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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2016 year, number 1

1.
The Role of Soil Cover in Maintaining the Structural and Functional Integrity of Northern Taiga Ecosystems of West Siberia

O. Yu. GONCHAROVA, A. A. BOBRIK, G. V. MATYSHAK, M. I. MAKAROV
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1
Keywords: биологическая активность почв, ботанический состав торфа, микробный углерод, многолетнемерзлые породы, торфяники, эко-физиологические коэффициенты, soil biological activity, botanical composition of peat, microbial carbon, permafrost, peatlands, eco-physiological coefficients

Abstract >>
The soils of the study area function in different temperature regimes: under the influence of permafrost (turbic histic cryosol and cryic eutric histosol) and long-term seasonаl freezing (Albic Podsol). Sporadic permafrost defines the differences in temperature regimes. All soils were characterized by low values of carbon dioxide effluxes (an average of 160 mgCO2/(m2⋅h)) indicating their low biological activity. The lack of easily accessible carbon for microorganisms was detected in all investigated soils by the Cmic : Corg ratio despite the high stocks of organic matter. The value of CO2 emission and the Cmic : Corg ratio were “site-specific” for the region of investigation and may be used as indicators of environmental changes. Peat cryogenic soils represent a unique natural object and provide functional diversity and integrity of northern taiga ecosystems of West Siberia.
																								



2.
Spatial Diversity of Bird Communities of the Middle Taiga of the Central Siberian Plateau

L. G. VARTAPETOV1, A. G. LARIONOV2, N. N. EGOROV2
1Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
2Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, SB RAS, 678890, Yakutsk, Leninа ave., 41
Keywords: классификация и пространственно-типологическая структура населения птиц, средняя тайга, Среднесибирское плоскогорье, classification and spatial-typological structure of bird communities, middle taiga, Central Siberian Plateau

Abstract >>
The basic tendencies of territorial changes in bird communities of the middle taiga of the Central Siberian Plateau are connected with the differences in forest cover percent, productivity, swampiness, developing of shrubs, abundance of water and on how much the land is built-up. On the whole, these factors are the same as in the West Siberian and Central-Yakutsk plains, although there are some differences. Namely, only West Siberia is characterized by the communities living on upper swamps and low-inundated meadows in combination with the lowland swamps. In Central Siberia forest ornithocomplexes are the most diverse, mainly at the expense of the communities living in open forests and post-fire areas at different stages of regeneration. The ekoton ornithokomplex type was distinguished only for Central Yakutiya. In North Ural, forest cover percent and tree species composition are still significant for the formation of ornithocomplexes, but the impact of high-altitude zonation and the productivity of biocenoses and developing of shrubs in the habitats connected with it are also becoming important.
																								



3.
Ferns in the Present-Day Рeriglacial Zone of the Central Altai

I. I. GUREYEVA1, E. E. TIMOSHOK2
1Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Leninа аve., 36
2Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, SB RAS, 634055, Tomsk, Academicheskiy ave., 10/3
Keywords: папоротники, распространение, заселение, перигляциальная зона, Центральный Алтай, ferns, distribution, colonization, periglacial zone, the Central Altai

Abstract >>
Data on the species composition and distribution of ferns in the present-day periglacial zone of the Aktru, Karagemsky, Akkem, Sophiysky, Gebler and Taldurinsky glaciers in the Central Altai were presented. Sixteen species of ferns were found and confirmed by herbarium specimens. Botrychium lunаria (L.) Sw., Cystopteris dickieanа R. Sim, C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. and Polystichum lonchitis (L.) Roth were the most tolerant to the severe conditions of the high mountains. The distribution of ferns in the centers of present-day glaciation was related mostly to the occurrence of rocks. Colonization of the periglacial zone by ferns occured only by means of spores, initially by their dispersion from the locations far from the periglacial zone. Further colonization and migration of species following the retreating glaciers were possible by means of spores produced by sporophytes growing in the periglacial zone. Germination of spores and development of gametophytes and sporophytes in severe conditions of the periglacial zone occured mainly in local micro-niches providing protection in the cold season and sufficient amount of moisture in the warm season.
																								



4.
Wildfire Occurrence in Forests of the Altai-Sayan Region under Current Climate Changes

E. I. PONOMAREV, V. I. KHARUK
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: лесной пожар, метеопараметры, индекс сухости, Алтае-Саянский регион, wildfire, weather station data, dryness index, Altai-Sayan Region

Abstract >>
The data on meteorological parameters variation in the Altai-Sayan region in XX-XXI century were analyzed. Significant trends characterizing the dynamics of the average temperature, precipitation and dryness index SPEI were revealed. Growing wildfire frequency in the study area since the end of XX century was detected. Annual variation of wildfires had phase concurrency with the dynamics of mean temperature deviations and climate dryness and negatively correlated with averaged precipitation data. Rising of wildfire frequency was observed for the period of the XX - the first decade of the XXI century. The spatial re-distribution of wildfires in the Altai-Sayan region in the beginning of the XXI century was determined.
																								



5.
Changes in Ecological Diversity of the Forest Population of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) аfter Deforestation and During the Initial Period of Reforestation

A. L. ANTSIFEROV
Nature Museum of the Kostroma Region, 156000, Kostroma, Molochnаya gora str., 3
Keywords: лесной биотоп, вырубка, лесовозобновление, жужелицы, видовое богатство, обилие, экологический состав, forest biotopes, felling, forest regeneration, ground beetles, species richness, abundance, ecological structure

Abstract >>
Ecological structure of ground beetles and its dynamics during the transition of ground beetles from one habitat to another due to felling and subsequent reforestation were studied. The regularities in the formation and development of ground beetles community in the early stage of secondary succession on the felling site were determined. The simplest indices of diversity, species abundance, distribution and dominance were used. Species richness of ground beetles on the felling site increased from 28 to 41 species a year after felling. In four years it decreased to 36 species. According to the ecological preference, the basis of the ground beetles complex on the forest site before felling was formed by spring-breeding forest species. Four years after felling the proportion of forest species decreased from 73,4 to 65,7 %, and the significance of forest-marsh species and meadow-field species increased. The number of summer-breeding and autumn-breeding species also increased. The species and quantitative composition of ground beetles on the felling area during the first year was mostly determined by a neighboring forest. In the following years a separate biocenosis was formed on the site, and the influence of the forest diminished.
																								



6.
Сold Hardiness and Range of the Earthworm Eisenia sibirica (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

D. I. BERMAN1, N. A. BULAKHOVA1,2, E. N. MESHCHERYAKOVA1
1Institute of Biological Problems of the North, FEB RAS, 685000, Magadan, Portovaya str., 18
2Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Leninа str., 36
Keywords: дождевые черви, Lumbricidae, Eisenia sibirica, холодоустойчивость, ареал, эндемизм, Алтае-Саянская горная система, earthworm, Lumbricidae, Eisenia sibirica, cold hardiness, range, endemism, Altai-Sayansk mountain system

Abstract >>
A hypothesis of range formation of the earthworm Eisenia sibirica Perel et Graphodatsky, 1984, which is an endemic species of Altai-Sayansk mountain system and is also found on the adjacent plains of Siberia across the valleys of the rivers, was suggested. Limited distribution of the species can be connected with insufficient cold hardiness of the worm stage (-10…-12 оС). Plains of Western Siberia lie in the isotherm area of minimum soil temperatures at a depth of 3 cm - -12…-14 оС, i. e., on average 2-4 оС below tolerable limits for this species. Foothills and mountain soils are warmer, since they obtain much more solid precipitations. Low soil temperatures of the plains apparently “lock up” this species within Altai-Sayansk system. At the same time there is reason to consider the northernmost locations of E. sibirica to be relict.
																								



7.
Structure and Dynamics of the Trophic Range of the American Mink (Neovison vison) in the Southern Urals

N. V. KISELEVA
Ilmen State Reserve, 456317, Miass
Keywords: американская норка, диета, горные реки, озера, Южный Урал, American mink, diet, mountain rivers, lakes, the Southern Urals

Abstract >>
The diet of the American mink near the lakes and mountain rivers of the Southern Urals was studied. The structure and dynamics of the minks’ feeding near the lakes and mountain rivers differed significantly. On mountain rivers the minks’ diet depended on the abundance of small mammals on the river bank. The abundance of small mammals in each season was determined by the peculiarities of the hydrological regime.
																								



8.
Seasonal Changes in Populations of Ixodes persulcatus and I. pavlovsky on the Border Between the Forest and Forest-Steppe Zones of the Ob Region

N. N. LIVANOVA1,2, S. G. LIVANOV3, L. A. GRIGORYEVA4, V. V. BORGOYAKOV5,2, N. V. TIKUNOVA6
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrent’eva ave., 8
2Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS
3Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
4Zoological Institute, RAS, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya Emb., 1
5InterLabService Ltd, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrent’eva ave., 8
6Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrent’eva ave., 8
Keywords: иксодовые клещи, лесостепное Приобье, относительное обилие, физиологический возраст, вирус клещевого энцефалита Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, ixodid ticks, forest-steppe zones of the Ob region, relative abundance, physiological age, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi

Abstract >>
Seasonality of epidemic and epizootic processes of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and borreliosis among the populations of Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi was studied. The study was carried out in 2011-2012 on the flatland part of Toguchin and in the vicinities of Akademgorodok in Novosibirsk, on the border between the forest and forest-steppe zones of the Ob region. The results obtained for I. persulcatus did not contradict the previously published studies. The starting point and peak of mass activity of I. pavlovsky ticks were registered later (the III decade of May) than that of I. persulcatus ticks . Seasonal variations in the physiological age of I. pavlovsky ticks were similar to that of I. persulcatus ticks. The only exception to this was detected in the III decade of April when young specimens prevailed in the population of I. pavlovsky ticks in contrast to the I. persulcatus population. The large influence of I. persulcatus on the circulation of TBE was shown, as well as the influence of I. pavlovskyi on the spreading of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.
																								



9.
Comparative Analysis of External Factors Affecting the Population of Wild Reindeer in Taimyr

K. V. MAKLAKOV1, N. V. MALYGINA2
1Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202/3
2Ural Federal University nаmed after B. N. Yeltsin, 620002, Yekaterinburg, Mira str., 19
Keywords: Rangifer tarandus, популяция, п-ов Таймыр, динамика численности, факторы среды, антропогенные факторы, браконьерство, энергозатраты, Rangifer tarandus, population, Taimyr Peninsula, abundance dynamics, external factors, anthropogenic factors, poaching, energy expenditures

Abstract >>
External ecological factors that have an impact on a population of wild reindeer on the Taimyr Peninsula were surveyed in the paper. The factors were estimated according to their influence on the abundance of reindeer in the population. The key factors were examined with relation to bioenergetics. In view of the potential resumption of anthropogenic influence due to further industrial development of Taimyr the population conservation strategy was proposed.
																								



10.
Responses of Hepatic Biochemical Markers of the Bream Abramis brama L. on Polychlorinated Biphenyls Administered with Food

A. A. MOROZOV, V. V. YURCHENKO
I. D. Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, RAS, 152742, Yaroslavl Oblast, Borok
Keywords: лещ, антиоксидантная система, перекисное окисление липидов, система биотрансформации ксенобиотиков, полихлорированные бифенилы, эксперимент, bream, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, biotransformation system, polychlorinated biрhenyls, experiment

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of an experimental study on the bream Abramis brama L. exposed to polychlorinated biрhenyls (PCBs) administered with food. Responses of the components of hepatic biotransformation system (activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione-S-transferase), antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity) and lipid peroxidation system (conjugated dienes and malonic dialdehyde contents) were studied. It was determined that the 2 mg/kg dose of PCBs did not cause permanent physiological alterations in the bream exposed to such feed for 14 days. Apparently, at these exposure conditions hepatic protection systems of the bream were able to suppress effects of xenobiotics and keep destructive processes on a stable moderate level.
																								



11.
Spatial-Typological Heterogeneity and Environmental Organization of the Summer Population of Birds in the Mid region of Northern Eurasia

Yu. S. RAVKIN1, I. N. BOGOMOLOVA1, S. M. TSYBULIN1, T. K. ZHELEZNOVA1, K. V. TOROPOV1, L. G. VARTAPETOV1, S. P. MILOVIDOV2, V. A. YUDKIN1, V. S. ZHUKOV1, S. P. GUREEV2, I. V. POKROVSKAYA1, E. Sh. KASIBEKOV1, A. A. ANANIN1, E. N. BOCHKAREVA1
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
2Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Leninа аve., 36
Keywords: плотность, видовое богатство, орнитофауна, кластерный анализ, классификация, факторы, связь, density, species richness, avifauna, cluster anаlysis, factors, correlation, classification

Abstract >>
The study area covered the West Siberian plain from the Urals to the Yenisei River, and the same lane further southwards to the borders of the former USSR in 1991, including a part of the Altai-Sayan mountain country, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. On this site we analyzed the results of ornithogeographic surveys carried out on routes with a length of 63 thousand km in 3140 habitats from May 16 to July 31 in the period from 1936 to 2013. More than 100 specialists participated in the study. The collected data were averaged according to the contours of natural-geographical maps. The subsequent cluster analysis revealed the presence of 3 systems (rows) of bird communities of undeveloped and developed land, and water and riparian communities. Within the first system 8 types of communities were determined: 1 - Tundra; 2 - Forest-tundra; 3 - Forest; 4 and 5 - West Siberian: 4 - Meadow-steppe and 5 - Semidesert-steppe; 6 and 7 - Asian: 6 - North-desert-steppe and 7 - South desert; 8 - High-mountain. The borders of their distribution did not coincide with the zonal borders. In the second and third systems 7 and 6 types of communities were allocated respectively. A part of them was divided into 29 subtypes. The heterogeneity of bird communities was determined by 12 environmental factors. The greatest impact was detected for forest cover, building cover and watering cover. The correlation of the bird population variability with all the identified environmental factors amounted to 54 % ± 1 percentage of variance in the similarity matrix. It corresponded with the correlation coefficient of 0.74.
																								



12.
Biochemical Conditionality of Halophytes’ Differentiation by the Type of Regulation of Salt Metabolism in Prieltonye

O. A. ROZENTSVET1, V. N. NESTEROV1, E. S. BOGDANOVA1, G. N. TABALENKOVA2, I. G. ZAKHOZHIY2
1Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin, RAS, 445003, Togliatti, Komzinа str., 10
2Institute of Biology Komi Scientific Centre, UB RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, GPS-2, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28
Keywords: адаптация, аминокислоты, белки, галофиты, засоленные почвы, липиды, пигменты, adaptation, amino acids, proteins, halophytes, saline soil, liрids, pigments

Abstract >>
The elemental composition, the content of pigments, proteins, liрids, free amino acids and antioxidants of 5 wild halophyte species in Prieltonye were investigated. Plants differed in systematic location (Chenopodiaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Asteraceae), the type of regulation of salt metabolism (eu-, cryno- and glycohalophytes), life form (annual grasses, shrubs), the water regime (mesoxerophytes, xeromesophytes). A decrease in the ion content of K, Na, Ca among Suaeda linifolia > Salicornia perennаns > Halocnemum strobilaceum > Limonium gmelinii > Artemisia santonica was noted. The reversed pattern was observed for the content of C. The increase in the total content of C in glyco-, cryno- and euhalophytes was accompanied by increased content of total and membrane liрids, proteins and pigments. Halophytes varied considerably in terms of components of the antioxidant system - the content of endogenous proline, soluble protein, liрid peroxidation and the level of total SOD activity. Cluster anаlysis revealed that the differentiation of the studied halophyte species by the type of regulation of salt metabolism was mostly determined by biochemical parameters.
																								



13.
Ecology of the Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis L. on the North-Eastern Limit of the Breeding Area

V. N. RYZHANOVSKIY, V. K. RYABITSEV
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: Субарктика, луговой конек, экология, границы ареала, фотопериод, Subarctic, meadow piрit, ecology, range borders, photoperiod

Abstract >>
The ecology of the meadow piрit was studied in nаture in the Lower Ob region and on the Yamal Peninsula. Laboratory investigations were carried out under natural and artificial photoperiods. The factors affecting the distribution of the species in the north-eastern limit of its range were analyzed. The meadow pipit is wide-spread in the taiga zone and it does not need any special adaptations for the conditions of forest-tundra and southern tundra. But the species is not adapted to the north tundra environment. Current climate changes define the northern border of its range. The species has no obvious obstacles to spreading to the east.
																								



14.
Dispersal of Pygmy Wood Mouse (Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) and Bank Vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780) in a Fragmented Landscape

O. V. TOLKACHEV
Institute of Plant and Animаl Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: грызуны, расселение, дисперсия, rodents, dispersal, long-distance migration

Abstract >>
Migration processes, as well as birth and death rate determine the population dynamics. The main type of migration for rodents is dispersal which has not been studied thoroughly. The typical and maximum distances of species dispersal and permeability of some landscape elements are yet to be found out. The aim of this study was to investigate the dispersal of two most abundant rodent species using a specifically modified method of non-selective marking. It was found out that dispersal distance of a pygmy wood mouse ( Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) is larger than that of a bank vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780). The determined dispersal distance of the bank vole (up to 2 km) proved the longest for this species. Dispersal process and spatial structure of rodent populations were greatly affected by the territory characteristics. Barrier landscape elements that impede the dispersal, can increase the animals’ local density. The “migrant trap” effect was described for the first time.
																								



15.
Interaction Between Lichens and Fallen Deadwood in Forest Ecosystems of Eastern Baikal Region

T. M. KHARPUKHAEVA1,2, L. V. MUKHORTOVA1,2
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Sakh’yanovoi str., 6
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: лишайники, вторичные метаболиты, валеж, Прибайкалье, lichens, secondary metabolites, fallen deadwood, Baikal region

Abstract >>
Succession stages of epixylic lichens in relation to decomposition of fallen deadwood were studied in Eastern Baikal region. It was found that lichens passed through four stages of epixylic succession: from epiphytic and epixylic to the epigeic stage. It was also determined that lichens could inhibit decomposition of the higher layer of deadwood which served as the substrate to them.
																								



16.
Ecological and Coenotic Role of Phytogenous Fields of Scots Pine Growing on Spoil Danks

V. I. UFIMTSEV1, I. P. BELANOV2, O. A. KUPRIYANOV1
1Institute of Hunаn Ecology, SB RAS, 650065, Kemerovo, Leningradsky ave., 10
2Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrentieva ave., 8/2
Keywords: отвалы вскрышных пород, Pinus sylvestris L, фитогенное поле, экологические факторы, подрост, травостой, реакции видов, spoil banks, Pinus sylvestris L, phytogenous field, ecological factors, undergrowth, grass stand, species reaction

Abstract >>
Transformation of ecological environment on coal dumps under the influence of Pinus sylvestris L. lead to formation of three-zone phytogenous fields. The undertree zone was characterized by smoothed temperature conditions, low illumination, accumulation of the forest floor and formation of plentiful undergrowth. The crown zone with high moisture content was characterized by the developed moss cover and low occurrence of undergrowth. The external zone served as a transitional space to background meadow communities and was characterized by the developed grassy cover, high abundance of species and group distribution of undergrowth of P. sylvestris L. Positive, adaptive and negative reactions of grassy plants to phytogenous fields of Scots pine were noted. The majority of species expressed negative reaction.