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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2015 year, number 12

1.
Singularities of complex-valued H2O energy function. Estimating resonances in vibrational energy spectrum of H2O

A.N. Duchko1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: теория возмущений, расходящиеся ряды, алгебраические аппроксиманты, колебательные уровни энергии, молекула H22

Abstract >>
High order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory and Pade-Hermite algebraic approximants are applied to calculate vibration energy levels of H2O. Quadratic Katz branch points found by second-order algebraic approximants are used to classify resonances between vibrational states of the H2O molecule. Apart from Fermi and Darling-Dennison resonances new resonance perturbations of states were found. Moreover, it was shown that all states with energy higher than 5000 cm–1 are in one resonance polyad. This analysis helped us to improve polyad structure of vibrational states of water molecule.
																								



2.
Simulation of water vapor condensation. Four-point potential

G.F. Krymsky, S.I. Petukhov, G.S. Pavlov
Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave.
Keywords: водяной пар, четырехточечный потенциал, кластер, микромоделирование, water vapor, four-point potential, cluster, micromodeling

Abstract >>
The simulation of vapor condensation on the water surface using the four-point potential for molecules is described. The parameters of the phenomenological model of vapor dissolved in water are reproduced as a result of microsimulation of the behavior of a cluster consisting of 55 molecules. Coefficient of sticking molecules on the water surface is calculated based on mechanical analogy with an elastic blow. The consent of microsimulation parameters with the parameters of the phenomenological model is obtained.
																								



3.
Generation of aerosol and droplets in mixtures of water vapor with air and molecular gases

A.V. Klimkin1, A.N. Kuryak1, Yu.N. Ponomarev1, A.S. Kozlov2, S.B. Malyshkin2, A.K. Petrov2, A.L. Kupershtokh3,4, D.I. Karpov3,4, D.A. Medvedev3,4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 15, Ac. Lavrentieva ave.
4National Research Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, облака, молекулы, аэрозоль, капля, фазовый переход, ионизирующее излучение, компьютерное моделирование, atmosphere, clouds, molecules, aerosol, drop, phase transition, ionizing radiation, computer modeling

Abstract >>
Results of observation of generation of aerosol particles and drops in mixtures of saturated water vapor with air and molecular gases are described in the paper. The kinetics of the aerosol and drop generation was studied in the absence and under impact of monokinetic beam of electrons on the gas mixture with supersaturated water vapor, formed in the process of the controllable pressure unloading of the prepared gas mixture from a spherical chamber of 1.4 m in diameter to vacuum reservoir of 40 m3 in volume. The kinetics of generation of aerosol particles and drops was recorded by the method of laser beam (drop) small-angle scattering and with the help of aerosol spectrometer (particle). Experimental results show significant dependence of generation of drops and particles on the impact of ionizing radiation. Three-dimensional computer simulation of the process of supersaturated water vapor condensation on ions by methods of Boltzmann lattice equations (LBE) and molecular dynamics (MD) describes qualitatively the obtained experimental results.
																								



4.
The microstructure of multi-filamentation region of femtosecond laser radiation in solid dielectric

Yu.E. Geints1, S.S. Golik2, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.M. Kabanov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
Keywords: фемтосекундное лазерное излучение, множественная филаментация, лазерная плазма, femtosecond laser radiation, multiple filamentation, laser plasma

Abstract >>
Peculiarities of multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses with gigawatt-level power in optical glass are considered. We analyze experimentally and by numerical simulations the fine structure of the plasma region accompanying light filaments and being created upon photoionization of dielectric. For the first time, the dependence of the number, position, and length of the individual generations of plasma channels on the laser energy is investigated. The role of pulse refocusing events in the formation of plasma region is discussed.
																								



5.
Allowance for a polarization in passive sensing of the reflective properties of the Earth surface from space

A.V. Zimovaya1, M.V. Tarasenkov1,2, V.V. Belov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: перенос оптического излучения в атмосфере, спутниковое пассивное зондирование земной поверхности, вектор-параметр Стокса, метод Монте-Карло, optical radiation transfer in the atmosphere, passive satellite sensing of the Earth surface, Stokes vector-parameter, Monte-Carlo method

Abstract >>
Problem of allowance for a polarization in statistical simulation of satellite imaging of the Earth surface in the optical wavelength range is considered. It is demonstrated that neglecting the polarizing properties of radiation can lead to significant errors in the reconstructed reflection coefficient of weakly reflecting surfaces.
																								



6.
On the role of eruption of Merapi volcano in anomalous total ozone decrease over Tomsk in April, 2011

V.V. Zuev1,2,3, N.E. Zueva1, E.S. Savelieva1, O.E. Bazhenov4, A.V. Nevzorov4
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
4V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: извержение влк. Мерапи, вулканогенный сажевый аэрозоль, озоновые аномалии, eruption of Merapi volcano, volcanic soot aerosol, ozone anomalies

Abstract >>
In April, 2011, at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, a long-term anomalous decrease of the total ozone content was recorded over a number of regions, attributed to echoes of large-scale Arctic ozone anomaly, observed in March. In this paper, we showed that stratospheric ozone destruction over Tomsk during that period was caused by eruption of Indonesian volcano Merapi in November 2010. NOAA HYSPLIT model was used to analyze the motion of air masses in the lower stratosphere on the way from coordinates of volcanic ejection from the moment of eruption until late April. It was found that air masses, containing volcanic aerosol, came to the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes in late March 2011, in agreement with high aerosol content recorded in the stratosphere over Tomsk during that period. Based on analysis of temperature and ozone anomalies in the stratosphere over Tomsk, we showed that they manifested themselves by the volcanic soot present in aerosol composition.
																								



7.
Effects of atmospheric optical characteristic stratification on the sky radiance in the solar principal plane

T.V. Russkova1, M.A. Sviridenkov2, T.B. Zhuravleva1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: солнечная радиация, аэрозоль, вертикальный профиль аэрозольных характеристик, плоскость солнечного вертикала, численное моделирование, solar radiation, aerosol, vertical profile of aerosol characteristics, solar principal plane, numerical simulation

Abstract >>
The absence of explicit information on the “in situ” vertical distribution of optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol is a common situation because of the complexity and high cost of environmental monitoring from aircraft. The paper presents estimates of effects of stratification of the atmospheric optical characteristics on the downward scattered radiation measured by a sun photometer at the surface of the Earth in two basic configurations - in the solar almucantar and the solar principal plane. The assessments were made on the basis of numerical experiments using the parameters which describe both background (areas with low anthropogenic loading) and extreme atmospheric situations (urban smog, dusty haze over the land, dust cloud above the water surface). It is shown that in the visible region of the spectrum beyond radiation absorption by the oxygen, ozone, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide the stratification of the atmospheric optical characteristics has no significant effect on the sky radiance in solar almucantar, but in the solar principal plane it plays a significant role. The vertical variation of the aerosol extinction coefficient is the main factor. Using the simplified vertical profiles, in particular, the exponential distribution of the extinction coefficient, the error in the radiance calculation can be significantly reduced.
																								



8.
Temperature effect of smoke aerosol in the summer season over the central part of Yakutia for the period 2004в€’2014

M.S. Vasiliev, S.V. Nikolashkin
Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave.
Keywords: приземная температура воздуха, аэрозоль, радиационный бюджет, климатические модели, квазинедельные ритмы, surface air temperature, aerosol, radiative budget, climate models, quasi-weekly rythms

Abstract >>
In the current work, the result of an investigation of temperature effect of smoke aerosol in the summer season over the central part of Yakutia during the period 2004−2014 are presented. The data of ground-based and satellite measurements and also of climate models NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim, which are based on regular meteorological observations and aerological and satellite informations are used. It is first showed that a disturbance of atmosphere by aerosol particles which is caused by heat sources of forest area lead to a decrease of solar radiation flow, and, in the presence of a negative phase of upward longwave radiation, a surface air temperature drop is observed.
																								



9.
A set of time-resolved photoacoustic laser spectrometers

A.B. Tikhomirov, B.A. Tikhomirov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: лазерный оптико-акустический спектрометр, фоновый сигнал, временное разрешение, атмосферный воздух, неселективное поглощение, laser photoacoustic spectrometer, background signal, time resolution, atmospheric air, non-selective absorption

Abstract >>
A set of photoacoustic spectrometers in order to study the weak aerosol and molecular absorption of laser pulses by atmospheric air in UV, Visible and near infrared spectral regions is designed. The common element of spectrometers is a photoacoustic detector with a temporal resolution of signals and a built-in acoustic hub consisting of two parabolic mirrors. The detector is characterized by a high sensitivity (minimum measured value of the absorption coefficient reaches ~ 10–9 cm–1 at a laser beam radius of 1.5 mm and a laser pulse energy of 50 mJ) and by lack of background signals associated with the absorption of radiation at the inner surface of the photoacoustic cell. Some results of measurements of non-selective molecular and aerosol absorption in gases and air, including non-linear absorption of high-power femtosecond laser pulses are presented.
																								



10.
Status and prospects of application of microwave radiometry of the atmosphere

D.M. Karavaev, G.G. Shchukin
Mozhaiskii Military Space Academy, St. Zhdanov, 13, 197198, St. Petersburg
Keywords: радиояркостная температура, влагозапас атмосферы, водозапас облаков, профили влажности, профили температуры, В«влажнаяВ» задержка, валидация, brightness temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid, profiles of humidity, profiles of temperature, wet delay, validation

Abstract >>
The status of the ground-based microwave radiometry in view of determining atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, water vapor, cloud liquid, and rainfall intensity is discusses. Approaches to solving inverse problems of microwave radiometry of the atmosphere, the results of experimental research of atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid with the help of dual-frequency radiometer are described. The promising directions of the practical application of the method and means of microwave radiometry of the atmosphere are formulated.
																								



11.
On the 70th anniversary of Staline Borisovna Ponomareva


Abstract >>
November 17, 2015 was 70 years head of the editors of the journal "Atmospheric and Ocean Optics' Staline Borisovna Ponomareva.