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Philosophy of Sciences

2015 year, number 3

Epistemic logic and persuasion about itself: to what extent i am optimistic Ya. Hintikka?

A.Yu. Moisseva
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: убеждение, убеждение о себе, логика, интроспекция, persuasion, persuasion about itself, logic, introspection

Abstract >>
In the article are examined some consequences of the axioms, accepted in the epistemic logic I. Hintikka, who concern the possibility for the subject to be in error relative to its own persuasions.

The role of symmetry in a search of unified theory

A.Yu. Storozhuk
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: cимметрия, законы природы, универсальная теория, Symmetry, natural laws, unified theory

Abstract >>
A symmetry is so an important tool in the search of unified theory that the developing of new scientific theory is closely linked with the one of the correspond group of symmetry. During the modern scientific theory search scientists face with a different understanding of the space symmetry in quantum field theory and in the theory of gravity, it prevents to find of a unified theory. The aim of the paper consists of the point to conceptual difficulties preventing to accord conceptions of different theories.

Metaphysics string theory

E.A. Bezlepkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: метафизика, унификация, суперструны, суперсимметрия, математизация, простота, unification, superstrings, supersymmetry, mathematization, simplicity, symmetry, methodology

Abstract >>
Philosophical and methodological criteria based on which it is possible make the conclusion about the degree of "jointness" of physical theory are given. For the analysis, the theory of superstring is selected. In this regard, the history of the theory of superstring and the theory of supersymmetry (SUSY) is briefly considered. The main philosophical problems of the theory are shown. Based on the cited philosophical and methodological criteria the author concludes that string theory is not the final theory of unification of fundamental interactions in physics.

Did Lobachevsky have a model of his В«imaginary geometry»?

Andrei Rodin
The Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
Keywords: geometry, Lobachevsky, hyperbolic 3-space

Abstract >>
The invention of non-Euclidean geometries is often seen through the optics of Hilbertian formal axiomatic method developed later in the 19th century. However such an anachronistic approach fails to provide a sound reading of Lobachevsky’s geometrical works. Although the modern notion of model of a given theory has a counterpart in Lobachevsky’s writings its role in Lobachevsky’s geometrical theory turns to be very unusual. Lobachevsky doesn’t consider various models of Hyperbolic geometry, as the modern reader would expect, but uses a non-standard model of Euclidean plane (as a particular surface in the Hyperbolic 3-space). In this paper I consider this Lobachevsky’s construction, and show how it can be better analyzed within an alternative non-Hilbertian foundational framework, which relates the history of geometry of the 19th century to some recent developments in the field.

Philosophical significance of reductive and non-reductive approaches to the simulation of the consciousness

S.E. Ovchinnikov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: сознание, редукция, супервентность, квалиа, субстанция, феномен, consciousness, reduction, supervenience, qualia, substance, phenomenon

Abstract >>
The paper consider philosophical foundation of modern approach to understand and model of consciousness. The inner contradictions are distinguished, analyzes of relative critics of reductive and non-reductive approaches is developed. The main cause of disagreement between conceptions is determinate and philosophical consequences from it are deduced.

Does the unconscious possesses mental content?

A.S. Kashpurova
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Nikolaeva str, 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: подсознание, сознание, мышление, мыслительный процесс, мыслительный акт, consciousness, mind, subconscious, thinking, act of thought, thinking process

Abstract >>
In this article was considered the concepts' relationship of subconsciousness and unconscious. There were proved redundancy of concept unconscious for psychology needs, because the unconscious doesn't possess the mental contents locates.

The microstructure of living matter in natural-philosophical system of Galen. Part 2

D.A. Balalykin
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow
Keywords: натурфилософия, история науки, Гален, история медицины, гомеомерии, Анаксагор, микроструктура живой материи, natural philosophy, history of science, Galen, history of medicine, homoeomeries, Anaxagoras, the microstructure of living matter

Abstract >>
The paper studies the concept of "homoeomeries" in natural philosophy system of Galen. With regard to the analysis of the history and philosophy of medicine author interested in treatises of Galen ( In Hippocratis de natura hominis librum commentarii III , Ars medica , De constitutione artis medicae ad Patrophilum), which clearly describes the fundamental importance of the doctrine of homoeomeries for the whole system of natural philosophy of Galen. The author raises the question of compliance with the views of Galen to the entrenched in the history of philosophy ideas about homoeomeries. The author points to a significant difference between the interpretations of the term by various philosophers of antiquity, on the one hand, and the fact that it has invested in this concept Galen, who shared with the point of view of Aristotle on the matter. Natural-philosophical system he needed for an integrated understanding of the principles of the device and functioning of the human organism, as well as the causes of diseases, treatments and therapies. All this, according to Galen, should be explained in the framework of a certain philosophical (i.e. general scientific) system. Expediency functions as a basis of understanding mission, pledged by the Creator into the various organs and tissues, and determines the approach to the idea of Galen homoeomeries.

The critical moment in the science of life: herediary laws

O.V. Trapezov
Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: генетика, эксперимент, закон, Грегор Иоганн Мендель, genetic, Johan Gregor Mendel

Abstract >>
150 years ago the paper of Augustine monk Gregor Mendel “The experiments with plants hibrydes” symbolized the appearance of new science - genetics. The idea of this paper shows that every feature of the living organisms is determined by two factors. It can be proposed that binary combinations and mathematical relations variations are appeared in mental Mendel’s experiment in longterm mental experiment. The hybridological experiments were used for supporting that thought only.

Metaphysics in the cosmology of the New time

A.L. Simanov
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: метафизика, космология, пространство, история науки, metaphysics, cosmology, space, history of science

Abstract >>
Evolution of cosmological representations in New times. It is shown that these views influenced the whole future course of development of cosmology.

Novelties in the standards of experimentation in particle physics of XX century

V.S. Pronskikh1,2
1Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna
2Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA
Keywords: философия научного эксперимента, физика элементарных частиц, теоретическая нагруженность, статистические критерии, эпистемические стратегии, роли эксперимента, philosophy of scientific experimentation, particle physics, theory-ladenness, statistical criteria, epistemic strategies, roles of experiment

Abstract >>
A review of contemporary discussions of shifts in the standards of scientific experimentation in particle physics in XX century is made based on the book “Shifting Standards: Experiments in Particle Physics in the Twentieth Century” by Franklin A. and works of other authors. A leading role of statistical criteria (5 sigma) and the issues related to its applications for substantiation of discovery claims are discussed. Various levels of theory-ladenness of experimentation such as triggers, data exclusion and selectivity, and systematic errors are analyzed. Changes in the ways of presentation of experiment in scientific publications and communication of results, style and authorship of publications by large collaborations are traced. Epistemic strategies of experimentation as proposed by Franklin as well as the roles of experiment in cognition are examined.