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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2015 year, number 11

Multifrequency laser diagnostics of vibrational nonequilibrium gas media containing CO2 molecules

K.I. Arshinov1, O.N. Krapivnaya1, V.V. Nevdakh2
1Institute of Technical Acoustics, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Vitebsk, Belarus, Belarus, 210023, Vitebsk, prosp. Lyudnikova, 13
2Belarusian National Technical University, Belarus, 220013, Minsk, ul. Ya. Kolasa, 13
Keywords: колебательно-неравновесная газовая среда, молекулы СО2 , многочастотная диагностика, населенности колебательных уровней, поступательная температура газа, vibrational nonequilibrium gas media, CO2 molecules, multifrequency probing, level population, gas temperature

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The technique for the multifrequency laser diagnostics of a vibrational nonequilibrium gas media containing CO2 molecules with the use of the unsaturated gains at the lines of the 0001-[1000, 0200]I, II and 0002-[1001, 0201]I, II transitions is presented. The influences of accuracy of gain measurements and a number of sensed lines on the accuracy of the level population and temperature determination are studied.

Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling in the water vapor total content retrievals using different spectroscopic databanks of H2O absorption line parameters

T.Yu. Chesnokova1, A.V. Chentsov1, K.M. Firsov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Volgograd State University, 100, prospect Universitetsky, Volgograd, 400062, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный радиационный перенос, содержание водяного пара, спектроскопические банки данных, atmospheric radiative transfer, water vapor content, spectroscopic databanks

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The results of modeling of atmospheric absorption spectra of solar radiation in spectral intervals, where measurement of H2O content can be carried out, are presented. A comparison with the measured atmospheric solar spectra is made. Water vapor total content in vertical atmospheric column is retrieved from the measured atmospheric spectra with the use of different spectroscopic databanks of H2O absorption lines for various meteorological conditions and solar zenith angles.

Modified algorithm of retrieval of aerosol microstructure from spectral extinction measurements based on a hybrid model

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Men’shchikova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толщина, микроструктура аэрозоля, обратные задачи, aerosol optical depth, aerosol microstructure, inverse problem

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Special features of determining the aerosol microstructure from spectral measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) caused by low information content of solution for large particles are considered. Such conditions are observed when sizes of aerosol particles are much larger than the measurement wavelength. We propose the AOD inversion algorithm based on a hybrid model of the aerosol microstructure. The model includes the description of the disperse aerosol composition in the informative range of particle sizes based on the integral distribution function supplemented with a parametric representation of the microstructure of large particles. The efficiency of the algorithm is studied by numerical simulation. Results of testing the algorithm for inversion of the field experiment data are shown; they demonstrate the feasibility of retrieving the microstructural parameters of the coarse aerosol fraction when the upper limit of the spectral range decreases from 4 to 1.56 μm.

Multiple filamentation of collimated laser radiation in water and glass

D.V. Apeksimov1, S.S. Golik2,3, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.N. Iglakova1, A.M. Kabanov1, O.I. Kuchinskaya1,4, G.G. Matvienko1,4, V.K. Oshlakov1, A.V. Petrov1, E.B. Sokolova1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Automation and Control Prosesses Far Easten Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio Street, Vladivostok, 690041
3Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: лазерное излучение, фемтосекундный импульс, самофокусировка, множественная филаментация, стекло, вода, laser radiation, femtosecond pulse, self-focusing, multiple filamentation, glass, water

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Results of experimental investigation of spatial characteristics of the region of multiple filamentstion of giga- and terawatt pulses of Ti:Sapphire laser in the glass and water are presented. The pulse power dependences of the coordinates of the filamentation region, the number of filaments, their distribution along the axis of the laser beam, and the mean length of the filaments on the impulse power are presented. It is shown that the spatial characteristics of filamentation region are qualitatively similar for water and glass. It is found that the number of filaments along the region of multiple filamentation has a unimodal distribution. When increasing the radiation power, the length of individual filaments in the field of multiple filamentation is reduced, and the diameter has a quasi-constant value at all values of power, implemented in the experiments. The filamentation region, when reaching a certain power laser pulses with a Gaussian distribution of energy density, takes the form of a hollow cone with the apex directed to the source of radiation.

Stellar scintillations in a spaceborne occultation experiment for atmospheric irregularities with the variable anisotropy

V. Kan
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: спутниковое зондирование атмосферы, переменная анизотропия неоднородностей плотности, мерцания звезд, спектры слабых мерцаний, space-borne sounding of atmosphere, variable anisotropy of density irregularities, stellar scintillations, spectra of week scintillations

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The properties of stellar scintillations are studied in occultation experiment for synchronous sounding of the atmosphere at different wavelengths. The scintillation auto- and coherence spectra are calculated for the model of three-dimensional (3D) spectrum of atmospheric irregularities with the variable anisotropy. In the calculations, we used the dependency of anisotropy coefficient on irregularity scale derived from chromatic stellar scintillation measurements by fast GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) photometers during tangential occultations. Calculations are performed in approximations of the equivalent phase screen and weak scintillations. The regime of weak scintillations for low-orbit satellites corresponds to altitudes of ray perigee above 25-30 km. A comparison of scintillation spectra for models of 3D spectrum of atmospheric irregularities with the variable and constant anisotropy is performed and joint characteristics and peculiarities are noted.

Determination of the parameters of wave disturbances in the middle atmosphere from data of lidar sensing

V.A. Korshunov, D.S. Zubachev
Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association В«Typhoon», 4, Pobeda str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 Russia
Keywords: лидар, гравитационные волны, средняя атмосфера, вейлет-анализ, lidar, gravity waves, middle atmosphere, wavelet analysis

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The vertical profiles of temperature of middle atmosphere (30-60 km) are derived from data of lidar sensing at 355 and 532 nm wavelengths using a modified Rayleigh method. Temperature disturbances on the background of average profiles are extracted using a smoothing spline. The vertical profiles of the potential energy density of gravity waves are calculated immediately on the basis of temperature fluctuations. The special parameters of wave disturbances, including local power spectra of temperature fluctuations, potential energy, vertical phase velocity, and period for separate wavelengths are determined using the continuous wavelet analysis. The software developed enables one to find characteristics of the wave disturbances localized in time and separated on the wavelength scale (wave packets). Results of lidar measurements carried out at Obninsk are presented.

Method of estimation of sea water absorption spectra from data of passive remote sensing from board a ship using pure sea water properties

V.V. Rostovtseva
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36, Nakhimovski prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997
Keywords: спектры коэффициента яркости моря, поглощение и рассеяние света морской водой, приустьевая акватория Черного моря, концентрации основных природных примесей - фитопланктона, растворенной органики (В«желтого веществаВ») и взвеси, spectra of the seawater surface radiance coefficient, sea water absorption and scattering, river mouth aquatorium of the Black Sea, main sea water admixture concentrations - phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter (“yellow substance”), and suspended matter

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An original method for calibration of spectra of the seawater surface radiance coefficient measured from board a moving ship with a three-channel optical spectrophotometer is proposed. The method is based on some peculiarities of pure sea water absorption. By this method application, the spectra of the sea water absorption can be obtained. Some results of processing of measurements in the aquatorium of the Russian Black Sea coast at river mouths are given. The efficiency of the calibration method application for radiance spectra measured under the impact of considerable cloudiness and wind is demonstrated. After the absorption spectra were obtained, the concentrations of the main natural seawater admixtures were estimated and compared with the direct measurements of water samples. It is shown that the developed method of sea water content estimation, which includes remote sensing of sea radiance coefficient from board a ship, calibration method with sea water absorption spectra determination, and estimation of the main sea water admixtures concentration, can be used for investigation of shelf and inland sea aquatoria because it does not imply any correlation between phytoplankton, dissolved organic matter (“yellow substance”), and suspended matter concentrations.

Estimation of spatial heterogeneity of the thermal stratification in the boundary layer of the Moscow megalopolis from remote sensing

V.P. Yushkov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1/2, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Keywords: температура, пограничный слой, дистанционное зондирование, мегаполис, изменчивость, temperature, boundary layer, remote sensing, megalopolis, variability

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The results of a joint study of spatial heterogeneity and accuracy of retrieving temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer over Moscow are analyzed. Measurements at three sites allowed estimating the spatial variability of thermal stratification in the megalopolis. The impact of local features of the observation sites on the retrieval error at all altitudes is shown. To reduce this impact, the retrieving of temperature lapse rate is suggested. Comparison of temperature gradients showed a decrease in the effect of local features in the range from 100 to 300 meters. The reference mesh based on the statistical variability analysis of the vertical temperature gradients is proposed.

About the influence of modern changes in the lower stratiform clouds on the temperature regime of surface air over Siberia

V.S. Komarov, G.G. Matvienko, S.N. Il’in, N.Ya. Lomakina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: нижняя слоистообразная облачность, количество облачности, приземная температура воздуха, тренды, Сибирский регион, lower stratiform clouds, cloud amount, air temperature, trends, Siberian region

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The paper presents the analysis of the influence of the lower stratiform clouds (Sc, St, Ns) on long-term changes in surface temperature, performed for Siberia using the results of zoning of the territory according to cloudiness conditions. It has been shown that there is a weakly marked increase in the amount of low stratiform clouds during all seasons in the last 45-year period (from 1969 to 2013), which is accompanied by a quite noticeable increase in the surface temperature, especially in the polar regions.

The application of meteorological temperature profiler MTP-5PE at the airport for determining spatial zones of the potential aircraft icing

V.V. Zuev1,2, D.P. Nakhtigalova1,3, A.P. Shelekhov1, E.A. Shelekhova1, A.V. Pavlinsky1, N.A. Baranov4, L.I. Kizhner2
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3West Siberian Branch "Aviamettelekoma Roshydromet", 1, Deputatskaya, Novosibirsk, 630099, Russia
4Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of RAS, 40,Vavilov st., 119333, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: обледенение, профиль, температура, относительная влажность, температура точки росы, icing, profile, temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature

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The results of using the MTP-5PE meteorological temperature profiler for determining the spatial zones of potential aircraft icing in Tomsk airport on March 17, 2013, are presented. To determine the spatial zones the RAP-algorithm, the Godske method, and the AMIS-RF data to retrieve humidity profile were used. It is shown that the RAP-algorithm and the Godske method gave similar results on location of spatial zones of potential aircraft icing. However, the results obtained from the RAP-algorithm are closer to the actual icing reports received from the aircraft crews.

Peculiarities of the obtaining of high efficiency of a CuBr laser with double-pulsed excitation

A.I. Fedorov1, D.V. Shiyanov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: CuBr-laser, средняя мощность излучения, низкая частота, режим сдвоенных импульсов накачки, импульсы диссоциации и накачки, удельная энергия, кпд лазера, CuBr laser, average output power, low frequency, double-pulsed excitation, dissociation and pumping pulse, energy density, laser efficiency

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A CuBr laser with a small active volume operating with a double-pulsed excitation and 50 Hz pulse repetition rate is studied. The possibilities of increasing efficiency of the laser by optimizing parameters of the excitation pulse and its agreement with the impedance of the plasma active medium formed by dissociating pulse is shown. It is shown that to improve the efficiency of the laser it is necessary to choose the optimal mode of energy input into the plasma. This is achieved by impedance matching of pump sources with the plasma, which was carried out by selection of the optimum voltage excitation pulse and the time delay with respect to the dissociating pulse. The maximum efficiency of 1.5% for the laser excitation pulse with time delay of 150 ms, and the specific energy of dissociating pulse of 26 mJ/cm 3, and the exciting pulse of 0.2 mJ/cm 3 is obtained.

Effect of pulsed infrared illumination on human perception time of optical information

I.A. Belyakova1, Yu.N. Ponomarev2, A.N. Baykov1, O.Yu. Nikiforova2, K.Yu. Osipov2
1Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow highway, Tomsk region, Tomsk, 634050
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: зрительный стимул, время реакции, импульсная ИК-подсветка, visual stimulus, discrimination reaction time, pulsed infrared illumination

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The influence of subthreshold infrared pulse illumination on discrimination reaction time was investigated when recognizing geometric shapes on the screen.


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XVIII International Symposium on high resolution molecular spectroscopy HighRus-2015