectral brightness, image pixel classification, stratum of locations, forest lands, forest estimation indicates

Abstract >>
A purpose of research is to identify errors in interpretation of satellite images of forests based on image pixel classification by spectral brightness. The Landsat 5 satellite image was used (August, 2005). The results of interpretation were compared with data of forest estimation, i.e. descriptions of forest plots and maps of dominated species. The forest area made up 80.8 thousand ha; quantity of plots was about 2700, including 573 sampling plots; specified number of clusters classification image - 10. As a result, there were intolerable errors in land categories, forest formations and dominated species on the level of forest plot generalization. Thus, interpretation of forest land images having applied a method of classification of spectral brightness pixels could be applied for small scale mapping only. It is supposed that inclusion of spatial analysis of relief digital simulation in the process of interpretation will improve a quality of performance. Stratums of locations were formalized by means of registration of absolute altitudes, slopes, and exposures. Spatial analysis was carried out on the base of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission database. Errors of forest stand density, average ages and heights of trees exceed norms, which were specified for the least detailed third category of forest inventory. In such a case, there is not error reduction considering single stratums of locations. Categories of forest lands and variation of forest estimation indicates do not depend on a picture of satellite images. Therefore, achieving required accuracy of interpretation having applied methods of imagery classification and transformation, i.e. by use of the normalized vegetative index, does not seem possible. Consequently, applying the actual methods of satellite image classification in forest inventory cannot be recommended.
																								



7.
ALLOMETRIC MODELS OF TREE BIOMASS FOR AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING AND GROUND INVENTORY OF CARBON POOL IN THE FORESTS OF EURASIA: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

V. A. Usoltsev1,2, V. P. Chasovskikh2, Yu. V. Noritsina1, D. V. Noritsin2
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202a, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620100 Russian Federation
Keywords: аллометрические уравнения, лазерная таксация, структура фитомассы деревьев, морфологические показатели, углеродный пул насаждений, allometric equations, laser forest inventory, structure of tree phytomass, morphological indicators, forest carbon pool

Abstract >>
For the main tree species in North America, Europe and Japan, a number of thousands of allometric equations for single-tree biomass estimation using mostly tree height and stem diameter at breast height are designed that are intended for terrestrial forest mensuration. However, an innovative airborne laser method of the forest canopy sensing allows processing of on-line a number of morphological indices of trees, to combine them with the biomass allometric models and to evaluate the forest carbon pools. The database of 28 wood and shrub species containing 2.4 thousand definitions is compiled for the first time in the forests of Eurasia, and on its basis, the allometric transcontinental models of fractional structure of biomass of two types and dual use are developed. The first of them include as regressors the tree height and crown diameter and are intended for airborne laser location, while the latter have a traditional appointment for terrestrial forest biomass taxation using tree height and stem diameter. Those and others explain, in most cases, more than 90 % of tree biomass variability. Processing speed of laser location, incommensurable with the terrestrial mensuration, gives the possibility of assessing the change of carbon pool of forests on some territories during periodic overflights. The proposed information can be useful when implementing activities on climate stabilization, as well as in the validation of the simulation results when evaluating the carbon depositing capacity of forests.
																								



8.
TRENDS IN DYNAMICS OF FOREST UPPER BOUNDARY IN HIGH MOUNTAINS OF NORTHERN BAIKAL AREA

V. I. Voronin, V. A. Oskolkov, V. A. Buyantuev, A. P. Sizykh
Siberian Institute of Plants Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lermontov str., 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russian Federation
Keywords: экотон верхней границы леса, лиственница даурская, лесовозобновление, радиальный прирост, Северное Прибайкалье, ecotone of the forest upper boundary, Daurian larch, forest regeneration, radial increment, northern Baikal area

Abstract >>
Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges) are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2-3 to 25 y.o.) and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3) is presented by trees aged in average 15-25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.
																								



9.
THE TENDENCIES IN THE CONDITION OF FIELD-PROTECTING SHELTER BELTS IN SOUTHERN SIBERIA

G. S. Varaksin1, A. A. Vais2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian State University of Technology, Prospect Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесные полосы, состояние, балльная оценка, тенденции, распределение деревьев, Хакасия, Тыва, shelter belts, condition, point scale assessment, the tendencies, tree distribution, Khakassia, Tyva

Abstract >>
It is proposed to analyze the stands’ condition to use the method of tendencies, which occupies an intermediate position between a static evaluation of the life conditions and the dynamic assessment of the condition. The trends take into account the totality of the factors, affecting the condition of the trees. The basis for the method is the analysis of tree distribution by the categories of condition. This approach allowed us to identify a set of factors affecting the condition of the trees, depending on the growth conditions of soil and tree species. Siberian larch is characterized by healthy condition, regardless of the method of planting, density, number of rows and soil conditions. This situation can be explained by shelterbelts’ age not exceeding 20 years. At older ages, the soil conditions influence field-protecting forest belts. The best conditions are formed in the stands on the southern chernozems of pure composition, with a row and chess-type of planting. In clean multi-row pine stands, the trees are more healthy condition, compared to mixed stands. The living condition of birch stands is weakened. Favorable conditions found in pure Siberian elm stands with a 3-row and chess-type planting, compared to mixed stands. Relatively favorable conditions for the growth of black poplar trees were observed in pure 4-row stands, growing on ordinary chernozems. Point scale assessment of the stands shows that healthy state have larch belts in the steppe of Shira lake. Field-protecting shelter belts in the Republics of Khakassia and Tyva, with some exceptions, are in weakened and badly weakened condition. In those stands conducting agronomic and silvicultural treatments to improve mineral nutrition and moisture supply is the urgent need.
																								



10.
FOREST INVENTORY ASSESSMENT OF NATURALLY REGENERATED YOUNG PINE TREE STAND

G. G. Polyakova1, M. V. Polyakov2, A. A. Ibe3, N. M. Podolyak4
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Academician M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, Prospekt Krasnoyarskii Rabochii, 31, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russian Federation
3Branch of the Russian Centre for Forest Protection, Centre for Forest Protection of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Akademgorodok, 50a/2, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
4Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodnyi, 79/10, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная Pinus sylvestris, 7-14-летний молодняк сосны, естественное лесовозобновление, изреживание, постоянная пробная площадь, Красноярск, Средняя Сибирь, Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, 7-14 years old pine tree stand, natural reforestation, thinning, permanent sample plot, Krasnoyarsk, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
In 2007-2014 on the permanent sample plot (PSP) in Krasnoyarsk suburban young pine forest (forest-steppe zone of Central Siberia), annual inventory characteristics were estimated. PSP area was 0.024 ha. In 2007 the average age of pine young forest was 7 years; 413 trees with height more than 1.3 m, including 412 living trees and 1 dead tree were measured. Since 2007 the parameters of each tree were measured every year. The diameter at the height of 1.3 m (D1,3), the tree height (H), the category of vital state (by a 6-grade scale of the Forest Health Regulation of the Russian Federation) were determined. The stem volume (V) of each tree was estimated using regression equation including the variables: V, D1,3, H . Parameters of the equation were calculated by sample trees, measured in 2007 and 2014. The timber stock was determined as the sum of stem volumes of the separate trees. At early stage of pine tree stand formation, the form factor ( f ) in young pine growth exceeded 1. During 2007-2014 average diameter increased from 1.8 to 5.3 cm, average height - from 2.3 to 6.2 m, timber stock of the growing trees - from 16 to 128 m3/ha, dead timber stock of the dead trees - from 0 to 1 m3/ha. In 2007 density of more than 17 thousand trees per ha was registered. The maximum density of more than 18 thousand trees per ha was registered in 2009. In the next years, this indicator monotonically decreased. In 2014 density was less than 15 thousand trees per ha. The increase in density is due to increase in the number of trees, with height more than 1.3 m, the decrease - by phytocoenotic stress and felling. In 2007 the category of the tree stand vital state was near 1. In 2014 the category was 1.3. Condition of the young pine tree stand naturally regenerated at arable land after ground fire might be estimated as very good. This young stand is prospective to form high-density pine forest in the absence of creeping fires.
																								



11.
WOODLAND: DYNAMICS OF AVERAGE DIAMETERS OF CONIFEROUS TREE STANDS OF THE PRINCIPAL FOREST TYPES

R. A. Ziganshin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесной массив, хвойные древостои, ведущие типы леса, средние диаметры, возрастная динамика, текущий и средний приросты, Высокогорный Хамар-Дабан, Юго-Восточное Прибайкалье, woodland, coniferous tree stands, principal forest types, average diameters, age dynamics, current and average increment, Highland Khamar-Daban, South-East Baikal Lake region

Abstract >>
The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region) has been done. The aggregate data of average tree, the analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done. The most representative forest types have been selected to be analyzed. There were nine of them including three Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour stands, three Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. stands, one Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. stand, and two dwarf Siberian pine Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel stands. The whole high-altitude range of mountain taiga has been evaluated. Mathematical and statistic indicators have been calculated for every forest type. Stone pine stands are the largest. Dynamics of mean diameters of forest stands have been examined by dominant species for every forest type. Quite a number of interesting facts have been elicited. Generally, all species have maximal values of periodic annual increment that is typical for young stands, but further decrease of increment is going on differently and connects to the different lifetime of wood species. It is curious that annual increment of the dwarf Siberian pine stands almost does not decrease with aging. As for mean annual increment, it is more stable than periodic annual increment. From the fifth age class (age of stand approaching maturity) mean annual increment of cedar stands varies from 0.20 to 0.24 cm per year; from 0.12-0.15 to 0.18-0.21 cm per year - in fir stands; from 0.18 to 0.24 cm per year - in spruce stands; and from 0.02-0.03 to 0.05-0.06 cm per year - in draft pine stands. Mean annual increment of dwarf Siberian pine increases with aging and increment of other species holds up almost the same, but decreases slightly with aging.
																								



12.
THE MAIN FOREST INVENTORY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STANDS DAMAGED BY HURRICANE WINDS IN THE SOUTHERN TAIGA SUBZONE (KOSTROMA OBLAST)

I. N. Petukhov
N. A. Nekrasov Kostroma State University, 1st May str., 14, Kostroma, 156961 Russian Federation
Keywords: массовый (катастрофический) ветровал, данные лесоустройства, данные дистанционного зондирования Земли, подзона южной тайги, Костромская область, massive catastrophic windfall, forest inventory and remote sensing data, southern taiga subzone, Kostroma Oblast

Abstract >>
In June and July 2010 in Yaroslavl, Vologda and Kostroma regions, as a result of exposure to hurricane winds, recorded several violations of extensive forest cover in the form of windfalls and windbreaks (Krylov et al., 2012; Petukhov, Nemchinova, 2014). Retrospective analysis on the basis of remote sensing data for the period 1984-2011’s was conducted. It showed, that among the 21st dedicated mass windfall within the Kostroma region and border areas, windfall July 2010 is unique in the magnitude of the total area of disturbed forest cover. According to our estimates, derived from the analysis of remote sensing (RS), its area was more than 60 thousand Ha, which is four times the average annual area of clear felling, in particular, in the Kostroma region (Petukhov, Nemchinova, 2014). In addition to determining the areas of windfall violations of forest cover, based on forest inventory data and remote sensing data analyzed taxation characteristics of forest stands affected by the impact of the seven gale-force winds within the territory of the Kostroma region. The analysis revealed the following trends in hurricane-force winds damaged trees: for parameters such as completeness, forest type and site class is observed relatively uniform stands hurricane wind damage; I.e., we have not found an association between the degree (probability) of forest stands damaged data and taxation values data. An exception is the age, height, and in some cases, the predominant species plantations. Plantations dominated by spruce in the stand proved to be somewhat less, but with a predominance of pine - more resistant to hurricane winds, compared to other tree species. Selectivity is also observed for breach of stands older than 40 years and a height of over 16 meters, which is possibly related to the morphological and physiological features of the trees of a given age and height.
																								



13.
TO THE QUESTION ON ACCURACY OF FOREST HEIGHTS MEASUREMENTS BY THE TanDEM-X RADAR INTERFEROMETRY DATA

T. N. Chimitdorzhiev1, M. E. Bykov1, Yu. I. Kantemirov2, I. I. Kirbizhekova1, B. B. Labarov3, A. K. Baltukhaev1
1Institute of Physical Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Sakhyanova str., 6, Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, 670047 Russian Federation
2Sovzond Company, Shipilovskaya str., 28a, Milan Business Center, Moscow, 115563 Russian Federation
3Institute of Land Management, Cadasters and Melioration, Pushkin str., 8, Ulan-Ude, Republic of Buryatia, 670024 Russian Federation
Keywords: спутниковая радиолокация, дифференциальная интерферометрия, высота леса, валидация, satellite radiolocation, differential interferometry, forest height, validation

Abstract >>
The paper presents the validation results of the InSAR method for determining the forest canopy height, based on TanDEM-X and ALOS PALSAR data. The research conducted on the territory of the Baikal-Kudara forest area of the Republic of Buryatia (52°10'N, 106°48'E). Forest vegetation is represented mainly by conifers - pine, and spruce, with a small admixture of deciduous trees - aspen, birch, etc. The forest vegetation height was determined by subtracting the digital elevation model (DEM) of the digital terrain model (DTM). DEM is built according to the L-band (wavelength of 23.5 cm) ALOS PALSAR satellite with horizontal co-polarization mode. In the investigation it was assumed that a radar signal of ALOS PALSAR passes all forest thickness and reflected from the underlying surface, made it possible to recover terrain under forest canopy. DTM has been built using the TanDEM-X data (wavelength 3 cm). In this case, it was assumed that the radar echoes scattered from a some virtual phase centers of scattering surface, which characterizes the upper limit of the continuous forest canopy. To check the accuracy of satellite definitions of forest height in study area were made high-precision geodetic measurement of trees heights using electronic total station and the coordinates of geographic control points using differential GPS receivers. The discrepancy between the satellite and ground-based measurements at 11 test sites did not exceed 2 m, which is mainly due to the difference in measurement techniques: height of individual trees by ground methods and continuous forest canopy height using radar interferometry.
																								



14.
BARK FORMATION OF THE SIBERIAN LARCH TREES

S. L. Shevelev
Siberian State University of Technology, Prospect Mira, 82, Кrasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: лиственница сибирская, кора ствола, коэффициенты коры, математическая модель, относительные размеры, таксационные нормативы, Siberian larch, stem bark, bark coefficients, mathematical model, relative sizes, forest inventory standards, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
The purpose of work was detection of regularities of bark formation on various parts of stems of Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. trees. In work, materials of ten trial areas established in larch stands of green moss group of forest types are used. 703 sample trees were cut down and measured. The trial areas were established at Priangarsky and Central Siberian subtaiga-forest-steppe forest vegetation regions. Sample trees were cut down into sections, equal to one tenth of the stem length. As a result of the carried-out works, the average sizes of double thickness of bark at stems of various diameter are established. The mathematical model, describing regularities of bark formation at various relative heights of stems of the Siberian larch trees with various diameters is constructed. This mathematical model is the basis for the auxiliary table containing data characterizing a bark share in diameter of a stem with bark. The relative sizes of bark on various sites of stems are established. For this purpose the double thickness of bark at height of the corresponding one-tenth height of a stem wood is taken for basic parameter. The bark sizes at other relative heights are expressed percentage of basic size. The relative sizes of bark changes from 206.8 % at the stem basis to 20.8 % for sections of the corresponding 0.9 shares of the stem height. The supplied generalizing information on the forest vegetation areas stated above is provided in work. The equation of pair dependence of relative double thickness of bark on the relative height of section of a stem is calculated. The obtained data might be used at creation of standards for valuation of the larch stands of the research area, such as volume, assortment and commodity tables.