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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2016 year, number 1

Problems and outlooks for petrothermal power engineering (review)

S.V. Alekseenko1, 2, V.Yu. Borodulin1, N.A. Gnatus3, M.I. Nizovtsev1, and  N.N. Smirnova4

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia

3NPK PETROTES JSC, Moscow, Russia

4NMSU Gorny (Mining University), St. Petersburg, Russia

Keywords: geothermal energy, petrothermal power engineering, hydrothermal resources, Geo power plant
Pages: 116
Abstract >>
A review is given for the state of the art and future development of the geothermal power engineering. Different diagrams of GeoPP are shown for different levels of geofluid temperature. A special focus is made on challenges for petrothermal power production. The huge amount of heat from petrothermal resources can be harnessed through creating geothermal circulation systems within the dry rocks. Estimates for system lifetime and heat production capacity of circulation systems are given for different flow rates of coolant.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010017

Evaporation of liquid droplets from a surface of anodized aluminum

G.V. Kuznetsov, D.V. Feoktistov, and  E.G. Orlova

Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia

Keywords: contact spot diameter, contact angle, specific evaporation rate, pinning mode, spreading mode
Pages: 1722
Abstract >>
The results of study of evaporation of water droplets and NaCl salt solution from a solid substrate made of anodized aluminum are presented in this paper. The experiment provides the parameters describing the droplet profile: contact spot diameter, contact angle, and droplet height. The specific rate of evaporation was calculated from the experimental data. The water droplets or brine droplets with concentration up to 9.1 % demonstrate evaporation with the pinning mode for the contact line. When the salt concentration in the brine is taken up to 16.7 %, the droplet spreading mode was observed. Two stages of droplet evaporation are distinguished as a function of phase transition rate.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010029

Heat and mass transfer at adiabatic evaporation of binary zeotropic solutions

M.S. Makarov and S.N. Makarova

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, boundary layer, adiabatic evaporation, binary solution
Pages: 2332
Abstract >>
Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a laminar flow of three-component gas at adiabatic evaporation of binary solutions from a flat plate are presented. The studies were carried out for the perfect solution of ethanol/methanol and zeotrope solutions of water/acetone, benzene/acetone, and ethanol/acetone. The liquid-vapor equilibrium is described by the Raoult law for the ideal solution and CarlsonColburn model for real solutions. The effect of gas temperature and liquid composition on the heat and diffusion flows, and temperature of vapor-gas mixture at the interface is analyzed. The formula for calculating the temperature of the evaporation surface for the binary liquid mixtures using the similarity of heat and mass transfer was proposed. Data of numerical simulations are in a good agreement with the results of calculations based on the proposed dependence for all examined liquid mixtures in the considered range of temperatures and pressures.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010030

Computation of leading edge film cooling from a CONSOLE geometry (converging slot hole) 

A. Guelailia, A. Khorsi, and  M.K. Hamidou

University of Sciences and Technologies, Oran, Algeria

Keywords: gas turbine blade, film cooling efficiency, numerical simulation, mass flow rate, cylindrical and converging slot holes
Pages: 3342
Abstract >>
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of mass flow rate on film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer over a gas turbine rotor blade with three staggered rows of shower-head holes which are inclined at 30 to the spanwise direction, and are normal to the streamwise direction on the blade. To improve film cooling effectiveness, the standard cylindrical holes, located on the leading edge region, are replaced with the converging slot holes (console). The ANSYS CFX has been used for this computational simulation.  The turbulence is approximated by a k-e model. Detailed film effectiveness distributions are presented for different mass flow rate. The numerical results are compared with experimental data.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010042

Impact of incident Mach wave on supersonic boundary layer

A.V. Vaganov1, Yu.G. Ermolaev2, G.L. Kolosov2, A.D. Kosinov2, 3, A.V. Panina2, N.V. Semionov2, and  A.A. Yatskikh2,3

1Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, Zhukovskii, Moscow Region, Russia

2Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS,  Novosibirsk, Russia

3Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: supersonic velocities, experimental studies, wind tunnel, flat plate, sharp and blunt leading edges, boundary layer, hot-wire anemometry
Pages: 4348
Abstract >>
Results of an experimental study of the excitation of high-intensity disturbances by a weak external shock wave in laminar boundary layer on flat-plate models with sharp and blunted leading edges at = 2.5 are reported. The field of disturbances produced by a 2D sticker in turbulent boundary layer on the wall of wind-tunnel test section in the free stream is shown to have the form of an N-wave. It is found that, on the blunted plate, the intensity of pulsations produced by weak external shock waves in boundary layer several times exceeds the intensity of pulsations produced in boundary layer on the model with a sharp leading edge.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010054

Numerical simulation of the influence of the control surfaces deflection on the aerodynamics of a slender axisymmetric configuration

I.I. Mazhul1,2, V.F. Volkov1, V.I. Zvegintsev1, and I.V. Ivanov3

1Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, Russia

3Open Joint-stock Company Splav, Tula, Russia

Keywords: supersonic velocities, numerical simulation, axisymmetric finned configuration, deflection of control surfaces, flow pattern, aerodynamic characteristics
Pages: 4958
Abstract >>
A possible influence of the deflection of control surfaces on the aerodynamics of an axisymmetric slender configuration at supersonic flow speeds is considered. A classical configuration consisting from the fuselage in the form of a body of revolution and having cross frontal fins and six-blade trailing stabilizers is considered as the investigation object. The physical flow pattern at the deflection of horizontal fin consoles is investigated and the estimates are obtained for the influence of this deflection on both the characteristics of elements (the body and stabilizers) as well as on the integral aerodynamic characteristics of the entire configuration. Numerical computations of the flow have been done at the freestream Mach number  = 3 in the range of attack angles α = 0-10 and the angles of the control surfaces deflection δcs = 5 on the basis of the averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the SST k-ω turbulence model.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010066

Dynamics of momentumless turbulent wake in a shear flow of a linearly stratified medium

O.F. Voropaeva and G.G. Chernykh

Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: momentumless turbulent wake, internal waves, shear flow, stratified media, numerical modeling
Pages: 5968
Abstract >>
The numerical model of momentumless turbulent wake in a horizontally homogeneous shear flow of linearly stratified medium has been constructed. Based on this model, the investigation of the wake dynamics has been performed. The obtained data demonstrate the transformation of the zone of turbulent perturbations and internal waves generated by the wake under the action of shear flow, which leads to the deceleration of turbulence decay at large time values after the body passage.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010078

Thermal performance enhancement in tubes using helically twisted tape with alternate axis inserts 

K. Yongsiri1, C. Thianpong1, K. Nanan2, and S. Eiamsa-ard3

1King Mongkuts Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

2Phetchaburi Rajabhat University, Phetchaburi, Thailand

3Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, heat exchanger, helically twisted tape, helical tape, turbulence
Pages: 6981
Abstract >>
This article presents an investigation on heat transfer enhancement in a round tube inserted with a helically twisted tape. The effects of a helically twisted tape with alternate axis (HTT-A) on heat transfer, friction factor, and thermal performance factor behaviours are reported for the turbulent regime. HTT-A geometries are tape pitch to tube diameter, P/D = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0; alternate length to pitch length, l/P = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0; twisted length to tape width, y/W = 3.0; and tape width to tube diameter, w/D = 0.2. The experiment has been performed by varying the volumetric air flow rate in order to adjust Reynolds number ranging from 6 000 to 20 000. The wall of the testing tube is uniformly heated as a constant heat flux while the tests are covered with thermal insulations to reduce heat loss to surroundings. Thermal performance is evaluated by comparing the present experimental results with the results of the modified HTT-A and also those obtained from previous study (conventional helically twisted tape, HTT). The thermal performance of tested tube with HTT-A is evaluated to obtain the degree of heat transfer enhancement and friction factor induced by HTT-A with respect to the plain tube under the same test conditions. Evenly, it is interesting to observe that the tube with HTT-A consistently possesses higher heat transfer and thermal performance factor than those with the HTT around 14.1% and 1.9%, respectively. The HTT-A with the smaller pitch ratio and adjacent twist length provides higher heat transfer rate and friction factor than the one with larger pitch ratio and alternate length as a result of a larger contact surface area, stronger swirl intensity and, thus, better fluid mixing near the tube wall. In the range determined, the tubes with the largest pitch ratio (P/D = 2.0) and smallest alternate length (l/P = 1.0) give the highest thermal performance factor at around 1.35. In addition, the empirical correlations of the Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal performance factor are also described.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431601008X

Forces acting on a stationary sphere in power-law fluid flow near the wall

O.B. Bocharov and D.Yu. Kushnir

JSC Baker Hughes, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: power-law fluid, flow around sphere, wall-bounded flow, the lift force, the drag force, numerical simulation
Pages: 8395
Abstract >>
The analysis and evaluation of the forces acting on the particle in a linear shear flow of power-law fluid (PLF) in the presence of the wall were performed. Using the results of a series of computations for a model problem with a spherical particle near a flat wall in the Reynolds number range of 0-200 and the distance to the wall from 0 to 20 particle diameters, the correlation formulas for calculating the coefficients of drag force and lift force were obtained. Special attention was paid to the behavior of the forces acting on the particle approaching the wall.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010091

Influence of thermophoresis on heat and mass transfer  under non-Darcy MHD mixed convection along a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium in the presence of radiation

N. Kishan1 and S. Jagadha2

1Osmania University, Hyderabad-7, Telangana State, India

2St. Martins Engineering college, Dhullapally, Secunderabad, India

Keywords: MHD, non-Darcy porous medium, mixed convection, thermal radiation, thermophoresis, implicit finite difference scheme
Pages: 97108
Abstract >>
The paper presents an investigation of the influence of thermophoresis on MHD mixed convective heat and mass transfer of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid along a vertical flat plate with radiation effects. The plate is permeable and embedded in a porous medium. To describe the deviation from the Darcy model the Forchheimer flow model is used. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations are linearized by using quasi-linearization technique and then solved numerically by using implicit finite difference scheme. The numerical results are analyzed for the effects of various physical parameters such as magnetic parameter Ha, mixed convection parameter Rad /Ped, Reynolds number Red, radiation parameter R, thermophoretic parameter τ, Prandtl number Pr, and Schmidt number Sc. The heat transfer coefficient is also tabulated for different values of physical parameters.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010108

Single-phase Stefan problem in selectively absorbing medium

S.D. Sleptsov1, N.A. Rubtsov1, and N.A. Savvinova2

1Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

2North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia

Keywords: radiant-conductive heat transfer, Stefan problem, selectivity, emissivity, heat removal
Pages: 109117
Abstract >>
The thermal state of a translucent selectively absorbing medium was studied by the methods of numerical simulation at different values of the optical properties of boundaries and heat transfer from the left surface in approximation of one-phase Stefan problem. The temperature fields and densities of resultant radiation fluxes as well as the thermal state of the left boundary and dynamics of layer reduction in the melting process were analyzed. The processes of phase transition in a flat layer of selective and gray absorbing media and emitting media were compared, and their fundamental differences were shown.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431601011X

Plasma treatment of wood

G.G. Volokitin1, N.K. Skripnikova1, V.A. Sinitsyn2, O.G. Volokitin1, V.V. Shekhovtsov1, S.P. Vaschenko3, and  V.I. Kuzmin3

1Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, Russia

2Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

3Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: electroplasma setup, wood surface treatment, protective-decorative coating, temperature field
Pages: 119124
Abstract >>
Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010121

Reduction of noxious substance emissions at the pulverized fuel combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the Almaty heat electropower station using the Overfire Air technology

A.S. Askarova1, V.E. Messerle2, A.B. Ustimenko3, S.A. Bolegenova1, S.A. Bolegenova1, V.Yu. Maximov1, and  A.B. Yergalieva1

1Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan

2Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

3Scientific Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, combustion, overfire air, computational experiment
Pages: 125134
Abstract >>
The computational experiments using the Overfire Air (OFA) technology at the coal dust torch combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the heat power plant No. 2 in Almaty have been conducted. The results show a possibility of reaching a reduction of the emission of noxious nitrogen oxides NOx and minimizing the energy losses. The results of numerical experiments on the influence of the additional air supply on the main characteristics of heat and mass transfer are presented. A comparison with the base regime of the solid fuel combustion when there is no supply of the additional air (OFA = 0 %) has been made.

DOI: 10.1134/S086986431601013

Experimental study of the speed of sound  in liquid and gaseous refrigerant R-407C

S.G. Komarov and S.V. Stankus

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: speed of sound, refrigerant R-407C, vapor, liquid, method of ultrasonic interferometer
Pages: 135137
Abstract >>
The speed of sound in liquid and gaseous refrigerant R-407C was measured by the method of ultrasonic interferometer in the temperature range from 293 to 373 K and pressure from 0.05 to 0.5 to 3.7 MPa. The experimental uncertainties of the temperature, pressure, and speed of sound measurements were estimated to be within 20 mK, 4 kPa, and (0.10.3) %, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the calculated speed of sound from the fundamental state equation for the Helmholtz free energy.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010145

Experimental investigation of thermal processes in the multi-ring Couette system with counter rotation of cylinders

V.N. Mamonov, A.D. Nazarov, A.F. Serov, and V.I. Terekhov

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: Couette ring system, coaxial cylinders, counter rotation, heat generator, dissipation
Pages: 139142
Abstract >>
The effect of parameters of the multi-ring Couette system with counter rotating coaxial cylinders on the process of thermal energy release in a viscous liquid filling this system is considered with regard to the problem of determining the possibility of creating the high-performance wind heat generator. The multi-cylinder rotor design allows directly conversion of the mechanical power of a device consisting of two rotor wind turbines with a common axis normal to the air flow into the thermal energy in a wide range of rotational speed of the cylinders. Experimental results on the measurement of thermal power released in the pilot heat generator at different relative angular speeds of cylinder rotation are presented.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010157

Gas-flow exergy at heat supply and kinetic energy dissipation

A.F. Latypov

Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Keywords: gas flow, heat supply/removal, dissipation, exergy
Pages: 143145
Abstract >>
A formula for evaluating the gas-flow exergy at heat supply/removal without concretization of the process and the way in which the dissipation of kinetic energy proceeds is reported.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010169

100th Anniversary of the birth of  Ivan I. Novikov

Editorial Board
Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 147148

Abstract >>
January 28, 2016 is the 100th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding researcher in the field of power engineering, thermophysics and thermodynamics, great scientist and brilliant organizer Academician Ivan I. Novikov (15(28) January 1916-30 May 2014). Results of his fundamental research are widely known in our country and abroad at the level of discoveries and inventions.

DOI: 10.1134/S0869864316010170