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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2015 year, number 6

1.
Felling-System and Regeneration of Pine Forests on Ecological-Genetic-Geographical Basis

S. N. Sannikov, D. S. Sannikov
Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, экология, генетика, география, естественное возобновление, система рубок, Западная Сибирь, Scots pine, ecology, genetics, geography, natural regeneration, logging, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983) has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing) has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the insemination and shading from the surrounding forest walls in the forest-steppe (with the sufficiently mineralization of soil surface in both zones). The approaches and methods of proposed system «felling-regeneration» have been recommended for the plains pine and larch-pine forests of the Western Siberia and geographically substituting forest types in other regions.
																								



2.
Thermal Analysis of Wood of the Main Tree Species of Central Siberia

S. R. Loskutov, O. A. Shapchenkova, A. A. Aniskina
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: древесина, окислительная термодеструкция, пиролиз, термогравиметрия, кинетические характеристики, дифференциальная сканирующая калориметрия, тепловые эффекты, wood, thermal oxidative destruction, pyrolysis, thermogravimetry, kinetic characteristics, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal effects

Abstract >>
Thermal decomposition of wood from coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia has been studied using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The tree species were larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., fir Abies sibirica Ledeb., Siberian pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour., birch Betula pendula Roth., and aspen Populus tremula L. Thermal analysis of wood samples was carried out under oxidative (air) and inert (argon) atmospheres from 25 to 700 °С at heating rates 10, 20, 40 °С · min-1 (TG/DTG) and from 25 to 590 °С at heating rates 10, 40 °С · min-1 (DSC). The stages of thermal decomposition, the temperature intervals, the mass loss, the mass loss rate, the temperature of DTG/DSC peaks, and heating effects were determined for each tree species. The kinetic thermal degradation parameters of wood were obtained by the Broido and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models. The wood of coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia was characterized on the base of analysis of activation energy values at various stages of thermal decomposition and the relations of activation energy on conversion level of wood substance of different tree species, and also the comparison of mass loss at the same stages of thermal destruction, heating effects, residual mass and other parameters of TG/DTG, DSC. In our opinion, the results of this work present interest for researchers and specialists in the field of forest pyrology, wood science, dendrochemistry.
																								



3.
Fire History of Dark Needle Coniferous Forests in Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve from the Second Half of XIX Century to Present Time

A. A. Aleynikov1, A. V. Tyurin1, L. V. Simakin2, A. S. Efimenko1, A. A. Laznikov1
1Centre for Forest Ecology and Production, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya str., 84/32, Moscow, 117997 Russian Federation
2Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Nature Reserve, Yaksha village, Troitsk-Pechora district, Komi Republic, 169436 Russian Federation
Keywords: Печоро-Илычский заповедник, бореальные леса, история природопользования, лесные пожары, пирогенные сукцессии, Северный Урал, Pechora-Ilych biosphere nature reserve, boreal forests, history of nature use, forest fires, after fire successions, Northern Urals

Abstract >>
A study of the vegetation cover current state in any area should start from detailed investigation of its land-use history. Historic factors are of particular importance for forest ecosystems of protected nature areas as usually they are regarded as models and their history is neglected. The article describes fire history of the piedmont area of Pechora-Ilych biosphere nature reserve based on high resolution remote sensing data analysis and historical records. Such method allows reconstruction of forest fires back to 150 years ago. Field research of the tree stands age structure is needed to reveal older fires. 89 burns of 78 893 ha total area were detected, which is 11 % of the piedmont area of the reserve. The burns are distributed unevenly across the area: 76 % are in the Ilych river basin and the rest are in the Pechora river basin. All burns are classified into 4 types according to the periods during which they happened. Burned areas in both river basins changed during these periods: major part of the forest cover in the Ilych basin was damaged before the reserve was established, in the Pechora river basin -in the first decade after its foundation. Only 20 burns are precisely dated out of 73 burns happened in the XX century. Causes are also not determined for all fires. Probably both natural (lightning) and anthropogenic factors caused fires. Known anthropogenic fires are allocated to settlements and floating rivers and cover huge areas (thousands and tens of thousands hectares). Natural fires are at distant watershed areas and are significantly smaller (tens and hundreds hectares).
																								



4.
Tree Plant Organic Matter Stocks in Spruce Green Moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and Pine Lichen Pinetum cladinosum Forest Communities after Windfall

A. V. Manov1, I. N. Kutyavin1, M. N. Kovalev1,2, A. F. Osipov1
1Institute of Biology, Komi Republic Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28b, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
2Federal Budget Institution В«Russian Centre for Forest Protection», Garazhnaya str., 9, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167000 Russian Federation
Keywords: ветровал, прирост, фитомасса, валеж, подрост, таежная зона, Республика Коми, windfall, increment, phytomass, dead fallen wood, undergrowth, taiga zone, Komi Republic

Abstract >>
Accumulation of organic matter in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall was investigated. Phytomass of Piceetum hylocomiosum stand is 51.8 t · ha-1, and Pinetum cladinosum stand is 7.5 t · ha-1. Phytomass in the disturbed stands is 3.5 times less than in undisturbed spruce forest and 15 times less than in undisturbed pine forest. The undergrowth accumulates 2.8 t · ha-1 in spruce forest, and 0.9 t · ha-1 in pine forest after windfall. Number of trees, volume of wood, stock of organic matter was determined in coarse woody debris subject to decay class. Most of the dead trees (77−97 %) belong to the second decay class. Reduced competition for light and mineral nutrients influences the intensity of organic matter accumulation by tree plants. We detected that increasing radial growth of spruce and fir began before windfall. This demonstrates the stand drying. However, maximal rate of annual ring increment (2.03−2.17 mm for spruce and 3.98−4.07 mm for fir) was observed in 2009−2010 years. After windfall radial growth of undergrowth increased 2 times in Piceetum hylocomiosum and 7.7 times in Pinetum cladinosum. Height increment of spruce and fir understorey increased 2.2−2.6 times in spruce forest. As compared with undisturbed ecosystems height increment of pine understorey is 1.2−2.0 times higher on windbreak in Pinetum cladinosum .
																								



5.
The Impact of Weather Conditions on Dynamics of Hylocomium splendens Annual Increment and Net Production in Forest Communities of Forest-Steppe Zone in Khakassia

I. A. Goncharova, A. V. Benkova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Hylocomium splendens, годичная продукция, погодные факторы, скользящие функции отклика, условия местопроизрастания, Хакасия, Hylocomium splendens, annual phytomass production, weather factors, correlation, habitat conditions, Khakassia

Abstract >>
Dynamics of annual increments of green moss Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. in B.S.G. in the Khakassia forest-steppe zone has been studied. The values of the moss linear and phytomass increments were investigated in different habitats for 6 years. The aboveground annual production of the H. splendens in phytocenosis was estimated. Linear increments of the H. splendens growing under the tree canopy and opening between trees were not significantly different. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are significantly higher than in the openings between trees. The density of moss mats, proportion between leaves and stems were calculated. It was revealed that climatic factors have a different degree and duration influence on the moss increments in different habitats. Linear increments of H. splendens in different habitats synchronously respond to weather factor changes. The air temperature was the most important at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period; the amount of precipitation was more important in the middle of the growth period. Phytomass increments of H. splendens in different habitats respond differently to influence of weather conditions. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are not sensitive to air temperature, and more sensitive to precipitations in the middle of growth period than one of opening between trees. The specificity of the climatic factors’ influence on the biomass growth depends on habitat conditions.
																								



6.
Component Composition of Essential Oils and Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells of Resin Channel Needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae)

N. V. Gerling, V. V. Punegov, I. V. Gruzdev
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Scieces, Kommunisticheskaya str. 28, GSP-2, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: Juniperus communis, эфирное масло, ультраструктура, секреторные клетки, Juniperus communis, essential oil, ultrastructure, secretory cells

Abstract >>
The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis , growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %), the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5−32.6 %), β-pinene (15−20.3 %) and α-phellandrene (6.4−8.8 %). Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells). An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis , which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40) noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.
																								



7.
Problem of Chronobiological Cyclic of Movement of Forest Ecosystems Properties Communication 2

M. A. Proskuryakov
Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Timiryazev str., 36d, Almaty, 050040 Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: лесные экосистемы, хронобиология, цикличность движения, растения, климат, forest ecosystems, chronobiology, cyclic recurrence of movement, plants, climate

Abstract >>
On the basis of generalization of materials of long-term research, it is shown objectively, steadily, continuously and everywhere manifested action of the law of cyclic recurrence of movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems. The Action of this law should be considered, both in research and in use, conserving biodiversity, productivity and resource values of forests. For this purpose, the conceptual solution to a problem of cyclic analysis of spatial-temporal movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems was proposed during climate change thus allowing forest management at lower costs and risks. This solution is based on chronobiological analysis of spatial-temporal movement of forest plants and their ecosystems. The peculiarities of task solution of ecologically ranked distribution of chronobiological permanent study areas were reviewed in this relation. The interpolation algorithms of their observation results were proposed in order to analyze localization coordinates and spatial-temporal movement of properties of forest organisms and their ecosystems. The possibilities of use of chronobiological analysis for assessment of cyclic changes of sensitivity, direction, velocity and value of transposition of forest organisms and ecosystems’ properties were shown. The proposed solution to a problem will increase steadiness and cost effectiveness of forest use during cyclic climate changes and will allow operating forestry at the maximum efficiency and at lower costs and risks under the highest natural productivity of forest ecosystems thus avoiding the areas of climatic adversities. In addition, this solution will help to observe reduced impact forest use and contribute to preservation of forests’ biodiversity in space and time of fluctuating climate. Likewise, it will contribute to development of new actual trends of theoretical and applied surveys. Among them are monitoring of coordinates’ movement of spatial-temporal localization of properties of forest ecosystems, their productivity and protection role; monitoring of coordinates’ movement of habitats with critical transformation of resource value and biological steadiness of forest ecosystems; analysis of cyclic movement of introduction results of forest organisms in new regions; development of reduced impact forest use and creation of new technologies allowing to mitigate adverse cyclic changes of productivity and biological steadiness of forests, their protection, balneological and recreation role. Development of these directions will reduce inefficient labor and time costs for restoration, preservation of biodiversity and forest productivity as the most important everlasting resource of the Earth.
																								



8.
Landscape Features of Kislovodsk Medical Park

A. P. Kazankin
Pyatigorsk Local History Museum, Brothers Bernardaссi str., 2, Pyatigorsk, Stavropol Krai, 357501 Russian Federation
Keywords: Кисловодский лечебный курортный парк, полипалеобиосферная структура, лесные насаждения, летучие соединения, воздух, почва, горные породы, минеральные воды, Kislovodsk medical park, polypaleobiospheric structure, forests, volatile compounds, air, soil, rocks, mineral waters

Abstract >>
An attempt to reveal some of the unique features of the Kislovodsk medical park landscape and explain reasons for its beneficial effects on human health, which could serve as one of the arguments to justify giving the park the status of specially protected area have been done in the paper. It marked features of the climate of the park, reminiscent of the features of the monsoon - a dry winter and a moderately humid summers. It’s stated, that one of the main features of the landscape of the park is the presence of layers of the upper and lower Cretaceous (former biosphere by V. I. Vernadsky) in which biogeochemical information for many tens of millions of years is compressed. Rocks, coming to the surface, creating a polypaleobiospheris structure of the park. The data on the influence of the chemical composition of rocks (former biospheres) on forest and meadow-steppe formation are presented. It is shown, that the same rock formed a close relationship Ca and Mg in the soil absorbing complex mountain-meadow chernozem (mould humus) and forest soils in the area of ​​nutrition sources and mineral water to a depth of tens of meters in Kislovodsk. It emphasizes the potential of the park selection plants (800 species of herbaceous and more than 250 species and varieties of trees and shrubs) volatile compounds that reflect the biogeochemical characteristics of rock ten tiers of the lower and upper Cretaceous. The geological age of various rocks is recommended to consider with forest plantation and forest typological zoning and development. It is considered appropriate to introduce under the canopy of artificial plants useful forest plants. It’s offered to include in the park area Kislovodsk forestry district and all forests within the boundaries of mountain-sanitary protection zone of the Caucasian Mineral Waters resorts.
																								



9.
Forest Fires Impact on Microclimatic and Soil Conditions in the Forests of Cryolithic Zone (Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia)

L. P. Gabysheva1,2, A. P. Isaev1,3
1Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lenin str., 41, Yakutsk, 677980 Russian Federation
2Yakut State Academy of Agriculture, Krasilnikov str., 15, Yakutsk, 677980 Russian Federation
3Institute of Natural Sciences, North-Eastern Federal University, Kulakovsky str., 42, Yakutsk, 677980 Russian Federation
Keywords: cryolithozone, forest fires, burnt-out areas, fire-site, Yakutia

Abstract >>
Data analysis on the fire occurrence and frequency in Central Yakutia (North-Eastern Russia) has been considered. Calculate the impact of socio-economic and climatic conditions of region on inflammability parameters. A close relationship was found between quantity and density of population and the frequency of fires occurence (0.95−0.99). Not so much negative correlation observed between the amount of precipitation during the fire-dangerous period and the frequency of fire (−0.53). The results of our study relating to the fire impact on microclimatic and soil conditions of the forests of Central Yakutia are brought in the article. Studies have revealed that strong changes microclimate and soil conditions in the burnt areas occur in the first 10 years after the fire. At the young burned out site, soil temperature in average increases in comparison with the forest at a depth of 5 cm in 5.2 ... 5.6 °C, at a depth of 30 cm — in 4.3 ... 6.2 °C, soil moisture — by 1.1−2.3 times in a 1−2-year — fire site, by 1.1−1.7 times in a 10−12-year-old one; seasonally thawed layer thickness is 0.3−0.8 m greater in the burned out areas than in the forest. There is stabilization of the modified conditions in the post-fire period in the course of succession. Essential changes of microclimatic and soil conditions occurring after fires and stabilizing in the progress of succession when fire-sites overgrow with plants have been found. In the burned areas of the Central Yakutia it starts at the age of 20−25 years after the fire.