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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2016 year, number 1

DYNAMICS OF REPRODUCTION OF THE URBAN POPULATION IN THE REGIONS OF ASIAN RUSSIA IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY

V.A. Zverev
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 28, Vilyuyskaya Str., Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: European Russia, West Siberia, East Siberia, Steppe Region, Far East, historical demography, comparative analysis, urban population, reproduction of population, natural population dynamics, death rate, birth rate, natural increase of population

Abstract

Researchers of the reproduction of Russian population pay attention to the process of natural movement of the urban population. In the early XX century the share of urban population increased in every region. The objective of this paper is to show the quantitative parametres, general characteristics and peculiarities of natural migrations of the population in certain regions of Asian Russia in the first decades of the XX century. The author considers the chronological dynamics of the situation in Western and Eastern Siberia, the Steppe krai and the Far East; compares various regions with each other and with European Russia as a demographic center of the country. Based on the the data of the General medical inspector of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian empire (1902-1914) the author for the first time in historiography calculated birth and death rates, the rate of natural increase - number of demographic events per 1,000 population in various regions. Calculation data for all years are tabulated, particularly for the years 1902-1905, 1906-1909 and 1910-1914. the dynamics is presented in three histograms. The conclusions based upon the comparative analysis of the research findings are as follows: 1) the traditional type of reproduction of the population dominated in the early XX century in European Russia and in all regions of Asian Russia implying high birth and death rates and modest natural increase; 2) natural population increase was more rapid in the east of the country, as opposed to the situation in European Russia where the demographic indicators began to decrease by the end of the XIX century; 3) certain signs of the first phase of demographic modernization manifested themselves in the cities of Asian Russia (e. g. reducing birth rate and especially death rate, higher rate of natural increase); 4) there were essential differences in character and dynamics of natural movement of urban population in various regions of Asian Russia depending on the population composition, intensity of migratory streams, level of communication of urban population with their rural environment.