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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2016 year, number 1

1.
ZONING OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION TERRITORY BASED ON FOREST MANAGEMENT AND FOREST USE INTENSITY

A. A. Martynyuk1, V. M. Sidorenkov1, E. V. Doroshchenkova1, E. M. Sidorenkova1, U. G. Zakharov2
1All-Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry, Institutskaya str., 15, Pushkino, Moscow Oblast, 141202 Russian Federation
2Federal State Unitary Enterprise В«Roslesinforg» В«Csentrlesproekt», Zavodskaya str. 10, Ivanteyevka, Moscow Oblast, 141280 Russian Federation
Keywords: интенсивность лесного хозяйства и лесопользования, зонирование территории, продуктивность лесных экосистем, транспортная доступность, зоны интенсивного лесного хозяйства, forest management and forest use intensity, zoning of the territory, forest ecosystem productivity, transport accessibility, zones of intensive forest management

Abstract >>
Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport). The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors) the Russian Federation forest resources have been zoned due to forest management and forest use intensity.
																								



2.
RARE AND ENDANGERED ORCHID SPECIES IN FOREST PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE TUNGUSSKY STATE NATURE RESERVE (SOUTHERN EVENKIA)

E. E. Timoshok1, Yu. G. Raiskaya2, S. N. Skorohodov1, V. Yu. Sopin2
1Institute for Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospect Akademichesky, 10/3, Tomsk, 634055 Russian Federation
2Tungussky State Nature Reserve, Moskovskaya str., 8, Vanavara village, Evenk Autonomous Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, 648490 Russian Federation
Keywords: редкие и исчезающие виды, орхидные, заповедник В«ТунгусскийВ», Южная Эвенкия, rare and endangered species, orchids, Tungussky state nature reserve, southern Evenkia

Abstract >>
We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and endangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.). The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw) are included to the Red Book of the Russian Federation (2008) and three (Cypripedium guttatum Sw., Dactylorhiza cruenta (O. F. Muell.) Soo, Epipactis helleborine (L.) Grantz) to the Red Book of the Krasnoyarsky Krai (2012). Six of rare and endangered orchid species (except for Cypripedium guttatum) found in the reserve are near the north boundary of their range. Six of the species (except for Dactylorhiza cruenta ) are typical forest plants and occur mostly in herb-shrub story of rare Larix and Pinus-Larix forests with shrub-green moss or low-herb-green moss cover, on warm southern and western slopes. The habitats of Dactylorhiza cruenta are very different from other species. Local populations of the species are located on the narrow coast of the Hushma river, covered with shrub-leguminous meadows and shrub thickets. The density of populations of Calypso bulbosa varies from very low (1 specimen/sq.m.) to dense (19 specimen/sq.m.). The density of Cypripedium calceolus and C. macranthon varies similarly from 1.2 to 6.3 specimen/sq.m. The density of local populations of C. ventricosum is low. It is about 2.5 specimen/sq.m. Long-root species C. guttatum has population density from 11.15 to 78.18 partial scions/sq.m. Epipactis helleborine occurrence is very rare. This species occurs only as singular specimen. The density of populations of Dactylorhiza cruenta is from 4.3 to 9.2 species/sq.m. Despite that most of the rare and endangered Orchid species exist on the boundary of their range, all species found in the reserve are stable, blossom and produce harvest each year and reproduce themselves by seed and/or by vegetative reproduction.
																								



3.
THE EMBRYOGENIC POTENTIAL OF LONG-TERM PROLIFERATION CELL LINES OF Larix sibirica in vitro

M. E. Pak1, A. S. Ivanitskaya1, L. M. Dvoinina2, I. N. Tretyakova1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodnyi, 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russian Federation
Keywords: Larix sibirica, соматический эмбриогенез, эмбриогенные культуры, продуктивность, длительная пролиферация, Larix sibirica, somatic embryogenesis, embryogenic cultures, productivity, long-term proliferation

Abstract >>
The study of embryogenic potential of Larix sibirica was conducted using zygotic embryos of trees resistant to larch bud midge as explants. Immature isolated zygotic embryos and megagamethophytes of Larix sibirica were experimentally cultured on AI medium (Tretyakova, 2012). As a result of experiments, 15 proliferative cell lines (Cl) of L. sibirica were obtained from embryo culture. Cls differed in somatic embryo production, more specifically, in embryo quantity, size, and capability to mature, to germinate, and to form viable plantlets. The number of somatic embryos ranged from 2040 to 11103 per 1 gram of fresh weight of embryogenic callus (EC) in young (age up to one year) Cls. The proliferate activity of Cls are maintained during two-six years. Morphogenesis and maturation of somatic embryos are observed 45 days on the medium AI added by ABA. The number of mature somatic embryos ranged from 12 to 1220 per 1 gram of EC. Small somatic embryos of hybrid Cl5 did not mature on AI medium. Different anomalies are observed in the morphogenesis of somatic embryos: destruction of embryo domain development and cytokinesis. The minimum embryo anomalies were observed in Cl4. In this Cl viable embryos are 83.31±3.00 %. The germination of somatic embryo occurred on medium AI hormones and due to elongation of hypocotyls and roots. Somatic seedlings were transferred to soil substrate at the condition of growth-chamber and then to soil at the greenhouse of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS in 2013. Thus, the collection of embryogenic cell lines of L. sibirica was created. This collection will be used in a plantation forest growing larch in Siberia.
																								



4.
THE INFLUENCE OF GROWTH STIMULANTS AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS ON GROUND SEED GERMINATION AND SURVIVAL OF SEEDLINGS OF THE MAIN FOREST FORMING SPECIES OF CENTRAL SIBERIA

M. A. Kirienko, I. A. Goncharova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: стимуляторы роста, концентрации, грунтовая всхожесть семян, сохранность сеянцев, хвойные, growth stimulants, concentrations, ground seed germination, survival of seedlings

Abstract >>
The influence of the growth stimulants with differences in active substance and concentrations on seed germination ability and seedlings safety of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.), Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) are studied. Studies have shown the reaction specificity of seed processing by growth stimulants. The increased concentration of Obereg stimulant (7 drops / 500 ml of water) result in most significant positive impact on the seed field germination of Scots pine (at 31 % above control). The seedling safety is 30 % higher than the control at the same stimulant concentration. Seed treatment by stimulant Ekogel at concentrations of 20 ml/1 l of water and 30 ml/1 l of water result in increase of seed germination and seedlings safety. The extremely high concentration of Ekogel (40 ml/1 l of water) authentically decreases as seed germination (on 21 %), and the seedlings safety (on 20 %). Ekogel stimulant is the best for seed germination of Siberian spruce, thus having a significant positive effect at all studied concentrations. Extreme concentrations of Heteroauxin (4 g/1 l of water) also had a positive impact on the seed germination and seedling safety (20 and 15 % above the control respectively). Seed treatment of Siberian larch by a Novosil stimulant of high concentration (10 drops/1 l of water) and Obereg stimulant (7 drops / 500 ml water) has led to an increase in seed germination compared to controls at 26 and 25 % respectively. At the same concentrations of growth stimulants the highest seedlings safety (25 and 24 % above the control respectively) was observed. Seed treatment by Ekogel stimulant at a concentration of 10 ml/1 l of water has led to a high seed germination ability and seedling safety. Higher concentrations of Ekogel stimulant (30 ml/1 liter of water and 40 ml/1 l of water) significantly inhibit seed germination and reduce the seedling safety.
																								



5.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONES AND SEEDS OF Pinus sibirica Du Tour AT TREE LINE IN THE CENTRAL ALTAI

E. O. Filimonova, E. E. Timoshok
Institute for Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospect Akademichesky, 10/3, Tomsk, 634055 Russian Federation
Keywords: кедр сибирский, шишки, семена, Северо-Чуйский хребет, Алтай, Siberian stone pine, cones, seeds, Severo-Chuisky range, Altai

Abstract >>
We studied the cones of Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) at its treeline in the forest tundra ecotone in the Severo-Chuisky Range, the Altai Mountains, Russia. We have registered length, diameter and form of apophysis, the number of sterile and fertile scales in the cones, the number of ovules and the number of seeds, including developed and underdeveloped seeds, and the developed seeds/ovules ratio. The cones and seeds are produced below 2350 m a. s. l under arid conditions (east-south-eastern slope) and below 2390 m a. s. l. under more humid conditions (west-north-western slope). These altitudes are reproductive line of Siberian stone pine. The predominant forms of the cones near this line are cone-like, spherical and cylindrical. Apophyses are mostly tuberous, hook-like and flat. The most (50%) of the sampled cones have the cylindrical form. The number of ovules varied from 84.6 to 102.4 per cone, the number of seeds were from 76.7 to 98.9 per cone, and the developed seeds were 74.5 to 95.7 per cone. The lowest proportion of developed seeds was registered for cones sampled on arid east-south-eastern slope in 2011. The cones with tuberous apophysis have the highest number of seeds (up to 103.6-110 per cone under more humid and 87.3-104.4 per cone under more arid conditions). Cones gathered at 2235-2390 m a. s. l. have low presence of underdeveloped seeds (1.0 to 3.2 %) and high developed seeds/ovules ratio (87.2 to 93.7 %).
																								



6.
FOR THE APHID FAUNA IN THE TERRITORY OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN. COMMUNICATION 1. APHIDS ON CONIFEROUS PLANTS

A. V. Gurov1, D. L. Grodnitsky2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Krasnoyarsk Territorial Institute for Teachers’ Postgraduate Education and Professional Retraining, Matrosov str., 19, Krasnoyarsk, 660079 Russian Federation
Keywords: тли хвойных пород, фауна, пищевое предпочтение, Приенисейская Сибирь, conifer aphids, fauna, feeding preference, Yenisei river basin, Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper reports on new and previously not well-known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on coniferous trees in Central Siberia of the basin of Yenisei river. This region is the extensive transect of latitudinal geographic zones from semi-desert in the South to the arctic deserts in the North. That is why this region is very peculiar. This is the reason for insufficient study of regional entomological fauna. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea) are a very taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of insects. The aphids living on conifer trees are not studied completely on the territory of Yenisei basin. Due to this, the studying of not well-known and economically important aphids is actual. For example, the insufficient study of regional aphids is confirmed by the fact, that during three weeks only of the work for INTAS-94-0930 Project two new aphid species were found and described on this territory. Also, the new species of family Mindaridae, which was described in Mongolia in 1980, was found in Siberia for the first time. These finds indicate the real possibility to describe an interesting conifer aphid complex in the absolutely unstudied forested territory between Angara and Lower Tunguska rivers. Geographical location, dates of collection and feeding preferences of different species are described. A general review of Yenisei basin Siberian aphid fauna is suggested for the first time ever.
																								



7.
THE BIRDS-CONSUMERS OF THE FRUITS AND DISSEMINATORS OF Phellodendron Rupr. SEEDS IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIAN FAR EAST

V. A. Nechaev1, A. A. Nechaev2
1Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Prospekt 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok, 690022 Russian Federation
2Far East Forestry Research Institute, Volochaevskaya str., 71, Khabarovsk, 680020 Russian Federation
Keywords: птицы-карпофаги, бархат Phellodendron Rupr, участие птиц в диссеминации растений, Дальний Восток России, carpophagous birds, cork-tree - Phellodendron Rupr, bird participation in plant dissemination, Russian Far East

Abstract >>
Based on the results of the long-term investigation, carried out in the Russian Far East (Primorye and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur and Sakhalin regions), and published data about bird ecology, the actual material about the birds feeding seeds and berries of the Amur cork-tree, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis (Fr. Schmidt) Sarg., is given in the article. It has been found 43 carpophagous bird species from 15 families and 5 orders. The cork-tree berries, small roundish juicy fruits with little stones, are eaten by the birds of 40 species from 13 families; basically by Grey-headed Woodpecker - Picus canus, Azure-winged Magpies - Cyanopica cyanus, Bohemian and Japanaese Waxwings - Bombycilla garrulus and B. japonica, Thrushes: Pale Thrush - Turdus pallidus, Eyebrowed Thrush - Turdus obscurus, Grey-backed Thrush - T. hortulorum, Naumann’s Thrush - T. naumanni, and Dusky Thrush - T. eunomus, Eurasian Nuthatch - Sitta europaea, Pallas’s Rose Finch - Carpodacus roseus. The secondary birds - 16 species. On the Sakhalin isl. the Sakhalin cork-tree, Ph. sachalinensis berries are eaten by the birds of 33 species from 12 families, on the South Kuriles (Kunashir isl.) - by the birds of 28 species from 11 families. On Sakhalin the berries are eaten basically by the Waxwings (2 species), Dusky and Brown-headed - Turdus chrysolaus - Thrushes, Eurasian Nuthatch, Pallas’s Rose Finch; and secondary birds - 12 species. There are 5 species of the primary birds and 8 species of the secondary birds on the Kunashir isl. A participation of the birds in the dissemination of the cork-tree, Phellodendron Rupr., during seasonal migrations in winter and autumn has been considered. The active birds in the seed distribution are Grey-headed Woodpecker, Azure-winged Magpies, Waxwings, Thrushes and others; while they are eating the berries, the seeds are not damaged in the gastrointestinal tract and pushed with the excrements outside. In addition, Eurasian Nuthatches and Tits actively distribute the seeds, making stocks under the tree bark and in the semihollows. The passive agents of dissemination are Hazel Grouse - Tetrastes bonasia, Common Pheasant - Phasianus colchicus, Great Spotted Woodpeckers - Dendrocopos major, Oriental Tutle Doves - Streptopelia orientalis, Pallas’s Rose Finches, Hawfinches - Coccothraustes coccothraustes and some others, who can crack hard seed peel by the peckers, but some part of the seed peels retain undamaged in the gastrointestinal tract and is pushed outside. The main role in the cork-tree dissemination belongs to the migrants and wintering birds - woodpeckers, azure-winged magpies, thrushes and waxwings, distributing seeds on the feeding places and transferring them on the different distances from the areas of the plant growing.