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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2016 year, number 3

1.
STUDY OF SIBERIAN FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES

L. I. Milyutin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Brunch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 669936 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесные генетические ресурсы, географическая и морфологическая изменчивость, генетический и кариологический полиморфизм, Сибирь, forest genetic resources, geographic and morphological variability, genetic and caryological polymorphism, Siberia

Abstract >>
Forest genetic resources are the aggregate of genofonds of native and cultivar populations of forest woody plants, valuable really or potential for specific territory (A brief dictionary… 2014). Forest genetic resources are studied in practice in most cases on example of forest-forming woody plants. It is necessary to consider of study of these resources in two positions: taxonomic and geographic. Forest forming coniferous species are studied best of all from the taxonomic point of view taking into account biodiversity. Genetic polymorphism is studied most in detail with such species as Pinus sylvestris , Pinus sibirica , Larix sibirica , Larix sukaczevii , Picea obovata , Abies sibirica . Populations of Larix gmelinii , Larix cajanderi , Picea ajanensis are studied considerable worse. Materials about genetic polymorphism of forest forming foliage species - representative of genera Betula and Populus are absent. Caryological polymorphism is studied sufficiently well in all Siberian conifer species. It should be noted especially attached to examination of this problem, that individuals with B-chromosome were discovered first by gymnosperms as an example Picea obovata . Discovery in Siberia of triploid asp deserve special attention. Geographic variability is shown most broadly in the investigations of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica . These investigations were conducted both in natural populations and in provenance trials. Such investigations of another conifer and foliage species either are shown by separate fragments or are absent at all Geographic variability is shown in a large measure in the operative forest seed sources regionalization. Numerous investigations directed to the analysis of morphological variability are conducted by all forest forming species in the first place by conifers. Questions of hereditary determination of either signs remain in this problem. Similar questions concern the variability of other signs: phonological peculiarities, resin productivity etc. It can be noted from the geographic point of view. General typical peculiarity for all species: best study of forest genetic resources in the south regions and worse study in the north regions. This fact concerns all species with the exception of Larix cajanderi, which does not grow in the south regions of Siberia. Noted regularity is explained simply of more difficult availability of forests in the north Siberian regions. Certainly the north forests are characterized as a general rule by bad productivity, but they have great ecological importance. Besides that, north forests are represented in most cases by autochthonous stands that raise value of their genetic resources. It is necessary to note too that investigations of species of woody plants near the north edge of their range (by south range edge, too) are an important component of the adaptive breeding of their species. It is necessary to take into account by analysis of Siberian forest genetic resources specifics of different types of woody plants populations: isolated insular populations outside the main areas, hybrid populations in the zones of natural intraspecific hybridization etc.
																								



2.
FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF SOUTH-WESTERN PRIBAIKALIE: CONTEMPORARY STATUS AND MAPPING

Yu. S. Cherednikova, Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: природные и антропогенно нарушенные лесные экосистемы, высотная поясность растительности и почв, среднемасштабное картографирование, Юго-Западное Прибайкалье, South-Western Pribaikalie, natural and anthropogenically disturbed forest ecosystems, altitude zoning of vegetation and soils, middle scale mapping

Abstract >>
The spatial structure of the natural ecosystems in the South-Western Pribaikalie is considered. In mountain-belt arrangement ecosystems are divided into mountain taiga, dark- and light coniferous, sub-taiga-forest steppe and steppe. A special group assigned the ecosystems of the river valleys. Within Goloustnensky landfill 53 kinds of ecosystems are allocated. Depending on geomorphological and lithological structures within the mountain taiga dark coniferous belt - 12, in mountain taiga light coniferous - 18, subtaiga-forest-steppe - 8, steppe ecosystems are represented by 4 and 11 - are formed in the river valleys. The main factor destabilizing the normal functioning of forest ecosystems in South-Western Pribaikalie is fire. In the region, almost all the forests were subjected to varying degrees of fire. Forest Fund is presented along with a conditional not impacted by fire areas, large burned areas of different age and with different trends in their recovery. It was found that the litter grassroots-humus fires of low and moderate intensity without damaging the forest stand, allow it to maintain basic edificator role, but destroy the undergrowth and thereby violate the normal course of forest renewing process. Evaluation of anthropogenic disturbance of forest ecosystems by fires and final felling have been designed. Fragments of the maps of natural and anthropogenically disturbed ecosystems at a scale of 1:200 000 within the Goloustnensky forestry district of Irkutsk region are presented. Assessment and mapping of ecosystems serves as a base for the organization of monitoring of the state of ecosystems, as well as to predict possible changes in its economic activities.
																								



3.
LIFE CYCLE AND REGENERATION NICHES OF HERBACEOUS PLANTS IN FOREST COMMUNITIES

S. A. Dubrovnaya
Kazan Federal University, Kremlyovskaya str., 18, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420008 Russian Federation
Keywords: регенерационная ниша, жизненный цикл, прорастание семян, онтогенетическая структура, Fragaria vesca, Platanthera bifolia, Trientalis europaea, regeneration niche, life cycle, seed germination, ontogenetic structure, Fragaria vesca, Platanthera bifolia, Trientalis europaea

Abstract >>
The criterion for steady state species in the community is the possibility of a complete turnover generation. Ontogenetic structure of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations in phytocenoses of different seral stages of forest community depended on the ecological-coenotic conditions. Cenopopulations of species with a high frequency of individuals of generative period were formed on disturbed forest communities, however, Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea seedlings in disturbed forest areas were not present. For these species, regeneration niches or microbioloby were the optimal conditions for seed germination and successful completion of the initial stages of ontogenesis, dedicated to the cenopopulations of phytocenoses climax serial stages. In holistic forest communities, species showed strategy type of patients. This allowed the species to be kept on a previously developed site. Invasive-regressive ontogenetic structure of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations was formed in climax stages of forest communities. However, this type of ontogenetically structure of cenopopulations reflected the survival of seedlings of species in the community, but did not represent, the tenuous state of the population. The stages of the life cycle of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea were confined to different cenopopulations, where they developed the necessary conditions for the flow of the hotel stages of ontogenesis. A set of populations, within which is carried out the full turnover of the generation of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea , formed a correct idea about the status of the species in the community. In terms of a mosaic of phytocenosis cenopopulation of Platanthera bifolia was presented cenopopulations loci. The development of plants within loci differed. A variety of factors in heterogeneous pine forest determined by the separation in space of the processes of formation of seeds and survival of seedlings. This ensured the passage of the life cycle within one cenopopulations and sustainable status of the species.
																								



4.
CHOSENIA ARBUTIFOLIA (SALICACEAE): LIFE STRATEGIES AND INTRODUCTION PERSPECTIVES

T. A. Moskalyuk
Botanical Garden-Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Makovskii Str., 142, Vladivostok, 690024 Russian Federation
Keywords: Chosenia arbutifolia, ecology, biology, ontogenesis, life strategies, introduction, Russian Far East

Abstract >>
Chosenia arbutifolia A. Skvorts. is a relict endemic of the Asian Pacific Coast adapted to flood activity of mountain rivers. The studies were executed in Russia in south and central areas of Magadan Oblast (the flood plains of the rivers Yana, Chelomdzha, Kolyma, Dukcha) and in the south of Primorsky Krai (the river flood plain Partizanka). The range, habitats, research history, and economic value of chosenia are described in the article. The species features of chosenia , distinguishing chosenia from willow are noted. Based on the analysis of biology and ecology of chosenia in the Russian Far East, three types of the species’ life strategies have been distinguished and characterized: 1 - secured anchoring of juveniles in substrate during the colonization of pebble floodplains (up to 3-4 years old); 2 - maximal manifestation of habitat-forming functions during the period of active growth (from 4-5 to 25-30 years); 3 - providing for the species’ advancement onto new pebble deposits (from 25-30 to 70-100 (120) years old). The experience of chosenia introduction in Russia (southern Siberia) and USA (Massachusetts) by sowing seeds and breeding of grafts with growth stimulants was analyzed. Due to ecological plasticity of the species and its specialized habitats, any unwanted chosenia invasions were excluded. Major reasons for the absence of chosenia from street plantings are analyzed and most perspective ways of its introduction are suggested. There are difficulties of the reception of the planting material in sufficient quantities in connection with quick loss germinating ability, high frailty of seedling roots, plants’ inability for vegetative reproduction, high requirement for good drainage and moisture of substratum. An experiment with raising seedlings in stationary capacities with sandy-pebble substrate is essential for a solution of the given problems. These boxes should be placed directly in areas of natural chosenia habitats along the edge of flooded deposits.
																								



5.
MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SCOTS PINE NEEDLES UNDER INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IMPACT OF KRASNOYARSK CITY

L. N. Skripal’shchikova1, I. A. Dneprovskii1, V. V. Stasova1, M. A. Plyashechnik1, N. V. Greshilova2, O. V. Kalugina3
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodny, 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russian Federation
3Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Lermontov str., 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная Pinus sylvestris L, морфолого-анатомические характеристики хвои, флуктуирующая асимметрия, техногенное загрязнение, Красноярск, Scots pine, morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles, fluctuating asymmetry, technogenic pollution, Krasnoyarsk

Abstract >>
The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA) were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013-2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V-VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986). The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.
																								



6.
STABILIZATION OF ALEY RIVER WATER CONTENT BY FOREST STANDS

E. G. Paramonov, I. D. Rybkina
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Molodezhnaya str., 1, Barnaul, 656038 Russian Federation
Keywords: бассейн, водоносность, водопользование, лесистость, защитные лесные насаждения, водоохранная зона, экологизация лесозаготовок и пастьбы скота, basin, water content, water consumption, forest cover, protective forest stands, water protection zone, eco-balance in timber harvesting and cattle grazing

Abstract >>
Aley river basin is one of the most developed territories in West Siberia. Initially, the development here was related to the development of ore mining in the Altai. Currently it is associated mainly with the agricultural orientation of economic development. The intensive involvement of basin lands into the economic turnover for the last 100 years contributed to the formation of a number of environmental problems, such as water and wind erosion, loss of soil fertility and salinization, and desertification of the territory. Besides, the decrease of Aley river water content due to natural and anthropogenic reasons was observed. A specific feature of water management in Aley river basin is a significant amount of water resources used for irrigation purposes and agricultural water supply. To ensure the economic and drinking water supply, two reservoirs and a number of ponds have been constructed and operate in the basin. Forest ecosystems of the basin are considered from the viewpoint of preservation and restoration of small rivers. The ability of forest to accumulate solid precipitation and intercept them during the snowmelt for a longer time reduces the surface drainage and promotes transfer into the subsurface flow, significantly influencing the water content of permanent watercourses, is shown. The state of protective forest plantations in Aley river basin is analyzed. Aley river tributaries are compared by area, the length of water flow, and forest coverage of the basin. It is proposed to regulate the runoff through drastic actions on the increase of forest cover in the plain and especially in the mountainous parts of the basin. Measures to increase the forest cover within water protection zones, afforestation of temporary and permanent river basins, and the protection of agricultural soil fertility are worked out.
																								



7.
SYSTEM OF FOREST INSECT PHEROMONE COMMUNICATION: STABILITY OF В«INFORMATION» MOLECULES TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

V. G. Soukhovolsky1,2, F. N. Tomilin3, P. V. Artyushenko3, P. E. Tsikalova2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2International Scientific Center for Study of Extreme Men State, Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
3L. V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/50, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: насекомые, поведение, феромоны, молекулы, устойчивость, квантово-химический анализ, insects, behavior, pheromones, molecules, stability, quantum-chemical analysis

Abstract >>
Features of external environmental factors (such as electromagnetic radiation in certain spectral bands) influencing pheromone molecules, which are carriers of information for forest insects in the search of the opposite sex, were examined. Stability of pheromone molecules for external influences has been studied for siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetv., pine moth Dendrilimus pini L., gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., for xylophages Ips typographus L., Monochamus urussovi Fish. and Monochamus galloprovincialis Oliv. Properties of pheromone molecules were evaluated by calculations using quantum-chemical method B3LYP. Existing methods of quantum-chemical calculations are useful for analyzing the properties of quite small and uncomplicated molecules of forest insect pheromones. The calculations showed that the molecules of insect pheromones are able to absorb light in the ultraviolet range and move into an excited state. The values of dipole moments, the wavelengths of the absorption, atomic and molecular electronic properties of pheromones in the ground and excited states were calculated. The calculations showed that for the reaction of pheromones with oxygen an energy barrier is somewhat higher than for reactions of pheromones with water vapor. The worst reaction of pheromones with water molecules likely to pheromones such molecules whose dipole moment is comparable to the dipole moment of water. Quantum-chemical characteristics of the pheromone molecules can be linked to specific behavior of the insects.
																								



8.
ADDENDUM TO APHIDS’ FAUNA, FEEDING ON FLOWERING PLANTS IN KRASNOYARSK KRAI

D. L. Grodnitsky1, A. V. Gurov2
1Institute for Teachers’ Postgraduate Education and Professional Retraining, Matrosov str., 19, Krasnoyarsk, 660079 Russian Federation
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: фауна, тли, пищевое предпочтение, Красноярский край, fauna, aphids, feeding preference, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper reports on new and previously known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on flowering plants in Krasnoyarsk region, the main part of a vast geographical province named Central or Middle Siberia, depending on terminology used by authors of literature sources. From physical geography viewpoint, the surveyed territory belongs to the Yenisey river basin. Aphids are an ecologically and morphologically diverse group of insects included in 11 families of the suborder Aphidinea in insect fauna of Russian Federation and 25 families in the world’s fauna. Geographical location, dates of collection of aphid colonies are presented with identification of species-specific feeding preferences. First found in Siberia were Symydobius nanae, Euceraphis betulae , Cavariella cicutae , C. konoi , Uroleucon (Dactynotus) aeneum , U. giganteum, U. nigrocampalulae , U. trachelii , Aphis agrimoniae , A. coronillae , A. mongolica , A. neothalictri , A. pruni , A. pseudocomosa , A. pulsatillae , A. sambuci , A. (Debilisiphon) umbelliferarum . Collected for the first time from willow were Betacallis comes (normally feeds on birch and alder), B. quadrituberculata (common on birch), colonies of Metopeurum fuscoviride were first found on Achillea millefolium . Aphis craccivora was previously collected from plants of different families, but was never seen on Cruciferae ( Capsella bursa-pastoris ). Aphis frangulae was concidered to feed exclusively on buckthorn, however, it was found on Chamaenerion angustifolium. Judging on diversity of host species, some aphids may be more important for agriculture than it was previously thought. A general review of Krasnoyarsk Krai aphid fauna is suggested for the first time ever.
																								



9.
THE PROBLEM OF IMPROVEMENT OF BIRCH STAND PRODUCTIVITY IN FOREST STEPPE OF CIS-URALS

S. V. Zalesov1, I. A. Freiberg2, O. V. Tolkach2
1Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесостепь Зауралья, березняки, производительность, лесовосстановление, предварительные лесные культуры, forest-steppe, birch stands, productivity, efficiency, reforestation, preliminary forest crops, birch, Scotch pine, Cis-Urals

Abstract >>
The article deals with birch stands of the forest steppes in Cis-Urals. It is pointed out that the latter are represented both by native and derivative stands formed in the place of native coniferous forest, for the most part pine stands. Birch stands, as a rule, have vegetative origin, low density (0.3-0.5) and deposit that does not exceed 130 m3/ha. As a silvicultural measure aimed at derivative birch stands’ productivity increasing, it is offered to create under the canopy preliminary forest crops of Scotch pine. The advantage of such crops is tending of plantations cutting and terms of technic mature wood growing. It has been determined that in investigated regions with low density birch stands on grey forest soil and chernozem, Scotch pine in preliminary forest crops develops surface roots which are branching in different directions from planting sites including in the direction of the brand stems. These roots are terminated among the interplacement mass of this mass of stiffened roots. In other words, on the first step of forest growing, preliminary crops do not experience considerable root competition as concerns birch stand. Based on the research data, high safe keeping of preliminary forest crops during the initial years after planting is proved. However, delay in birch stands harvesting can result in preliminary forest crops increment reduction and, in the long run, their destruction. Thus the mean height of the preliminary pine crops at the age of 11-12 years constitutes only 42-62 % as compared with pine crops of the same age that were formed on the cutover area if agrotechnical tending is systematically carried on in the latter. The positive role of birch stands in the initial 3-4 years after preliminary forest crops of Scotch pine forming has been proven experimentally. Then the birch woody canopy must be removed. Replacement of derivative birch stands for native pine stands by forming preliminary forest crops will make possible significantly increase stands’ productivity in forest-steppe of Cis-Urals, along with preserving stability of their protective environmental functions.