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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2016 year, number 2

1.
Population Dynamics of the Vendace (Coregonus albula) of Lake Syamozero

O. P. STERLIGOVA, N. V. ILMAST
Institute of Biology, Karelian Scientific Centre, RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
ilmast@karelia.ru
Keywords: , , , , vendace, freshwater ecosystems, eutrophication, biological invasions

Abstract >>
Dynmics of the vendace of Lake Syamozero was monitored on the basis of the data collected for more than 75 years, and the evaluation of the present condition of the fish was given. The main biological parameters of the fish (body length and mass, gender, maturity, fecundity) were anlyzed. The causes of the variations in the vendace number from year to year were considered.
																								



2.
Evaluation of some microsatellite markers variability in the study of genetic structure of vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) populations from Latvian Lakes

Natalia Skute, Jeena Oreha
Daugavpils University, LV-5400, Daugavpils, Parades str., 1A
Keywords: Coregonus albula, microsatellites, Latvian lakes, polymorphism, heterozygosity, differentiation

Abstract >>
Vendace ( Coregonus albula (L.)) is a very plastic species of freshwater whitefish which is widespread in Europe. But in Latvia this species is included into the list of specially protected fish species with limited use. We examined cross-species amplification of 14 microsatellite loci ( Cocl-Lav22, Cocl-Lav23, Cisco-59, Cisco-106, Cisco-90, Cisco-126, Cisco-157, Cisco-179, Cisco-181, Cisco-183, Cisco-200, BWF1, BWF2, and C4-183 ) which were successfully used for genetic studies, monitoring, protection and management of different Coregonus species. Five microsatellite markers ( BWF1, Cisco-90, Cisco-126, Cisco-157, Cisco-200 ) had a good representation in populations of vendace from five Latvian lakes (Sventes, Raznas, Nirzas, Dridzas, Stirnu) and were used for genetic analysis of these populations. It was shown that these 5 microsatellite loci were polymorphic and could differ among the investigated populations. The mean number of alleles per locus (from 4.4 to 6.2), the observed (from 0.53 to 0.70) and expected (from 0.49 to 0.70) heterozygosity, population structure ( FST and RST ) and gene flow ( Nm ) were also analysed in Latvian vendace populations.
																								



3.
Genetic Differentiation of Coregonid Fishes in Pechora River

D. S. SENDEK1, A. P. NOVOSELOV2,3, E. I. BOZNAK4
1Nationl Research Institute of Lake and River Fisheries, 199053, Saint-Petersburg, Makarova Emb., 26
2Northern Branch of Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, 163002, Arkhangelsk, Uritskogo str., 17
3Arkhangelsk Scientific Centre, 163018, Arkhangelsk, Sadovaya str., 3
4Syktyvkar State University, 167001, Syktyvkar, Oktyabrsky Ave., 55
Keywords: , , , , coregonid fishes, periglacial refugia, introgression, Pechora River

Abstract >>
Population-genetic study of five coregonid fish species dwelling in the Pechora River system was carried out using 30 enzyme loci. The studied species were: whitefish, a natural hybrid of vendace and least cisco, inconnu, peled and Arctic cisco. The investigation revealed rather low intraspecific genetic differentiation among the fishes of Lower Pechora and Usa River which is the main tributary in the Pechora River basin where coregonid fishes migrate to spawn. Presumably whitefish, vendace and inconnu, which inhabit the main channels of Lower Pechora River and Usa River, are represented by introgressive populations of species originated from a mix of discrete evolutionary lineages. Some lineages of whitefish, vendace and inconnu from the West Siberian periglacial lake had come to Eastern Europe together with peled, broad whitefish and Arctic cisco with the last migration wave from Western Siberia during the Middle Weichselian glaciation (60-50 thousand years ago), whereas in the Eastern European periglacial refugium (Lake Komi) local lineages of these species had survived. Lake Komi could have been located on the Pechora Plain since the Early Weichselian glaciation (90-80 thousand years ago), and the studied whitefish specimens of the Upper Pechora River are probably the purest descendants of the periglacial race of whitefish from Lake Komi. This supposition is supported by the data on the high level of genetic differentiation between the whitefish of Upper Pechora and Lower Pechora ( DN = 0.005), as well as the pattern of allele distribution of some polymorphic loci. In our opinion, ecologic and genetic differentiation of vendace in the Pechora River basin is also connected with the interaction between two evolutionary lineages that originated from independent periglacial refugia.
																								



4.
Coregonus peled (Gmelin) transplanted into Ulaagchny Khar Lake (Western Mongolia) showed no evidence of hybridization with other introduced Coregonus species

Ayuriin Dulmaa1, Yuri Vladislavovich Slynko2, Natalia Yuryevna Gordon3, Veronika Vladidmirovna Stolbunova2, Dmitry Vladislavovich Politov3
1Institute of Biology, MAS, Ulaanbaatar-II, Suhbaatar Sq., 2
2Papanin Institute for Internl Waters Biology, RAS, 152742, Yaroslavl Oblast, Borok, Nekouz District
3Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, RAS, 119991, Moscow, GSP-1, Gubkin str., 3
Keywords: genetic identification, Coregonus, peled, introduction, hybridization, mitochondrial DNA, allozymes

Abstract >>
Coregonus peled (Gmelin) (Teleostei: Salmoniformes: Coregonidae), which is considered an important object of coldwater aquaculture, had been successfully introduced into an enclosed Western Mongolian lake Ulaagchny Khar in the early 1980s. At the same time larvae of two other Coregonus species - Baikal omul C. migratorius (Georgi) and least cisco C. sardinella Valenciennes - had also been released into the lake. Baikal omul was then reported as a naturalized species. This might have caused interspecific hybridization and gene introgression. Identification of coregonids by morphology can be problematic, so to determine which species was dominant in the lake (we presumed it was peled) and if its gene pool was affected by other introduced Coregonus species we sampled 40 individuals and analyzed them by sequencing a fragment of mtDNA cyt b and by allozyme electrophoresis. The analysis showed that all the fish belonged to C. peled with no evidence of admixture from other coregonid species. Taking into account mass release of both species in 1980s, it is evident that naturalization of peled in the lake was much more successful than that of Baikal omul.
																								



5.
The influence of season and levels of dietary lipid on growth performance and lipid composition in rainbow trout Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

Olga Borisovna Vasilyeva1, Marina Sleksandrovna Nazarova2, Pauli Ripatti1, Nina Nikolaevna Nemova1
1Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Centre, RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
2Vologda State University, 160035, Vologda, Lenin str., 15
Keywords: season, diet, liid, fatty acids, growth performance, rainbow trout

Abstract >>
We studied the growth performance and liid composition of liver, muscles and visceral fat in rainbow trout Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) and the diets used in its cultivation during the spring-summer season. The differences in dietary liid composition determined modifications in the biochemical composition of tissues of rainbow trout and had an effect on the weight and growth rate of the fish. Trophic and seasonl factors also had their influence on the studied parameters. The degree of influence depended on the functional characteristics of tissues and organs of rainbow trout.
																								



6.
Lipid Composition in Muscle and Liver of Sympatric Coregonid Fishes from Lake Baikal (Coregonus spp.) under Common Garden Experiment

O. B. VASILYEVA1, L. V. SUKHANOVA2, O. Yu. GLYZINA2, Yu. P. SAPOZHNIKOVA2, V. M. YAKHNENKO2, P. O. RIPATTI1, M. A. NAZAROVA3, N. N. NEMOVA1
1Institute of Biology, Karelian Scientific Centre, RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
2Limnological Institute, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 3
3Vologda State University, 160035, Vologda, Lenin str., 15
Keywords: , . , , , sympatric coregonid fishes, Lake Baikal, liids, fatty acids

Abstract >>
The content of total liids, total phospholiids and fatty acids of total liids in muscles and liver of juvelile Lake Baikal sympatric coregonid fishes were analysed for the first time under common garden experiment. Baikal omul, Coregonus migratorius Georgi, is an active migrant of the pelagic zones of the lake. Baikal (lacustrine) whitefish, C. baicalensis Dybowski, is a colonizer of the bottom habitats, which are relevant to the pelagic zones of the littoral and underwater slope. Structural liids (phospholipids and cholesterol) dominated in total liids of the tissues of all fish under study. Spare liids significantly prevailed in omul muscles compared to whitefish. The highest variability of fatty acid composition was reported in muscles of coregonid fishes. Statistically significant differences were revealed in the content of the 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscles of lacustrine whitefish and omul. Associations of liid compositions revealed in tissues of the whitefishes under the study with their respective ecotypes have been discussed.
																								



7.
Seasonal variability of some biochemical parameters in the whitefish (Coregonus muksun and Coregonus lavaretus)

Ekaterina Vitalyevna Borvinskaya1, Irina Viktorovna Sukhovskaya1, Albina Alexandrovna Koschneva2, Olga Borisovna Vasilyeva1, Marina Alexandrovna Nazarova3, Lev Pavlovich Smirnov1, Nina Nikolaevna Nemova1
1Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre, RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
2Petrozavodsk State University, 185910, Petrosavodsk, Lenin str., 33
3Vologda State University, 160035, Vologda, Lenin str., 15
Keywords: Coregonus, EROD, GST, GSH, phospholiids, season

Abstract >>
The base levels and seasonal variability of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione concentration (GSH) and phospholipids concentration (PhL) of Coregonus lavaretus (Linneus, 1758) and C. muksun (Pallas, 1814) were investigated. The relationships between this biochemical markers, hepatosomatic index and seasonal growth were also examined.
																								



8.
Correlation Between the Activity of Enzymes Involved in Energy and Carbohydrate Metabolism with the Size and Weight Parameters of Some Coregonidae and Salmonidae Fish

O. V. MESHCHERYAKOVA, M. V. CHUROVA, N. N. NEMOVA
Institute of Biology of Karelian Research Centre, RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
Keywords: , , , , , , /, , , , , fish, growth parameters (length and weight), energy and carbohydrate metabolism, enzymes, myosin expression, RNA/DNA, whitefish, salmon, rainbow trout

Abstract >>
The correlation between the energy and carbohydrate metabolism rate with the length and weight of salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus L., C. albula L.) studied in nature, and farmed rainbow trout ( Parasalmo mykiss Walb.) was investigated. The results of the study showed that the largest and fastest-growing fish had high activity of enzymes involved in aerobic energy metabolism (cytochrome c -oxidase, malate dehydrogenase) and anerobic metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase in muscles, 1-glycerophosphate and glucose-6-phosphate in liver). Age-related changes of the investigated parameters were caused by general reduction of aerobic metabolism rate and oxygen consumption during ontogenesis, increased lipid metabolism and the amount of stored substances. It was also shown that pubescent male and female whitefish (4+ and 5+) had differences in the correlation between enzyme activity of cytochrome c -oxidase 1-glycerophosphate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the length and weight of individuals.
																								



9.
Histopathologic haracteristics of oregonid Fishes under the Impact of Metal Industry

I. M. KOROLEVA, N. A. KASHULIN
Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems of the North, RAS, 184209, Apatity, Fersman str., 14A
Keywords: (Coregonus lavaretus), , , , , common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.), heavy metals, the Kola Peninsula, histopathology, biomarkers

Abstract >>
The results of monitoring studies of the state of the common whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus L.) inhabiting the Paatsjoki River and several lakes of Northern Fennoscandia were presented. The water-collecting area is contaminated with copper, nickel and sulfur dioxide due to airborne emissions of the Pechenganickel smelter. The ecological situation near the smelter is characterized as very unfavorable and requires constant control over the state of aquatic ecosystems. We used histopathology of gills, liver and kidneys as biomarkers to diagnose the condition of sparsely rakered whitefishes. The changes of cell structure in the fishes were diagnosed and classified. The revealed abnormalities were connected with the long-term exposure of the studied water bodies to airborne contamination. The possibility of using the obtained to evaluate the water quality was considered.
																								



10.
Morpho-Functional Peculiarities of Erythrocytes of Baikal Coregonid Fishes Grown in Natural and Artificial Conditions

V. M. YAKHNENKO1, I. V. KLIMENKOV1, N. P. SUDAKOV2, A. Yu. BELYSHENKO1, L. V. SUKHANOVA1, O. Yu. GLYZINA1, A. M. MAMONTOV1, Yu. P. SAPOZHNIKOVA1
1Limnological Institute, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 3
2Scientific Center of Surgery and Traumatology, 664033, Irkutsk, Bortsov Revolyutsii str., 1
Keywords: , , , , , , , . , , erythrocytes, cytometric parameters, hemoglobin, mitochondria, coregonid fishes, hybrids, Lake Baikal, freshwater aquarium complex

Abstract >>
The structure and cytometric indices of red blood cells ( RBC ), hemoglobin content ( Hb ), oxygen capacity of blood ( OCB ) of the omul, whitefish and their hybrids from Lake Baikal and grown in the Freshwater Aquarium Complex ( FAC ) were analyzed. Cytometric indicators of red blood cells of omul and whitefish from natural populations were higher than that of the same fishes from aquariums under identical conditions. The conditions of aquariums had the least effect on the form of red blood cells of Siberian whitefish and hybrids: female Siberian whitefish and male omul F1 (f Sw ´ m Om). Female Lacustrine whitefishes, that had the largest erythrocytes, determined the size of the cells in hybrids: female Lacustrine whitefish and male omul (f Lw ´ m Om). Among all the studied forms of Coregonid fishes cytometric parameters of erythrocytes of the fishes from warm aquariums were higher than that of the fishes from cold aquariums. The size of the erythrocyte nucleus in artificially propagated hybrids was smaller both in comparison to their parents from natural populations and to whitefish and omul grown in aquariums under the same conditions. Erythrocytes of the whitefish from natural populations had a pool that was 20-30 % richer in functionally active mitochondria than that of the whitefish from aquariums. Disrupted mitochondrial structure was also observed in the latter. The obtained results indicate that the peculiarities of metabolism connected with oxygen transport in the studied forms of Baikal coregonids are determined by adaptation to the conditions of the occupied ecological niches.
																								



11.
New Host Species and New Distribution Areas of Salmincola lavaretus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) - a Parasite of Coregonid Fishes of Siberia

T. G. BURDUKOVSKAYA, N. M. PRONIN
Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Sakhyanovy str., 6
Keywords: , Salmincola lavaretus, , , , , parasitic copepods, Salmincola lavaretus, nsal fossae, salmonid fishes, infestation, distribution

Abstract >>
Data on the infestation of certain fish species by the parasitic copepod Salmincola lavaretus are presented for the first time. The infested fish species included: Bauntovsky whitefish ( Coregonus baunti ), an endemic species from the Maloye and Bolshoye Kapylyushi Lakes; Siberian whitefish ( C. pidschian) and vendace ( C. sardinella) from the Bolshoye Kapylyushi Lake and the Baunt Lake which belong to the Tsypo-Tsypikan lake system (the Lena River basin, Transbaikalia); Teletsky whitefish ( C. lavaretus natio smitti ) from Teletskoe Lake (the Ob River basin). Previously, S. lavaretus had been described as a parasite of Baikal omul ( C. migratorius ) and Baikal whitefish ( C. baicalensis ) from Lake Baikal. The taxons of S. longimanus complex ( S. longimanus, S. l. sibirica, S. svetlanovi, S. lavaretus ) - parasites of nsal fossae of grayling and coregonid fishes - were registered in the lakes of the Lake Baikal basin (Lake Baikal and Khovsgol Lake), the Lena River, the Yenisei and the Ob rivers (the largest rivers of the Arctic zoogeographic province) and the Kobdo River (the Western Mongolian province). It was assumed that S. longimanus complex is more widely distributed in the water bodies of the Arctic zoogeographic province of the Palearctic.