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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2016 year, number 1

1.
Modeling of the rotation-vibration energy levels of the D218O, HD18O, D217O and HD17O molecules by the method of effective Hamiltonian

I.A. Vasilenko, O.V. Naumenko, K.V. Kalinin, A.D. Bykov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: дейтерозамещенные изотопологи водяного пара, колебательно-вращательные спектры, моделирование уровней энергии, эффективный вращательный гамильтониан, deuterium substituted isotopologues of water vapor, vibration-rotation spectra, modeling of the energy levels, the effective rotational Hamiltonian

Abstract >>
Modeling of the rotation-vibration energy levels of the first and second triads as well as the first and second hexads of the D218O, HD18O, D217O, and HD17O molecules is performed based of the Watson-type Hamiltonian and the rotation operator written through the Padé-Borel approximants. Rotational, centrifugal distortion and resonance constants as well as mixing coefficients of the resulting wave functions are determined. The scheme of resonance interactions is established. The predictive ability of the effective Hamiltonian parameters obtained is examined in the far extrapolation on rotational quantum numbers.
																								



2.
Distortions of laser beams caused by a shock wave near the turret of a supersonic aircraft

V.A. Banakh, A.A. Sukharev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: турель, ударная волна, средняя интенсивность, фокусировка оптического излучения, turret, shock wave, mean intensity, focusing of optical radiation

Abstract >>
Results of calculation of the mean intensity of an optical beam crossing a shock wave arising at the supersonic flowing the turret at the beginning of a path in a homogeneous medium are present. It is shown that the spatial inhomogeneity of the refractive index of air in the area occupied by a shock wave can cause strong anisotropic distortions of a beam intersecting a shock wave. The distortions leads to focusing and fragmentation of a beam at relatively small distances from the turret and its quick degradation during further propagation.
																								



3.
Turbulence structure over heated surfaces. Numerical solutions

V.V. Nosov, V.P. Lukin, E.V. Nosov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: турбулентность, когерентная турбулентность, когерентная структура, топологический солитон, численное моделирование когерентных структур, уравнения Навье-Стокса, неоднородно нагретая поверхность, тепловая пестрота, turbulence, coherent turbulence, coherent structure, topological soliton, simulation of coherent structures, Navier-Stokes equations, inhomogeneously heated surface, thermal diversity

Abstract >>
The structure of air turbulent motion inside closed volumes (without exchange of internal and external medium through the borders) over inhomogeneously heated underlying surfaces is studied by numerical solution of boundary value problems for hydrodynamics equations (Navier-Stokes). The solitary large vortices (coherent structures, topological solitons) are observed over an inhomogeneously heated surface. Number of vortices and its internal structure depend on the form and size of heated inhomogenities. In the case of simple forms of heating (homogeneous heating, heated single round spot), the coherent turbulence resulting from the decay of coherent vortices is observed inside a closed volume. For complex forms of heating (thermal diversity, dapple, motley), the toroidal vortices are noticeably deformed. The vortices can be extended along the surface and can have the spiral (helix) streamlines. The vortices are noticeably mixed during the evolution process. It leads to Kolmogorov (incoherent) turbulence. Our experimental data obtained earlier inside dome rooms of astronomical telescopes confirm our numerical simulations.
																								



4.
Specific charge variations of saltating sand in wind sand flux over desertified area

G.I. Gorchako1v1, V.M. Kopeikin1, A.V. Karpov1, A.A. Titov2, D.V. Buntov1, G.A. Kuznetsov1, R.A. Gushchin2, O.I. Dazenko2, G.A. Kurbatov3, A.O. Seregin2, A.V. Sokolov1
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow State University of Information Technologies, Radio Engineering and Electronics, prospect. Vernadskogo, 78, 119454, Moscow, Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1/2, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Keywords: опустынивание, ветропесчаный поток, нелинейные процессы, сальтация, электрический ток сальтации, удельный заряд, эмпирические функции распределения, спектры мощности флуктуаций, desertification, wind sand flux, nonlinear processes, saltation, electric current of saltation, specific charge, empirical function distribution, fluctuation power spectra

Abstract >>
First the specific charge probability distribution of the saltating sand over the desertified area has been obtained. The specific charge of the saltating sand was varied between 10 and 150 mC/kg (at the average 48.5 mC/kg) according to the measurement data in Kalmykia over the desertified area. An original setup has been designed whereby the synchronous measurements of the saltating sand concentrations and electric current fluctuations and also the turbulent pulsations of the wind velocity have been carried out over the desertified area in Kalmykia. First transformation pecularities determined by nonlinear processes in the wind sand flux of the statistical characteristics from the wind velocity to the sand grain concentration and further to the electric current of the saltation have been established. In particular, empirical function distributions and fluctuation power spectra were analyzed.
																								



5.
Method of solving the problem of the light backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds within the physical optics approximation for a lidar with zenith scanning

A.V. Konoshonkin1,2, N.V. Kustova2, V.A. Shishko2, A.G. Borovoi1,2
1National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: физическая оптика, алгоритм трассировки пучков, рассеяние света, ледяные кристаллы, phisical optics, beams splitting algorithm, light scattering, ice crystals

Abstract >>
The method of solving the light scattering problem in the backscattering direction within the framework of physical optics approximation has been considered. The recommendations on preliminary estimate of the contribution geometrical optics beams to the backward direction that can reduce the number of the beams for the calculation has been given. Presented empirical estimates and the guidelines for choosing the optimal step of numerical integration can significantly reduce the resource consumption of the physical optics method. The results of the solutions of the light scattering problem are available free in the form of a data bank of the Mueller matrices.
																								



6.
Multiple filamentation of laser beams with different diameters in the air at a 100-meter path

D.V. Apeksimov1, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.N. Iglakova1, A.M. Kabanov1, O.I. Kuchinskaya1,2, G.G. Matvienko1,2, V.K. Oshlakov1, A.V. Petrov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: лазерное излучение, фемтосекундный импульс, самофокусировка, филаментация, атмосфера, фокусировка, дефокусировка, спектр, laser radiation, femtosecond pulse, self-focusing, filamentation, atmosphere, focusing, defocusing, spectrum

Abstract >>
Results of experiments on controlling the position and length of the filamentation zone of femtosecond laser pulses at atmospheric paths 150 m long using different initial spatial focusing and defocusing are presented. The distribution of filaments along the filamentation zone is found, the dependences of the length of the filamentation zone on the numerical aperture of the beam, its initial radius, and pulse power are measured. Emission spectra of the illumination of targets of various materials, placed in the region of the filament far from the radiation source, are recorded.
																								



7.
Intercomparison of ground-based MW measurements of precipitable water vapor with radiosounding data

I.A. Berezin, Yu.M. Timofeyev, Ya.A. Virolainen, K.A. Volkova
Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaja naberezhnaja, Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
Keywords: влагосодержание атмосферы, МКВ-радиометр, радиозондирование, precipitable water vapor, MW radiometer, radiosounding

Abstract >>
Microwave (MW) radiometers are commonly used for monitoring precipitable water vapor (PWV) - the major atmospheric greenhouse gas. The quality and accuracy of the method is assessed in various measuring campaigns. In this study, we intercompare the results of PWV measurements performed with a ground-based MW radiometer RPG-HATPRO (at the Peterhof station of Saint Petersburg State University) and radiosounding data obtained at the Voeykovo station. The dataset includes more than 850 coincident measurements (at the day and at the nighttime) for the period between March 13, 2013 and May 31, 2014. The discrepancy of the both methods is caused by the errors of methods as well as by the spatial inhomogeneity of the fields of PWV in atmosphere. These mismatches can reach tens of percent, which must be taken into account in the intercomparison and validation of different methods for PWV retrieval. The exclusion of cases with significant moisture inhomogeneity allowed the reducing of mean errors and their standard deviation between two sets of measurements up to 3-4% and 12-14%, respectively.
																								



8.
Brightness of day sky as a source of information on albedo of underlying surface in infrared region

V.E. Pavlov1, S.S. Orlov2, V.V. Pashnev2
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str. IWEP SB RAS
2Altai State University, 656015, Barnaul, 61, str. Lenina
Keywords: инфракрасная область спектра, оптические толщи рассеяния и поглощения, яркость неба, асимметрия аэрозольной индикатрисы рассеяния, infrared region, optical depth of scattering and absorption, sky brightness, asymmetry of aerosol scattering indicatrix

Abstract >>
In the first part of the paper, we offer a methodological ground for determination of the surface albedo in the near infrared (NIR) region using the observations of the atmosphere spectral transparency and the brightness of day cloudless sky in the Sun almucantar. The contribution of the component describing the processes of light reflection into the brightness at different angular distances from the Sun is analyzed. The effect of aerosol absorption on brightness components used to determine the albedo is estimated. The effect of the zenith angle of the Sun and the elongation of aerosol scattering indicatrix on the final albedo calculation is revealed.
																								



9.
Multifrequency lidar sounding of atmospheric pollution by respirable particulated matter with separation into respirable fractions

S.A. Lisenko, M.M. Kugeiko, V.V. Khomich
Belarusian State University, 4, Nezavisimosti avenue, 2200301, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: аэрозоль, респирабельные частицы, массовая концентрация, лидар, многочастотное зондирование, калибровка, оптические параметры, обратная задача, aerosol, respirable particles, mass concentration, lidar, multifrequency sounding, calibration, optical parameters, inverse problem

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the methodology of obtaining the spatial distributions of respirable fractions of aerosol in the atmosphere from multifrequency lidar sounding data without the use of additional optical and microphysical aerosol parameters on the path under study. For this purpose, it has been suggested to replace the spectral values of the aerosol extinction coefficient involved in lidar equations by the linearly independent parameters of their approximation, and retrieve the spatial distributions of these parameters from the numerical solution of the system of equations created from all spectral-temporal readings of lidar signals. As a result, the number of unknowns in the system of equations, which are solved, is significantly reduced, and its matrix becomes well-conditioned that can be used to select physically reasonable values of backscatter-extinction aerosol ratio at the operating lidar wavelengths. The assumption that there are two segments with the similar profiles of aerosol extinctions coefficients is used to determine the calibration constants of lidar. The algorithm for searching such segments from the spectral-temporal structure of lidar signal is suggested. The inverse problem of aerosol light scattering is solved on the basis of stable regression relations between the concentrations of respirable aerosol fractions and approximation parameters of its extinction spectrum. The tolerance of the technique developed to the calibration errors and the spatial variations in backscatter-extinction aerosol ratio is shown from numerical experiment on laser sounding of aerosol.
																								



10.
Stability of results of plant state detection by laser fluorescence method

Yu.V. Fedotov, O.A. Bullo, M.L. Belov, V.A. Gorodnichev
N. E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya str., 5, 105005, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: лазерный флуоресцентный метод, контроль состояния растительности, спектры флуоресценции, стабильность, laser fluorescence method, vegetation monitoring, fluorescence spectra, stability

Abstract >>
Laser fluorescence method of plant state detection is considered. Laboratory setup is described and analysis of plant fluorescence spectra excited at a wavelength of 532 nm are presented. It is shown that the measurement small series average of the fluorescence intensity ratio R at wavelengths of 685 and 740 nm is marked by high stability for different samples of a plant. Sum of confidential intervals of ratio R (for confidential probability 95%) in most cases is no more than difference of mean values of the ratio R for normal and stress states caused by various reasons.
																								



11.
Joint supershort-term forecast of meteorological fields using dynamic-stochastic algorithm for the case of related processes

A.V. Lavrinenko
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: двумерная динамико-стохастическая модель, алгоритм фильтра Калмана, связанные процессы, сверхкраткосрочный прогноз, two-dimensional dynamical-stochastic model, Kalman filter algorithm, related processes, short-term forecast

Abstract >>
The two-dimensional dynamic-stochastic model based on the Kalman filter algorithm and method of its application for supershort-term, with a lead of 1 to 6 hours, forecast of meteorological fields in the case of related processes is considered. The results of the statistical evaluation of joint forecasting of fields of temperature and pressure measurements at meteorological stations Novosibirsk (code 29634) and Tomsk (code 29430) for 2014, carried out every 0.5 and 3 hours, respectively, are discussed. The comparison of the quality of the prediction of meteorological fields for the case-related processes and in the case of prediction of each field individually are carried out.
																								



12.
Information