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"Philosophy of Education"

2016 year, number 1


I. A. Pfanenshtil
Siberian Federal University, av. Svobodnii, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: социальные трансформации, информационное общество, мультикультурные государства, евразийский вектор, social transformation, information society, multicultural state, Eurasian vector

Abstract >>
The relevance of the article is due to a wide range of problems, which are at the heart of the social transformation brought about by globalization and the domination of information technologies, because traditional education in its version of «Western civilization», corresponding to a model of unsustainable development, is one of the most inertial-conservative systems. In recent decades, education in its global dimension no longer satisfies the needs of social life as it continues to transmit the knowledge of the industrial-consumer society, bringing closer an anthropo-ecological global catastrophe. The author focuses attention on the fact that presently the content, goals and objectives of world education is increasingly lagging behind the global trends in the information society. However, the unity of mankind can be reduced to the leading constants of human existence and can be regarded as an unchangeable state, outside history. Today, into place of the states of uniform majority there come multicultural states, i.e. the states of various minorities (social, cultural, ethnic, religious and other), which protect the historical traditions and preserve the ethnic-cultural pluralism. It is important to emphasize that the educational system cannot and should not be a value-neutral: if it does not form constructive value-semantic and socio-cultural mindsets, the vacuum is filled by spontaneously arising, often destructive life orientations. This fact cannot be ignored, because it is exactly on the powerful historical basis that the education of the East has always been founded. In this regard, strengthening the social-humanitarian component of the educational system is one of the ways of preserving by the society its humanitarian potential and ensuring decent future. It is exactly the Eurasian vector of development of education that includes the domestic standards not only in the social-philosophical understanding.


N. V. Nalivayko1,2, P. V. Ushakov3, E. V. Ushakova4
1Institute of Philosophy and Law of the RAS, st. Nikolaeva, 8, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, st. Viluiiskaya, 28, 630126, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Altai Akademy of Economics and Law, av. Komsomolskii, 86, 656000, Barnaul, Russia
4Altai State Medical University, av. Lenina, 40, 656038, 656038, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: образование, воспитание, антропосоциопланетарный кризис, экологический кризис, экономический кризис, education, antropo-social-ecoplanetary crisis, environmental crisis, economic crisis

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A general philosophical analysis of the situation created at the beginning of the XXI century leads to the conclusion that at present the planet is experiencing a catastrophic antropo-social-ecoplanetary crisis. According to the authors, to resolve the created situation, it is necessary to recognize that the task of the human being and humanity, preserving the harmony of the soul is the formation of a bio-friendly culture, protecting and creating rather than destroying the life of natural landscapes. Adoption a bio-friendly spiritual paradigm presupposes another kind of upbringing, education and value orientation of people.Only the full-value upbringing-education with the formation of a holistic, practical, predictive consciousness and conscious practical creative activity in balance with nature is able to create the necessary foundation for solving the most complex anthropo-social-natural problems. Education is the foundation of culture, a unique over-biological system of transferring social experience, a mechanism of social continuity, by which it is possible to realize the essential human forces. The modern technogenic-informational civilization has developed into a global civilization of lies and global parasitism; the main cause of the antropo-social-ecoplanetary crisis is the global catastrophic anthropic crisis. The main deformations have occurred in the person him/herself, who has turned into an anthropo-system of accumulating type; we should not forget that the humanity, mainly represented by the egocentric anthropo-systems (of the accumulation type), is transforming into a planetary parasite, consisting of a collection of anthropo-microbes destroying the surface of the living cosmic organism of the Earth-Gaia. As a result, the cosmic macro-organism, sick from anthropo-parasites, is able to produce such a defensive reaction that will destroy the parasites and sanitize the Earth-Gaia; the key goal is the restoration of a harmonious whole human being as a transforming anthropo-system. There is a vital need in the human being who has reason, spirituality and morality, who is balanced, creative as a being able to enter into a state of symbiosis with the maternal nature of the planet; the main way to restore the whole person and normal anthropo-social and socio-natural life is a ban on the destruction of education in the form and content, on the zombieing of population; restoring Russian upbringing-education on the principles of creation of an integral person and the god-and-man; restoration of the Russian Institute of Philosophy of the Human Being. The authors have determined that it is exactly as a result of the deformation of humanity that the local problems have been transformed into the global ones. The antropo-social-ecoplanetary catastrophe provoked by the deformed human being is moving around the planet and can be stopped only by the human being him/herself by means of his/her qualitative transformation, with the restoration of the intellectual moral-spiritual potential and a creative harmonizing force in the world.


T. V. Larionova
Siberian Federal University, av. Svobodnii, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: глобальное мироустройство, образовательная система, региональная устойчивость, аксиологическая региональная школа, устойчивое развитие, глобалистика, механизмы глобального управления, глобальное образовательное пространство, global world order, education system, regional stability, axiological regional school, sustainable development, global studies, the mechanisms of global governance, global educational space

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The article examines the problems associated with the peculiarities of formation of regional stability in the socio-economic terms. The author carries out a social-philosophical analysis of the specificities of development of a stability system in the region. This is of particular importance in the context of globalization, which is transforming the regional economy in many ways. The paper shows that regional stability has its own specifics in Russia and may become a viable alternative to the negative trends in the globalization tendencies of our time. The author emphasizes that regionalism is not a chaotic self-determination of societies, their own laws work there. Unfortunately, the current situation in the society contributes to the emergence of a crowd rather than the creative development of the personality. Our consumer civilization generates a threat of total depersonalization and dehumanization of the human being. According to the author, the concept of regionalization acquires a special scientific clarity and richness of the concept of regionalization acquires in the works of those scholars who connect real globalization processes with the information stage of modern scientific and technological revolution and its real influence on the development of the world economy. In this regard, the current stage of regionalization may be called transnationalization (by analogy with internationalization), but which is building over it, a new and higher sphere of the human historical existence. The author concludes that the real prospects for the sustained global-regional world order are associated with the dialectical approach to contemporary international processes. The stability of regions is provided by the impossibility of reducing the diverse social life to a common socio-cultural type, conditioned by own methods of production and reproduction of social life. The crisis of ideology of globalism is a predictable phenomenon, since it is based on the neglect of history, mentality and traditions of a great part of humanity, because its policy is based on the consumer principle of development.


D. S. Chernyi
Kurgan Border Institute of the FSB of Russia, Kyrgan-16, 640016, Russia
Keywords: информационное управление, глобальное мироустройство, информатизация общества, information control, global order, informatization of society

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The relevance of studying the social-philosophical features of the of information control of the global world of information management is due to the formation of fundamentally new, essential, necessary and sufficient characteristics of social evolution, which are fundamentally different from the ones existing earlier and recognized as universal. The author shows that an important factor, shaping the modern management system, is the computer orientation of the society’s information culture, that informatization of the society will be a dominant component of the development of civilization at the stage of building the global information society. The problem of the modern world order is that global power is not limited by any form of state, including the power over the states themselves. Globalism acts as the opposition of the minority of people which has reached the highest mobility to the inert majority. The problem of management of the international community which is becoming more and more chaotic is aggravated by the fact that in modern conditions the nation-state has ceased to be the only subject of international relations. The socio-informational component is firstly reflected in the variety of direct and inverse system connections in the process of integrated civilized development of the community; secondly, in the circulation of the systemic information flows, and most importantly, in the organization and management of the assimilation of the dosages of needed information to achieve the development of the individual, family, work collective, community in time, space and at different levels of the state and social system.


I. G. Borisenko1, M. P. Yatsenko1, S. I. Chernykh2
1Siberian Federal University, av. Svobodnii, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, st. Dobrolybova, 160, 630039, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: информационное общество, электронное обучение, информационная политика, образовательная политика, глобальное образование, information society, e-learning, information policy, education policy, global education

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The relevance of this article is due to the fact that today the technological development of the leading educational institutions in the world has reached the level where the further development of the information base does not bring a new quality. This poses a fundamentally new set of problems not only to the philosophy of education, but also to the entire social philosophy. The goal of this article is to analyze the information policy in education in the conditions of formation of a new global world order, with the emphasis on the specific features of e-learning. Education community and the community of students are not converged into one another so that we can claim that they together form some integrity. The reasons for this, according to the authors, is that the information policy in any educational system is connected both with the technical capabilities of the educational institution and with the world-view potential of teachers. One of the most difficult problems of formation of information policy in the educational system is the pedagogical conservatism, which postulates the traditional teaching methods, and this provokes inertness of transition to an informational education based on innovations, usage of new information technologies, modern achievements of the economy, science and pedagogical thought. Modern information policy in the field of education is conditioned, on one hand, by the need for integration into the global educational space by means of modern information technologies, on the other, on the importance of preserving the social and cultural identity.


O. O. Andronnikova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Str. Viluiskaya, 28, 630126, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: виктимность, геополитика, глобализация, образовательная среда, модернизация, victimization, geopolitics, globalization, educational environment, modernization

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The article focuses on the security of educational space in modern geopolitical conditions. The article considers the influence of the macro-social processes on the victimization-related changes in modern society. The purpose of the article is to analyze the interaction between geopolitics and global studies, as well as their impact on the education system in Russia. The article presents an analysis of the main changes associated with the transformation of modern society, reveals the victimization-related impact of globalization on modern education, the specificity of expansion of foreign norms and values exhibited by the hegemon and their impact on the modernization of education taking place in Russia. Qualitative changes in the Russian education system, leading to the need to modernize the system, are indicated. The risks and threats associated with geopolitical processes that lead to a breach of security of the educational environment and its victimization are identified. Specific characteristics and needs of modern society, determining the model of development of Russian education with taking into account security issues are indicated. The basic regularities of the geopolitical influence and its consequences on the basis of the specifics and location of a state, as well as the basic trends in the field of education are revealed. The effects of collision between two global macro processes which victimize the social environments are described. Some basic statements are formulated, based on which it is possible to describe the current state of the processes of the educational space victimization and to find ways to reduce victimization. We consider the effects of macro-social processes, including changes in the functioning of the higher mental functions of the human being, his/her mental characteristics and communications structure. Attention is paid to the phenomenon of intellectual passivity, which lies in the foundation of the structural changes related to victimization.


D. V. Ushakov, V. G. Kostyuk
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the SB of RAS, st. Nikolaeva, 8, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: молодежь, этническая идентичность, российская идентичность, профессия, русская культура, межэтнические установки, образование, духовная безопасность, youth, ethnic identity, Russian identity, profession, Russian culture, interethnic mindsets, education, spiritual security

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The article examines the difference in the degree of ethnic and Russian identity of the young people choosing professions in the field of culture and industry. We determine the influence of some factors - family, gender, traditions, interethnic mindsets - on the formation of ethnic (Russian) identity of the future masters of Russian culture: schoolchildren, students of secondary special and higher educational institutions of Novosibirsk, which are intending to work in the field of culture and art. In particular, we note that among Russian youth the ethnic nihilism is most clearly manifested among those choosing professions in the field of art and culture, whereas it is least manifested among the youth choosing the professions of industrial sphere. Meanwhile, if we proceed from the concept of culture as the soul of the people, then in the conditions of multinational Russia involved in the process of globalization, the trend of decreasing the ethnic self-consciousness of the Russians, and especially of the culture professionals who are called to form and develop the Russian identity, is highly undesirable in the aspect of national security. The expediency is justified of realization of the interdisciplinary research project «the Concept of ethno-national educational and cultural policy in Russia in the conditions of globalization», an important part of which is the issue of Russian culture and Russian education.


E. V. Pokasova
Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS, st. Nikolaeva, 8, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: поликультурный мир, полиэтнические государства, роль и возможности образования, мультикультурное образование, multicultural world, multiethnic states, role and potentialities of education, multicultural education

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The modern world has become multiethnic and multicultural due to several reasons: the globaliza-tion processes, intensive migration flows, mixture of languages, cultures, interethnic marriages, informa-tional opportunities and mass-media - all these markers of the present day have led to the fact that there are practically no states with a uniform ethnic composition and cultural code. Nevertheless, modern re-searchers discuss a certain renaissance of ethnicity during the last decades of the past and present centu-ries. These differently directed tendencies are revealed, on one side, in the desire and intention of individual ethnical groups and their representatives to reproduce ethnical and cultural peculiarities, traditions, and, on the other side, the interethnic disagreements, clashes and the appearance of extremist movements are based on the same appeals. In the present article, an analysis is carried out of the named tendencies and also the role of educa-tion is substantiated in leveling the negative processes during interaction between representatives of dif-ferent ethnical groups and cultures. In reality, the multicultural education faces the problem of formation of the person, capable of active and effective life activity in the polyethnic, polycultural society, the person having a feeling of understanding and respect toward other cultures, a skill of living in peace and harmony with the people of different nationalities, races and faiths. It is concluded that education can adequately respond to these chal-lenges. To achieve it, we need to actively participate in the processes of modern generation’s adaptation to multiethnic surrounding; to build positive attitude towards cultural differences and the ability to integrate; to foster upbringing in a way of tolerance, equal interethnic communication; to promote awareness of positive values of ethnic and national culture; to foster conscious attitude and positive acceptance of one’s own history and respect towards history and culture of other ethnicities; to form of one’s own positive ethnical identity.


A. V. Shilovtsev
Ural State Economic University, st. 8 marta, 620144, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: социальная безопасность личности, расширение образовательного пространства, глобальный мир, social security of the person, expansion of educational space, global world

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The relevance of the article is conditioned by the fact that the modern infor-mation technologies have fundamentally changed the relationship between the sub-jects of the educational process, due to the expansion of educational space, whereas the digital divide creates a tension in the society, which is especially evident at the level of the educational system. Presently, the Western variant of social development is being imposed around the world as an exemplar, where the quality of the education received is determined, first of all, by the developed skills and abilities for solving applied problems. On this road the domestic education system faces the new challenges and dangers. The fact is that new value-related social realities pose new requirements to the upbringing of the specialist: new personality traits are needed for success. The guarantees of social security of the individual in the modern education system are based on the level of social relations. The author shows that the problem of social security of the individual in the modern education system is also due to separation from the local contexts of social practices, which naturally leads to gradual alienation of other social practices too from their historical roots. The study of the problem of social security of the individual in modern educa-tion allows concluding that the person trying to engage in social creativity outside of spiritual and cultural development, solely within the framework of social engineering is doomed to reproduction or destruction. Beyond the spiritual culture the person cannot become a true subject and an actual participant of social creativity. Outside of spiritual culture, he/she will always remain only an object for manipulation, doomed to increasing social alienation and, ultimately, degradation and death.


S. L. Ivashevsky
Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, st. Ankudinovskoe shosse, 3, 603950, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Keywords: политика памяти, коллективная память, образование, идентичность, politics of memory, collective memory, education, identity

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The article describes the features of implementation of the politics of memory in the system of the domestic education in different historical periods in the life of Russian society. The education system is presented as an important subject of the politics of memory, the role of which is amplified in the periods of spiritual crisis and the loss of national-cultural identity. The historical features are revealed of the politics of memory in the formation of the monarchical, Soviet and modern Russia. The modern objectives of education related to the formation of a new politics of memory are defined. In the conditions of formation of a new politics of memory and the clashes of traditions and innovations in this process, the education values can be a factor of their harmonization and further co-development. The traditional values and the new ones, resulted from socio-cultural changes, find common grounds in education being directed by the idea of perfection of the human being and society. The presence of a unifying idea distinguishes education from the ideological ambiguity that characterizes modern politics. Thus, the role of education seems important in the modern politics of memory. The modern politics of memory must proceed from the understanding of education as a sphere, embodying the socio-cultural unity and asserting the idea of historical and cultural unity of the Russian people by the entire strength of pedagogical influence. Philosophy of education, the entire complex of sciences about education acquire the status of a theoretical foundation of the modern politics of memory. Their role in the selection of historical-cultural information, in the development of value priorities, models and forms of collective remembrance must be regarded as an organic part of solving the problem of recreation a nationally oriented politics of memory, reflecting the interests of contemporary Russian society.


Ya. S. Turbovskoy
Academy of Pedagogical and Social Sciences, St. Milutinskii, 101000, Moskow, Russia
Keywords: педагогика, Ленин, революция, отечественное образование, pedagogy, Lenin, revolution, domestic education

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In the article, the author considers the personality of Lenin and the influence of his activity on the humanity from the standpoint of pedagogy. The author comes to a conclusion that Lenin for domestic education is an experience which was historically lived and was dearly-bought by humanity, a special world of the set goals and the ways to achieve them, which allows to see how difficult and sometimes tragic it is to solve the problems put forward by life and how great is the responsibility of everyone who takes on responsibility to lead people.


A. O. Karpov
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, st. 2-ya Baumanskaia, 5, 105005, Moskow, Russia
Keywords: образование, античность, современность, развитие, эпистема деятельности, исследовательское обучение, education, antiquity, present time, development, episteme of activity, research education

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The article is devoted to the ontological level of the phenomenon of "education" that generates the development prospects and a cultural core of the society life. As a prerequisite for the research, M. Heidegger’s propositions have been taken regarding the ontological grounds of modern education and the association of its understanding with the Greek thought. Based on the analysis of the ancient episteme of activity (i.e., the system of ideas about forms and ways of knowledge usage), the principles are explicated, which define the ontological horizon of modern education development. The area of multi-sector system of education is shown, which is becoming today a recipient and bearer of these principles. The methodological basis of the conducted research is the hermeneutic study of primary sources of antiquity: the writings by Xenophon, Plato, and Aristotle, the results of which are projected onto the modern educational situation. The principles of the antique tέχνη (techne, Latin) are used as ontological components of this projection: correlation of knowledge with the world of real objects, combination of theoretical understanding of arts with practice, value mediation of activities through the attitude to truth, creativity of activities. Based on the analysis of the antique techne concept, the opportunities are revealed of the advanced understanding of the teaching and cognition technologization. The prospects of the development of a paradigmatically-differentiated system of modern education as a location of the cognitive-cultural diversity generation are considered. The characteristic of the activity episteme of a research education locus is given, the initial ideas of which were articulated in the writings of I. Kant, W. Humboldt, K. Jaspers. It is shown that in research education, the academic technologism becomes a meta-notion, which relies on: a) a complex instrumental-temporal structure of interrelated cognitive methods and techniques of teaching based on academic operationalization of research; b) a complex of open science-cognitive problems developed at different stages of learning; c) specific configurations of creative and discursive sides of an educational cognitive action, dynamics of socio-cognitive growth and problem-cognitive personality trajectories; d) an educational infrastructure and collectives «producing» knowledge. Here the academic technologism becomes scientific-innovational. With this, the episteme of research education is characterized through the principles of ancient techne, as follows: 1) research education transfers disciplinary knowledge into the world of real objects, which imposes on them the condition of authenticity, which means that cognition takes the road of truth; 2) technologization of acquired knowledge occurs, i.e. the knowledge becomes able to be implemented as an activity in specialized contexts and to impart the sociocultural objectifying sense to educational practices, and in addition, the empirical activity acquires its theory; 3) cognition gets its justification in the value dimension, both as a productive activity producing «things» useful for the world and as an internal, creative personality growth; 4) education turns into creativity in the sense of generating new knowledge and its integrating into reality, i.e. it becomes an act of innovation for a cognizing subject.


T. A. Tsytskun
Kuban State University, st. Stavropolsraya, 149, 350040, Krasnodar, Russia
Keywords: глобализация, Россия, экономическое возрождение, глобализационные процессы, globalization, economic revival of Russia, the globalization processes

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The author of the article shows that the economy of the global world requires a special methodology for its study, which should take into account the interests not only of the elite, the so-called civilized countries, but also the specificities of the regional world, the prevailing socio-economic traditions, mentality, and so on. The article analyzes the situation that has arisen in modern economics education. The author shows that many of the problems of the educational sphere are determined by the general uncertainty that exists in the economy of not only Russia but also of the entire world. At the heart of this policy, which is aimed at destatization (education is positioned as a private affair of the student), there are the liberal concepts of «free market». The educational reform has the anti-state character and sets the tone of anti-social economics education. The idea, on which all the educational changes of the last three decades are based, presupposes the positioning of the state, society and the individual as self-sufficient antipodes. When designing a new system of economics education, it is also important to take into consideration that the former opposition between state and market in the developed countries no longer makes sense: both the state and the market occupy a certain place in the socio-economic system, perform their unique functions and exist in inseparable unity. The author substantiates a social need for development of a new economics education due to intensification of the globalization processes in the modern world, which involve the Russian Federation too. However, the Russian scientists have to take into account as much as possible the domestic experience of economic management, as well as to revive the unique theoretical works of Russian thinkers.


S. V. Kamashev
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, st. Viluiisskaya 28, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: образование, российская экономика, тенденции развития, нестабильность, рынок труда, экономические риски, education, Russian economy, development trends, instability, labor market, economic risks

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A defining subsystem of the society is its economic sphere, which creates the material-financial conditions for the functioning of education. Here there are also formed the main risks arising from the state of economy. The specific sources of risk are sharp polarization of the population, differences between regions in terms of economic development, underfunding of education, exchange rate fluctuations, uncontrolled inflation, a sharp change in the rate of technological development, instability in the level of supply and demand in the labor market, and others. In the article, there are considered from the standpoint of social philosophy (in the aspect of security issues of domestic education) the economic factors, the direction of influence of the economy on the state of education and the causes of economic risks. The present state of the Russian economy is analyzed, as well as its development trends in terms of the main performance parameters, including the implementation of social programs. The article also highlights the main internal and external risks in education due to the state of economy, and the ways are justified of their neutralization by means of educational policy of the state and the possibilities of educational institutions.


A. G. Madzhuga, I. A. Sinitsina, S. H. Asadullina, E. F. Asadullin
Bashkir State University, st. Zaki Vladi, 32, 450076, Ufa, Russia
Keywords: методология, социально-гуманитарное знание, постнеклассическая научная рациональность, фрактал, резонанс, сознание, фрактально-резонансный подход, квантовый подход, принципы, квантовые феномены, квантовая психология, индивидуальная картина мира, нелинейный характер развития личности, многомерность, methodology, social-humanitarian knowledge, post-nonclassical scientific rationality, fractal, resonance, consciousness, the resonance-fractal approach, the quantum approach, principles, quantum phenomena, quantum psychology, individual picture of the world, non-linear nature of the development of the personality, multidimensionality

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In the perspective of post-nonclassical scientific paradigm, there arises in the methodology of modern social-humanitarian knowledge the desire to include into the explanatory schemes the category of the human being, which makes it possible to analyze such interdisciplinary phenomena as subjectness, individuality, personality, «spiritual Self», consciousness, conscience, morality. Explanation of the nature of these definitions requires philosophical reflection, reinterpretation of methodological approaches in modern social-humanitarian knowledge in general. The article discusses the relationship of fractal resonance and quantum approaches that could serve as an explanatory principle of phenomena related to acquiring the social and cultural experience in the educational process. Describing the characteristics of the person as a multidimensional phenomenon, the authors present him/her as an informational self-similar structure that permeates the physical body and is a source of non-linear fractals, interacting with the world and itself according to the resonance principle. Based on this conceptual position, they first formulate the essential characteristics of the fractal-resonance and quantum approaches in relation to the field of social-humanitarian knowledge. Turning to the methodology of the above approaches, the authors present and describe a system of principles on which their implementation in modern education is based. The study summarizes and systematizes the experience of domestic and foreign scientists, which allows creating a holistic view of the methodological possibilities of fractal-resonance and quantum approaches in education. A special attention can be paid to the formulated and theoretically substantiated by the authors system of principles of fractal-resonance and quantum approaches, which allows translating the sociocultural experience in the educational process, and which is based on the laws of quantum mechanics and the theory of fractals. An apparent merit of this article is conceptualization of the ideas of quantum psychology and fractal pedagogy and the rationale for their use in the field of modern education. In the comparative analysis, the author suggests that the «reality» of the classical world includes a number of alternative worlds, which bear the traits of self-similarity, whereas most of them have fully fractal, scale-invariant forms. In the context of principles of the fractal-resonance approach, it is justified that the reality and consciousness are a single whole, where the consciousness can be seen as the relationship between the fractal structures of internal and external worlds of the human being, whereas the quantum approach makes it possible to fully identify how the mental, the ideal are related to the material, the physical, the bodily.


M. A. Petrov
Siberian Federal University, av. Svobodnii, 79, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: творчество, творческий процесс, творческая деятельность, образование, образовательный процесс, система образования, эвристическое образование, художественный образ, обучение, воспитание, информация, знание, creativity, creative process, creative activity, education, educational process, education system, heuristic education, artistic image, training, upbringing, information, knowledge

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The article reveals the ontological and gnoseological relationship between the categories of «creativity» and «education» in the historical-philosophical context. We study the essence of the concept of «image» in education and creativity. The main problem areas of the modern educational process are touched upon and the ways to resolve them through a heuristic model of training and a creative approach in education are outlined. A general line of development of the modern education system is the creation of necessary conditions for the full realization of a broad and flexible creative thinking of the individual in the context of integration of educational realities. Only a creatively oriented education can bring up unconventionally thinking people in the diverse fields of knowledge. The author shows that a creative approach to education is determined by a holistic perception of the creative subject, where the unconscious personality characteristics, being a prerequisite for creative activity, are no less important than rational thinking, which in turn causes blurring of the boundaries between training and upbringing. It is only through creative activity as a generalizing element of educational paradigm that it becomes possible a comprehensive understanding and nonstandard solution of educational and everyday problems of different complexity, the development of cognitive independence and search activity of the person.


V. M. Reznikov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the RAS, st. Nikolaeva, 8, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: адекватность математической дисциплины, теория вероятностей, математическая и прикладная статистика, философия и методология науки, adequacy of mathematical discipline, theory of probability, mathematical and applied statistics, methodology and philosophy of science

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The article is devoted to the problem of adequacy of mathematics. This problem is a significant and interdisciplinary one; it covers pure mathematics, applied mathematics, philosophy and methodology of science, pedagogics and etc. There exist purely philosophical approaches to the problem of adequacy of mathematics, which are primarily based on the thesis of indispensability of mathematics in the best and successful natural science theories. However, in our opinion, they have no value for real applications. Firstly, the vast majority of scientific disciplines are not formalized ones. Secondly, less than one percent of all scientific problems are solved on the basis of theories. Thirdly, even in physics the role of theories is restricted only to theoretical problems, while the explanation of concrete physical phenomena requires the use of empirical laws and models of physical theories. The work objective consists in carrying out a methodological analysis of real applications of applied mathematical statistics. The fact is that, in spite of massive application of mathematics in practically all branches of knowledge, modern formal apparatus does not fully conform to the correct application of mathematics. The known conditions of application of mathematics are not stringent, and the correct use of mathematics is rather an art than a science. The problems of correct and effective use of mathematics are topical, because they are important for scientific practice; however, they have not received sufficient attention in the philosophical and methodological literature. The basic idea of the work consists in the demonstration of effectiveness of methodological analysis in the context of real applications of mathematics. In the article, the requirements to application of a mathematical discipline are formulated on the basis of a suggested notion of a basic property of the mathematical discipline. Since the set of the requirements is not complete, a strategy is proposed directed on widening and refinement of the requirements of using mathematics. The strategy consists in defining properties of mathematical objects facilitating or preventing the usage of mathematical apparatus. As a result of this work, the notion of adequacy of mathematical discipline, in particular, of applied statistics is made more precise. The difficulties of application of applied statistics cause the appearance of new promising directions in statistics. All known potentials of applied mathematical statistics is, in some way, connected with the development of general and applied statistical ideas. However, the advancement of the statistical science in general requires improving the methodology of teaching the statistical disciplines and realizing the organizational modification of statistical bodies.


G. G. Granatov
Magnitogorsk State Technical University, st. Lenina, 38, 455000, Magnitogorsk, Russia
Keywords: контроль, профессионально-педагогическое мышление, концепция дополнительности, программирование, понятие, рефлексия, диагностика, развивающее образование, control, professional-pedagogical thinking, concept of complementarity, programming, notion, reflection, diagnostics, developing education

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The author of the article notes that presently, in connection with the introduction of distant education in domestic higher education institutions, a necessity has appeared of widespread usage of standardized testing. Tests, together with some advantages (assessment of erudition, the ability to update the knowledge, training of mechanical memory, etc.), have significant shortcomings: formal and not always information-essential and significant questions or tasks and formalized variants of answers that do not touch the essence of the question (task), are weakly connected with its content and reflect only the formal side of it. In addition, according to the author, the main danger of using such variants is «guessing» of the correct answers or their selection by eliminating absurd or random variants. These tests do not focus on the development of cognitive abilities of pupils and simultaneous complementary implementation of element-wise and operation-wise analysis and control of knowledge and skills, multiplying its didactic function. According to the author, the right combination of questions and possible responses to them, which go beyond the topic (including the applied-type questions), allows using programmed exercises to make the contents of control tests meet the challenges of the thinking development. The programmed response options constitute a system of «reference points», which are outlined in the preparation of a task and through which the student’s thinking moves. Such variants of answers determined a program of their mental activity. The programmed variants of answers define the boundaries of the area of mental actions, point to objects or certain aspects of the same object, on which the thought should be focused, set the direction and sequence of transition of thought from one object to another in the initial phase, promote the penetration of thought into the essence of the object (into the concept of it). The article highlights the general requirements for the preparation of programmed exercises, their questions and answers. An example of programmed exercise is given, devoted to the problematic study, develop and control of the mastering by future social workers, teachers and methodologists of an integrative concept of professional-pedagogical thinking.


K. A. Kravchenko, O. V. Shalyapin
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, st. Vilyuiskaua, 630126, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: педагогическая установка, профессиональное восприятие, рисунок натюрморта, поисковые форэскизы, упражнения, pedagogical mindset, professional perception, still life drawing, search brief sketches, exercises

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The authors note that at the basis of training in the academic drawing at the art departments of pedagogical higher education institutions there is an organized process of scientific cognition, and also mastering the methodological knowledge of academic drawing. An instrument of control of the process of training in drawing is a pedagogical mindset, which allows awakening students’ purposeful vision of nature dictated by specific educational objectives, and also the personal-evaluative attitude to the depicting process. The pedagogical mindset helps to form consistently and gradually the professional competences of the drawing artist, since it is obvious that every time the process of image creation is followed by certain purposes and tasks of visual perception. It is exactly the purpose mindset that creates a certain form of mental organization of activity, causing mobility of perception and activity of formation of graphic representations, which allows finding the basic direction for the solution of graphic tasks. Moreover, the number of mindsets is determined by the quantity of stages of work on the image and methodical sequence of complication of training material. In the article the statement is substantiated that the basic method of training in the academic drawing and comprehension of the graphic literacy is a research method. Its essence is conditioned by its functions: on the basis of purposeful observation, the professional art perception is formed; the consecutive assimilation of knowledge is organized, that is the known knowledge, acquired at the early stages of training, is applied to the solution of more complex problems; and, as a result of such solution, new knowledge is obtained, and also mastering the methods of scientific and art cognition in the process of graphic activity is provided, that is, the initial conception in the academic drawing is realized. In the art-pedagogical education this process traditionally begins with the depicting of a still life, which is an especially valuable object for cognition of the foundations of the graphic literacy, visually and lucidly demonstrating various regularities of forms in space and their composite interaction. The authors suggest training in still life drawing, using a complex of consistently complicating tasks: the search, short-term-training and long-term-creative tasks. As a result, each academic task will be presented by one complete work and a series of brief sketches and exercises, the stages of studying of theoretical and practical questions of the graphic literacy.


K. A. Kravchenko1, N. P. Golovacheva2
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, st. Vilyuiskaua, 630126, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Omsk State Pedagogical University, st. Naberejnaya Tuxathevskogo, 14, Omsk, Russia
Keywords: система изображения, гармония, ритм, пространственно-ритмическая система изображения, system of the image, harmony, rhythm, spatial-rhythmic system of depiction

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The authors analyze the ways of graphic representation, which are developing in the course of evolution of fine arts, changing the character, contents, principles and organizational forms. Modern scientists, on the basis of analysis of the specificities of perception of form in the course of drawing, offer the following classification of the systems of depiction: a conditional- schematic, contour-schematic, constructive- spatial, spatial-plastic, and associative-tone ones. It is noted in the article that the process of training in drawing is based on development of the graphic representation systems and in accordance with them. Historically first was the system of conditional-schematic image based on perception of the main features of natural object and reproduction of these features in drawing (rock paintings of ancient people, canons of Ancient Egypt, Medieval art, Old Russian art); whereas schematism of the image is a manifestation of the process of consecutive simplification of form. The system of the contour-schematic depiction which was developed in the art of Ancient Greece assumes the differentiated mastering of elementary regularities of the image. At that, a vision of interrelation of reference points is formed at the planar perception of a volume form, the ability to analysis and comparison of proportions develops, there appears accuracy of reproduction in the depiction of contour of a form by means of linear perspective. The artists of Renaissance identified as the main task of the drawing artist the scientific- analytical work which is focused on cognition of construction, the essence of form-creation, and is a process of cognition of the images of natural objects. The authors note that even today the scientific-methodical ideas of the artists of Renaissance are the necessary base for the design of modern innovative techniques and give a possibility to develop new systems of depiction. The task of modern teacher in the course of training in drawing is to direct the attention of the student from live observation to abstraction, from the external form of nature to its design, proportions, the internal rhythmic organization, directing the academic drawing to the development of spatial-rhythmic system of depiction which manifests itself in harmonious creation of a drawing on the basis of rhythm.


L. G. Medvedev1, S. P. Lomov2
1Omsk State Pedagogical University, st. Naberejnaya Tuxathevskogo, 14, Omsk, Russia
2Moskow Pedagogical State University, st. Malaya Pirogovskaya, 1/1, Moskow, Russia
Keywords: композиция, грамота, творчество, эмоциональность, образность, замысел, гармоничность, composition, literacy, creativity, emotionality, imagery, vision, harmony

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The article raises the problem of forming a creative approach to compositional knowledge, based on emotionally-shaped perception, the formation of the original plan, which determines the general direction of the depictive actions of the artist. A competent composition is to be based on the time-proved fundamental laws of composition, drawing and painting, which have been formulated by artists during centuries-old history of development of fine arts. The authors focus attention on the fact that the composition process is characterized, first of all, by a creative beginning which cannot be regulated only by the knowledge of objective rules of realistic depiction. The creative beginning of any composition starts with the birth of a subjective plan which is in many respects caused by the emotional-image-bearing factor forming an esthetic component of the composition and its expressiveness. It is the emotional-image-bearing component that intensifies the cognitive and creative processes. The following major principles are considered as indisputable compositional components: commensuration and proportionality, integrity and hierarchy, balance and rhythm, unity and analogy, contrast and nuance, symmetry and asymmetry, wholeness and harmony. The authors note that for the professional artist the knowledge of laws, rules, as well as mastering of techniques and means of composition is connected, at the subconscious level, with the realization of an art-figurative plan in dialectic unity of the content and the graphic form. At the same time, the compositional work of students is often defined only by the logic of the teacher’s directions and depends on the formal signs connected with existence of initial skills of depiction and also with the level of the formed perception for the image. And here it is important to pay attention to the fact that carrying out a specific compositional task in the educational process does not presuppose the existence of a unique correct solution, because to fulfill the task, each trainee is required to produce his/her own original versions of solution. This is what determines a creative nature of this activity. Composition in the fine arts is a two-in-one process of formation of a mental image and the process of material realization of this image on the graphic plane; thus, any image needs to be perceived in two aspects: the semantic and spatial-plastic ones. In the educational process it is expressed in revealing the semantic content of a subject of future composition, formation of an artistic conception on its basis and designing a methodical sequence of performing the work on composition taking into account application of the composition laws, methods of image construction and artistic image creation.