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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2016 year, number 3

1.
Changes in the Migration Strategy of Gulls (Laridae) Along the Western Coast of the Caspian Sea as a Result of Environmental Changes

E. V. VILKOV
Caspian Institute of Biological Resources, Dagestan Scientific Centre RAS, 367000, Makhachkala, M. Gadjiev str., 45
Keywords: Каспийское море, миграция Laridae, численность, Caspian Sea, migration of Laridae, abundance

Abstract >>
The data obtained in 1995-2014 in the areas of the Sulakskaya and Turalinskaya lagoons (Dagestan, the western coast of the Middle Caspian) were summarized. The lagoons are located in a “bottleneck”, a narrow migration corridor traversed by one of the largest migration routes of trans-Palearctic species in Russia. This route is a part of the West Siberian-East African migration range. The migration traffic and territorial localization of the Laridae populations, participating in the total migratory flow along the western coast of the Caspian Sea were determined. The present-day migratory range of Laridae covering the area from Western Europe to Lake Baikal and Western India was specified. It was determined that Dagestan is crossed not by one but two independent and stable migration flows of Laridae, flying across the transit region in different migration routes but at the same periods of time. Three types of migration intensity of Laridae across the study area were defined: weak, average and mass migration. Both spring and autumn migration includes 5 peaks of migration activity (migratory waves). Timing, taxonomical composition and abundance of Laridae species vary for each degree type of migratory waves. Key determinants of migratory wave intensities are abundance of migratory populations and weather conditions of the year. It was proved that over the last 5-7 years there has been a steady decrease in abundance of some Laridae species on the western coast of the Middle Caspian. This decrease was determined by a set of factors acting across the whole migration range. Decrease in abundance of migratory Laridae leads to blurring of the boundaries between migratory waves and migration intensity. It causes changes in migration routes of some Laridae populations which now have shifted from traditional wintering grounds along the western coast of the Caspian Sea and countries of the Middle East and North-East Africa to India.
																								



2.
Vegetation Development on the Barrier Islands of the Ola Lagoon (the Sea of Okhotsk) in the Conditions of Rapidly Increasing Number of Seabirds

M. G. KHOREVA, L. A. ZELENSKAYA, E. A. ANDRIYANOVA
Institute of Biological Problems of the North, FEB RAS, 685000, Magadan, Portovaya str., 18
Keywords: растительность, морские колониальные птицы, тихоокеанская чайка, орнитогенное воздействие, островные бары, vegetation, colonial seabirds, slaty-backed gull, ornithogenic impact, barrier islands

Abstract >>
The colonies of slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus) and vegetation development were studied on the barrier islands of the Ola lagoon (the Sea of Okhotsk), which coastline has underwent great changes over the last 40 years. The number of the birds increased 2.6 times in the last 5 years, and in 2014 reached 7 thousand pairs. Five vegetation communities with prevalence of herbaceous plants were described and shown schematically.
																								



3.
Trans-Biome Invasions of Femtoplankton

V. S. MUHANOV1, O. A. RYLKOVA1, E. G. SAKHON1, T. V. BUTINA2, O. I. BELYKH2
1A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Marine Biological Research, RAS, 299011, Sevastopol, Nakhimova ave., 2
2Limnological Institute, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 3
Keywords: фемтопланктон, виропланктон, ультрамикробактерии, фильтрующиеся бактерии, SAR11, LD12, филогенетическое разнообразие, биом, соленость, осморегуляция, femtoplankton, virioplankton, ultramicrobacteria, filterable bacteria, phylogenetic diversity, biome, salinity, osmoregulation

Abstract >>
To shed light on the problem of trans-biome invasions by microbes, the results of ecological and phylogenetic studies of femtoplankton, the smallest size fraction of plankton formed by viruses and ultramicrobacteria (UMB), were overviewed. Phylogenetic lineages of viruses and UMB were shown to be associated with particular biomes, thus, indicating infrequent trans-biome transitions in the microbial world. Consideration of an alternative hypothesis of widespread cross-colonizations is believed to require a deeper analysis of the factors that form the barrier between biomes and are responsible for the adaptation of microorganisms to different environments.
																								



4.
Chrono-Geographic Approach to the Analysis of Variability of a Bicyclic Species Erebia ligea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) in the Urals

E. Yu. ZAKHAROVA1, A. G. TATARINOV2
1Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
2Institute of Biology of the Komi Science Centre, UB RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28
Keywords: хроногеографический подход, изменчивость, Урал, климатические факторы, природные популяции, бициклический вид, Erebia ligea, chrono-geographic approach, variability, the Urals, climatic factors, natural populations, bicyclic species, Erebia ligea

Abstract >>
The phenotypic variation of the morphological traits complex (length of fore and hind wings and diameters of wing eyespot patterns) in the populations of a Trans-Eurasian species Erebia ligea in different landscape and climatic conditions of the Urals region was analyzed. It was shown that protandry, bicyclicity and imago emergence in odd-numbered years were characteristic of E. ligea in the Urals. Geographic variability of imago size was characterized by the cline with a gradual increase in the north-south direction. The chrono-geographical approach allowed us to establish the scale of the observed differences: chronographic variability had the biggest impact on morphological traits; then went sexual and geographical factors. The least effect on the morphological traits complex had the seasonal factor, i.e the moment of imago emergence during the generation flight.
																								



5.
Dynamics of Shrew Taxocene Structure in Southern of Sakhalin

V. A. NESTERENKO1, E. Yu. LOKTIONOVA1, O. A. BURKOVSKY2
1Institute of Biology and Soil Science, FEB RAS, 69002, Vladivostok, 100-letiya Vladivostoka ave., 159
2Far Eastern Federal University, 690000, Vladivostok, Okeanskiy ave., 37
Keywords: Sorex, Soricidae, землеройки, таксоцен, сообщество, Сахалин, shrew, taxocene, community, Sakhalin

Abstract >>
The complete cycle of the structure transformation of shrew model taxocene in southern Sakhalin was revealed by investigations of 2008-2014. It was shown that in the communities of these animals facultative and obligate dominants are absent and a dominant group is formed every year of common species. There are two main patterns of the taxocene structure: the monodominant type, predominating by the long-clawed shrew at low number of other species, and the polydominant type, in which one of the background species plays a role of codominаnt at a lower number of long-clawed shrews. It is found out that the dominanct structure in shrew taxocene is not closely related to the phase of its quantitative dynаmics.
																								



6.
Morphological and Еcological Differentiation of Sympatric Whitefishes (Genus Coregonus) from Lake Taymyr

V. I. ROMANOV1, E. I. ZUYKOVA2, N. A. BOCHKAREV2
1Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Leninа ave., 36
2Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Keywords: сиг-пыжьян, C. l. pidschian, морфология, экология, оз. Таймыр, жаберные тычинки, экологическая форма, Siberian whitefish, morphology, ecology, Taymyr Lake, gill rakers, ecological form

Abstract >>
The results of the morphological analysis of ecology and feeding of two sympatric forms (lacustrine and lacustrine-riverine) of the whitefishes inhabiting Lake Taymyr (the Taymyr Peninsula) were presented. It was determined that these forms do not differ in the number of gill rakers on the first brachial arch and the number of lateral line scales, but do differ in plastic features, spawning period and spawning area. At 2-3 years of age the feeding preferences of different forms of whitefish begin to vary. It was supposed that both forms of whitefish occupied Lake Taymyr simultaneously with the ponding of the lake basin. Apparently, the taxonomic status of the sympatric whitefishes from Lake Taymyr is broader than the term “ecological form”.
																								



7.
The Trophic Relationships Between Planktonic Bacteria, Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates and Viruses in a Mesoeutrophic Reservoir

A. I. KOPYLOV, D. B. KOSOLAPOV, E. A. ZABOTKINA, N. G. KOSOLAPOVA
Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, RAS, 152742, Yaroslavl region, Borok
Keywords: планктонные бактерии, гетеротрофные нанофлагелляты, вирусы, трофические взаимоотношения, planktonic bacteria, heterotrophic nаnoflagellates, viruses, trophic relationshiрs

Abstract >>
In the paper the following parameters were determined for the mesoeutrophic Rybinsk Reservoir: the abundance, biomass and production (PB) of bacterioplankton; taxonomic composition, abundance and biomass of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and the rate of consumption of the HNF bacteria; the number of virioplankton, frequency of visible bacteria-infected cells, virus-induced mortality of bacterioplankton and viral production. Death rate of the bacteria due to viral lysis (7.8–34.1 %, on average — 17.2 ± 2.0 % of the daily PB) was lower than the consumption of the bacteria by the HNF community (15.4-61.3 %, on average — 32.0 ± 4.2 % of the daily PB). HNF, while consuming bacteria, simultaneously absorbed a significant number of viruses residing on the surface and inside the bacterial cells.
																								



8.
The Study on the Flora of Bacillariophyta in the Water Systems of the Yarayakha River Basin (the Yamal Peninsula)

S. I. GENKAL1, M. I. YARUSHINA2
1I. D. Papаnin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, RAS, 152742, Yaroslavl region, Borok
2Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: п-ов Ямал, бассейн р. Яраяха, фитопланктон, диатомовые водоросли, электронная микроскопия, the Yamal Peninsula, the Yarayakha River basin, water bodies and water courses, phytoplankton, diatom algae, electron microscopy

Abstract >>
The study of phytoplankton from lakes, sors, streams and rivers of the Yarayakha River basin with the help of scanning electron microscopy made it possible to extend the Bacillariophyta taxonomic spectrum: 236 specific and intraspecific taxa of diatom algae from 63 genera were detected. A total of 16 species and varieties new for the flora of Russia were recorded, and for 30 forms from 18 genera only the genus was identified. The maximum species diversity was recorded in a stream in the mouth of Yarayakha River (82 species) and in the channel of Khureikhotarka River (105 species). The following species are the most widespread in the waterbodies under study: Cyclotella meneghinianа, Fragilaria exiguiformis, Navicula hanseatica, Neidium bisulcatum, Stauroneis anceps, Thalassiosira inserta, Tabellaria flocculosa.
																								



9.
Microbiological Factors of Iron Biominerals Formation

L. M. KONDRATYEVA1, E. M. GOLUBEVA2, Z. N. LITVINENKO3
1Institute of Water аnd Ecological Problems, FEB RAS, 680000, Khabarovsk, Kim Yu Chen str., 65
2Institute of Tectonics аnd Geophysics, FEB RAS, 680000, Khabarovsk, Dikopoltseva str., 56
3Municiрal Unitary Enterprise “Vodocanаl”, 680003, Khabarovsk, Pionerskaya str., 8
Keywords: подземные воды, органические вещества, биопленка, биоминерал, гетит, groundwater, organic substances, biofilm, biomineral, goethite

Abstract >>
The article considers the peculiarities of biofilm formation in iron-bearing groundwater in the presence of organic substances with different degrees of bioavailability (yeast extract, peptone, humic substances). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis helped to identify a biomineral in the crystal structure - goethite (a-FeOOH). It was supposed that admission of surface water with organic substances into the iron groundwater creates a risk of colmatage of aquifer pore space with iron minerals of biogenic origin.
																								



10.
Vegetation of the Hydrochari-Lemnetea and Potametea classes in the Danube-Tisza-Danube hydrosystem (Serbia)

Dejana Dzigurski, Ljiliana Nikolic, Branka Ljevnaic-Masic
University of Novi Sad, 21000, Serbia, Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica, 8
Keywords: Hydrochari-Lemnetea, Potametea, properties of water, eutrophication, macrophytes

Abstract >>
Aquatic vegetation of Hydrochari-Lemnetea and Potametea classes in the Danube-Tisza-Danube hydrosystem (Hs DTD) was studied in 2009-2012, by applying the standard Braun-Blanquet method. The canal network vegetation comprises 14 associations, with Trapetum nаtantis and Ceratophylletum demersi being the most widely distributed. Hs DTD is also a habitat for several important endangered species, which serve as edificators of the following phytocenoses: Nymphaeetum albae, Nymphaeetum albo-luteae, Nymphoidetum peltatae, Trapetum nаtantis, Lemno-Spirodeletum, Salvinio-Spirodeletum polyrrhizae, Lemno-Utricularietum vulgaris, Potametum nodosi, Myriophyllo-Potametum and Najadetum marinаe. In the studied vegetation, we also found an invasive phytocenosis Elodeetum canadensis that did not have an expanding tendency, and Ceratophyllo demersi-Vallisnerietum spiralis that had this tendency, which made monitoring its stands necessary. Physico-chemical analyses of water, conducted at localities in which the studied phytocenoses thrive, revealed that the development and distribution of most phytocenoses is closely linked with specific habitat conditions. Among the studied parameters, the most significant for the phytocenoses differentiation were: pH, alkalinity, COD-MnO4, BOD5, NO3-, NO2-, PO43- and the concentration of total phosphorus.
																								



11.
Botanical and Geographical Characteristics of the Forest-Steppe of the Altai-Sayan Mountain Region

N. I. MAKUNINA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: горная лесостепь, биоклиматический сектор, Алтае-Саянская горная область, belt structure type, mountain forest-steppe, Altai-Sayan mountain region

Abstract >>
Four types of mountain forest-steppes were determined for the Altai-Sayan mountain region. It was shown that each type corresponded to a certain bioclimatic sector. The belt structure of each type of mountain forest-steppe was characterized. The ranges of increases in aridity were described: the primary Altaian, the primary Khakas-Tuvinian, and the secondary Khakas-Tuvinian.
																								



12.
Anatomo-Morphological Features of the Leaves of Hedysarum theinum (Fabaceae) in Western Altai

N. A. KARNAUKHOVA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Hedysarum theinum, Fabaceae, анатомия листа, Западный Алтай, адаптация, leaf anаtomy, Western Altai, adaptation

Abstract >>
The adaptation of Hedysarum theinum to the conditions of the mountainous areas of Western Altai (Kazakhstan) was studied by observing the anatomical features of the leaf blade. The status of 9 populations of Hedysarum theinum was estimated based on the study of 10 anatomical features of the leaf blade. It was found that the combined values of features were the highest in sub-alpine habitats.
																								



13.
Ontogenetic Structure and Vitality of the Cenopopulations of Oxytropis sulphurea (Fisch. ex DC.) Ledeb. in Different Ecocenotic Conditions of the Rudny Altai and the Saur Ridge

I. Yu. SELYUTINA, E. G. ZIBZEEV
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Oxytropis sulphurea (Fisch. ex DC.) Ledeb, ценопопуляция, онтогенетическая структура, жизненность, семенная продуктивность, cenopopulation, ontogenetic structure, vitality, seed productivity

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of the analysis of ontogenetic and vitality structure of 7 cenopopulations of Oxytropis sulphurea (Fisch. ex DC.) Ledeb. in the high-altitude conditions of the Rydny Altai (Ivanovsky and Prohodnoi ridges) and the Saur ridge. In the study of the demographic structure it was determined that most of the populations from undisturbed habitats were characterized by left-side spectrums with maximums on juvenile or immature individuals. The changes in the structure of the studied ontogenetic spectrums of this species depended largely on the presence of anthropogenic influence. Grazing pressure led to formation of the spectrums with a maximum on g3-plants. The vitality type of the O. sulphurea populations varied from exuberant to depressed; the depressed and balanced types of vitality prevailed. Intensive seed propagation provides stable existence of O. sulphurea in the high mountain alpine zone. The results of our study showed that O. sulphurea is an alpine-meadow species, which has strict ecological and cenotic propensity for alpine meadows with the prevalence of Festuca krylovianа, Anthoxanthum alpinum, Schulzia crinite and shrub tundras with Dryas oxyodonta.
																								



14.
Biogeochemical Features of Fallow Lands in the Steppe Zone

F. N. LISETSKII1, T. N. SMEKALOVA2, O. A. MARININA1
1Belgorod State Nationаl Research University, 308015, Belgorod, Pobedy str., 85
2Saint Petersburg State University, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 7-9
Keywords: восстановительные сукцессии, разновременные залежи, старопахотные почвы, биогеохимические индикаторы, secondary succession, fallow lands, agrogenic soils, biogeochemical indicators

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of the study of fallow lands in ancient agricultural areas of the North-Western Crimea which were subject to repeated phases of agricultural activity at different time periods: the Late Bronze Age, antiquity and the last 150-200 years. The differences in biogeochemical flows for virgin soils and fallow lands were analyzed using the chemical elements that determined the composition of secondary clay minerals. The most informative and evolutionarily significant biogeochemical indicators of relict agricultural loads and duration of fallow regime were specified.
																								



15.
Naturalization of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. in Western Siberia

S. O. BATURIN
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrentyeva ave., 10
Keywords: Fragaria x anаnаssa Duch, Fragaria vesca L, натурализация, колонофит, инвазионный вид, адвентивная флора, изменчивость, адаптация, Западная Сибирь, nаturalization, colonophyte, invasive species, adventive flora, variability, adaptation, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
The naturalization process of Fragaria x ananassa in Western Siberia has lasted for about 80 years, since the first garden strawberry cultivars appeared on agricultural experiment stations in 1933. Over such a long period of time the invasive status of the species has changed insignificantly (from “casual alien plants” to “naturalized plants”). According to the degree of naturalization, the species belongs to colonophytes. F. x anаnаssa appeared in natural phytocenoses due to ornitochory. At present the naturalization process of F. x anаnаssa is going in two directions: genetic transformation in the long-existing coenopopulations and re-invasion of new ecotypes of the same species into natural phytocenoses. The high death rate of seedlings of the naturalized F. x anаnаssa restricts the species from occupying regeneration niches in natural phytocenoses. Accordingly, the status of an “invasive species” is inapplicable to F. x anаnаssa at the present stage of naturalization in Western Siberia.
																								



16.
Regional Features of Invasion of Alien Macroinvertebrates into the Water Ecosystems of the Ob River Basin

L. V. YANYGINA1,2
1Institute of Water and Ecological Problems, SB RAS, 656038, Barnаul, Molodezhnаya str., 1
2Altai State University, 656099, Barnаul, Dimitrova str., 66
Keywords: скорость инвазии, макробеспозвоночные, р. Обь, чужеродные виды, рыбоводство, invasion rate, macroinvertebrates, the Ob river, alien species, fish farming

Abstract >>
The peculiarities of invasion of alien macroinvertebrates into the water bodies of the Ob river basin were studied. It was noted that building of hydropower plants and fishery management played the key role in the invasion of alien fauna. The main invasion corridors and the tendencies of long-term alterations in them were revealed. The common and distinctive features of the alien fauna of the Ob river basin and the invasive species of large European rivers were determined. It was shown that a considerable number of alien invertebrates were introduced into the Ob river accidentally.
																								



17.
Conyza Canadensis in the Urban Environment: Vitality Structure of the Populations

G. Yu. MOROZOVA1,2
1Institute of Water аnd Ecological Problems, FEB RAS, 680000, Khabarovsk, Dikopoltseva str., 56
2Pacific Nationаl University, 680054, Khabarovsk, Tikhookeanskaya str., 136
Keywords: Conyza canаdensis, урбанизация, инвазионный вид, урбопопуляция, виталитет, онтогенетическая структура, изменчивость, urbanization, invasive species, urban population, vitality, ontogenetic structure, variability

Abstract >>
The vitality structure of invasive species in the urban environment was studied on the example of Conyza canаdensis. The data on the comparative analysis of ontogenetic and vitality population structures was given. In stressful urban conditions vitality structures of populations reorganized, the state of individual plants worsened and the quality of populations decreased. The analysis of C. canаdensis state was carried out by studying the reproductive traits (mass of reproductive organs, reproductive effort) and indicators of the size (total elevated phytomass). These features had the closest correlation with the system of the parameters which characterize the morphostructure of individuals and their stability in urban conditions. High plasticity and variability of individuals along the gradient of urbanization was determined. The ontogenetic structure of urban populations of C. canаdensis belongs to the normal type.