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Avtometriya

2016 year, number 1

1.
ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL SATELLITE IMAGES OF NATURAL AND MAN-MADE AREAS

S. M. Borzov1, A. O. Potaturkin1, O. I. Potaturkin1,2, A. M. Fedotov2,3
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование Земли, гиперспектральные изображения, классификация типов поверхностей, спектр отражения, remote sensing, hyperspectral images, classification of surface types, reflection spectrum

Abstract >>
The efficiency of a number of the classical methods of supervised classification of hyperspectral data is estimated by an example of discriminating the types of the underlying surface in natural and man-made areas. The minimum distance, support vector machine, Mahalanobis, and maximum likelihood methods are considered. Particular attention is paid to studying the dependence of the data classification accuracy on the number of spectral features and the way of choosing them in the above-mentioned methods. Experimental results obtained by processing real hyperspectral images of landscapes of various types are reported.
																								



2.
ALGORITHM OF IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION IN THE PROBLEM OF OBJECT DETECTION DURING CIRCULAR MICROSCANNING

V. S. Kirichuk1,2, A. K. Shakenov1
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: моделирование изображений, круговое микросканирование, малоразмерные объекты, image simulation, circular microscanning, small-size objects

Abstract >>
A model of image recording in the circular microscanning regime is considered. An algorithm that allows obtaining an image with a large number of samples from a set of smaller-size frames for a known path of the scanning array is proposed. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the changes in the amplitude of a small-size object with a static position of the photodetector array and microscanning in the start/stop mode. The influence of the gap between the array elements and scanning radius on the object amplitude is studied. The final ratio of the object amplitude to the random noise level in the case of static accumulation and circular microscanning in the start/stop mode are compared for arrays with different sizes of the gap between the array elements.
																								



3.
USING GRADIENT TENSORS OF THE SECOND AND THIRD ORDERS FOR SEGMENTATION OF IMAGES CONTAINING TEXTURES WITH STRUCTURAL REDUNDANCY

I. S. Gruzman
Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: текстурные признаки, градиентные структурные тензоры второго и третьего порядков, структурная избыточность, textural features, structural gradient tensors of the second and third orders, structural redundancy

Abstract >>
This papers describes the effectiveness of textural features on the basis of gradient tensors in the problem of segmentation of images containing textures with structural redundancy. It is shown that the use of the bank of Gaussian bandpass filters in the formation of a feature space which is invariant to shifts and rotations of textures improves the performance of the segmentation algorithm. Examples demonstrating the application of textural features to the problem of segmentation with an unknown number of texture classes contained in the image are presented.
																								



4.
GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST BASED ON THE INTERVAL ESTIMATION

E. L. Kuleshov
Far Eastern Federal University, ul. Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok, 690950 Russia
Keywords: критерий согласия, статистическая гипотеза, интервальная оценка, функция распределения вероятностей, коэффициент доверия, goodness-of-fit test, statistical hypothesis, interval estimation, probability distribution function, confidence factor

Abstract >>
A new goodness-of-fit test constructed with the use of the interval estimation of the probability distribution function is proposed. A comparative analysis of this test with the Kolmogorov test is carried out. It is shown that it is possible to select the correct distribution function and the hypothetical function different from it so that the proposed goodness-of-fit test can have a significantly better performance than the Kolmogorov test. The presented numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical conclusions.
																								



5.
ANALYSIS OF MODIFICATION OF THE ENERGY METHOD OF PASSIVE RANGING

Yu. G. Bulychev1, S. S. Ivakina1, A. A. Mozol’2, I. G. Nasenkov3
1JSC All-Russian Scientific Research Institute “Gradient”, pr. Sokolova 96, Rostov-on-Don, 344000 Russia
2Scientific and Production Association “Special Equipment and Communication” Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, ul. Dobrovolskogo 11/7, Rostov-on-Don, 344000 Russia
3Consolidated Group “Radio-Electronic Technologies”, ul. Goncharnaya 20/1, str. 1, Moscow, 109240 Russia
Keywords: дальнометрия, энергетический метод, рабочая зона, модель движения, дисперсия ошибки оценивания, метод наименьших квадратов, ranging, energy method, working region, motion model, estimation error variance, least squares method

Abstract >>
With regard to the problems of passive ranging, one of the modifications of the wellknown energy method for determining the range to an emitting target with partially known motion parameters on the basis of a single receiving point is developed. The problem is solved using solely the measurements of the power (amplitude) of the received signal on a predetermined time grid with no account for direction-finding data. The analytical dependences allowing for exploration of the working region of the method are obtained. An algorithm for the formation of the resulting ranging estimate in the current time taking into consideration the measurement redundancy is constructed. The results of computational experiments that confirm the possibility of practical implementation of the proposed modifications of the energy method are presented. The recommendations on the use of the results obtained in multipoint systems of passive location are given.
																								



6.
ALGORITHM OF TRACKING OF INTERSECTING OBJECTS BASED ON A SEQUENCE OF DEPTH IMAGES

V. A. Kulikov1,2
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: трассировка, дальностное изображение, сегментация, социальное поведение животных, tracking, depth image, segmentation, social behavior of animals

Abstract >>
A problem of tracking of a group of identical objects with a variable shape and a large number of occlusions is considered. This problem is important for biology and safety systems. An algorithm of detection and tracking of biological objects on the basis of a sequence of depth images is proposed. Being tested, the algorithm provides one mistake per 193 collisions for the worst sequence.
																								



7.
METHOD OF FACE RECOGNITION WITH THE USE OF SCALAR PERTURBATION FUNCTIONS AND A SET-THEORETIC OPERATION OF SUBTRACTION

S. I. Vyatkin
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: стереопара, карта глубины, алгоритм корреляции, функции возмущения, операция вычитания, вокселизация, stereo pair, depth map, correlation algorithm, perturbation functions, operation of subtraction, voxelization

Abstract >>
The problem of face recognition is discussed. For this purpose, a method based on scalar perturbation functions and a set-theoretic operation of subtraction is proposed. It is shown that all surface points and the mask volume are used in the process of sample testing for more accurate identification.
																								



8.
METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE SHRINKAGE PARAMETERS OF HOLOGRAPHIC PHOTOPOLYMER MATERIALS

E. F. Pen1,2, I. A. Zarubin1, V. V. Shelkovnikov3,4, E. V. Vasil’ev3
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
3Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrent’eva 9, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
4Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Keywords: голография, регистрирующие среды, фотополимерные материалы, отражательные голограммы, усадка, holography, recording media, photopolymer materials, reflection holograms, shrinkage

Abstract >>
A method has been developed to determine the shrinkage parameters of holographic photopolymer materials (including changes in the mean refractive index and thickness of the recording layer) during hologram recording with a measurement error acceptable for practical applications of these materials. Experimental verification of the method has proved its efficiency.
																								



9.
OPTIMAL ARRANGEMENT OF ACTUATORS FOR SQUARE MIRRORS WITH FREE EDGES

D. M. Lyakhov
Luch Research and Production Association, ul. Zheleznodorozhnaya 24, Podolsk, 142100 Russia
Keywords: собственные колебания, несмещённый план, регрессионный анализ, адаптивная оптика, систематическая погрешность, волновой фронт, natural vibrations, unbiased design, regression analysis, adaptive optics, bias, wavefront

Abstract >>
It has been shown that the problem of optimal actuator placement for adaptive square mirrors can be reduced to the analytical solution using elements of the theory of unbiased designs for the natural vibrations of a square plate with free edges. A stochastic model for the wavefront has been developed using regression analysis. Formulas are given for calculating the bias in working-out the desired optical surface geometry of an adaptive mirror.
																								



10.
SIMPLE POSITIONER WITH NANOMETER REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE FOCUSED LIGHT BEAM POSITION ON AN OBJECT

S. N. Atutov1,2, A. S. Kuch’yanov1, V. A. Sorokin1,2, A. I. Plekhanov1
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: позиционер, юстирование, воспроизводимость, positioner, adjustment, reproducibility

Abstract >>
A simple positioner, which allows one to ensure the position of a focused light beam on an object with nanometer precision and reproducibility, is proposed and studied. It can be used for positioning of focused beams (in particular, laser beams) on surfaces of optical fibers, biological objects, optical disks, thin film modulators, and holographic memory systems in the micrometer and nanometer ranges.
																								



11.
METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF AN ANTIRELAXATION COATING IN OPTICAL CELLS

K. A. Nasyrov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: магнитооптический резонанс, поляризация излучения, оптические уравнения Блоха, magneto-optical resonance, light polarization, optical Bloch equations

Abstract >>
A simple method is proposed to determine the quality of antirelaxation coatings of the walls of vacuum optical cells containing alkali metal vapors. The method involves recording the time dependence of the fluorescence intensity of alkali atoms during exposure of the cell by resonant radiation pulses. Theory predicts that to determine the coating quality, it is sufficient to know the fluorescence decay rate and the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at the beginning and end of the pulse laser.
																								



12.
OPTICAL BISTABILITY IN A SYSTEM OF MOLECULAR J-AGGREGATES AND GOLD NANOPARTICLES

A. A. Zabolotskii
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: наноматериалы, J-агрегаты красителей, наночастицы, флуоресценция, оптическая бистабильность, nanomaterials, dye J-aggregates, nanoparticles, fluorescence, optical bistability

Abstract >>
This paper considers a thin plane nanosystem consisting of molecular chains of dye J-aggregates forming bundles elongated in one direction and spherical gold nanoparticles located near them. Expressions are derived for the polarization of the exciton transition in the external field under the mutual influence of the dipole fields of the monomers constituting the dye J-aggregates and for the induced dipole of the nanoparticle. It is shown that in this system, mirrorless optical bistability of the fluorescence spectral density of the dye J-aggregates is possible, depending on the pump field intensity. The parameters of this dependence are critically determined by the distance between the molecular bundles and nanoparticles and by the angle between the field polarization direction and the axis of the bundle of J-aggregates. The use of the nanosystem as a sensor is discussed.
																								



13.
THERMAL DETECTORS OF UNCOOLED MULTI-ELEMENT INFRARED IMAGING ARRAYS. II. NEW THERMALLY UNINSULATED ELEMENTS

S. D. Ivanov, E. G. Kostsov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: инфракрасная техника, тепловые приёмники излучения, пироэлектрические плёнки, мегапиксельная матрица, пироэлектрический заряд, температуропроводность, infrared equipment, thermal detectors of infrared radiation, pyroelectric films, megapixel array, pyroelectric charge, thermal diffusion

Abstract >>
A new approach to constructing the thermal element of a multi-element array on the basis of thin pyroelectric films is developed: the element is neither thermally insulated from the substrate nor separated by a gap from the substrate surface; instead, it operates owing to accumulation of the charge generated by infrared radiation during the frame. A new principle of high-speed modulation of radiation is described. Experimental results for the behavior of the pyroelectric coefficient in barium-strontium niobate films (BaxSr1-xNb2O6), whose values reach up to (1-2)·10-3 C/m2, are presented. It is demonstrated that the specific detectivity of sensitive elements 12 × 12 μm in size in the charge accumulation mode is greater than 109 cm × Hz0.5 ×·W-1.
																								



14.
METHOD OF REDUCING THE GAP BETWEEN CHIPS IN MOSAIC PHOTODETECTOR MODULES

A. R. Novoselov
Design and Technological Institute of Applied Microelectronics, ul. Nikolaeva 8, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: мозаичные фотоприёмники, лазерное скрайбирование, фотопрёмники на гетероэпитаксиальных плёнках КРТ, фоточувствительные болометрические матрицы, кремниевые микросхемы, mosaic photodetectors, laser scribing, photodetectors based on heteroepitaxial mercurycadmium-telluride (MCT) films, photosensitive bolometric matrices, silicon microchips

Abstract >>
A method is proposed to shape the edges of chips in order to reduce the gap between chips in infrared-sensitive mosaic photodetectors modules. The method involves laser scribing of asymmetric grooves, splitting-off of the edge of the chip surface going under the chip, and the subsequent vertical alignment of the edges using laser radiation. The width of the gap between chips is 1-3 μm.
																								



15.
RECORDING CHANNEL OF A COORDINATE X-RAY DETECTOR FOR STUDYING THE DENSITY DYNAMICS OF OBJECTS UNDER PULSED LOADING

V. M. Aulchenko1,2, D. N. Grigor’ev1,2,3, V. V. Zhulanov1,2, V. D. Kutovenko1, A. A. Talyshev1,2, V. M. Titov1
1Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrent’eva 11, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: сцинтилляторы, рентгенография, усилители сигналов, scintillators, radiography, signal amplifiers

Abstract >>
This paper describes the structure, operation algorithm, and circuitry of the recording channel of a multi-channel coordinate X-ray detector with a microsecond time resolution for studying the dynamics of density distribution in objects under pulsed loading. A method for fast automatic real-time control of the channel sensitivity is proposed.