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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2015 year, number 4

The Study of Forest Dynamics in the Pergumid Climate of Western Sayan Mountains (Ermakovsky Research Station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch)

D. I. Nazimova1, M. E. Konovalova1, D. M. Danilina1, E. I. Ponomarev1, N. Yu. Stashkevich1, S. D. Baboy2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Branch of the Russian Centre for Forest Protection Centre for Forest Protection of Krasnoyarsk Territory, Akademgorodok, 50a/2, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: барьерно-дождевые ландшафты, высотно-поясные комплексы, горные пихтово-кедровые леса, фитоценотическая структура, сукцессии, возобновление, barrier-rain landscapes, altitudinal-zonal complexes, fir- and Siberian stone pine mountain forests, phytocenotic structure, successions, regeneration, Western Sayan Mountains, Southern Siberia

Abstract >>
The Ermakovsky territory research station (53°17´-52°28´ N, 92°49´-93°20´ E) has served as a long-term site for studies of mountain forest ecosystem structure and its dynamics during the last 50 years. The most interesting results of study in 2000-2014 are presented in the paper concerning biodiversity and forest succession in primary and secondary forest types forming the chern forest formation with Siberian pine ( Pinus sibirica Du Tour) and Siberian fir ( Abies sibirica L.). The data of remote sensing confirm differentiation of landscapes into altitudinal belt complexes (ABC) that are characteristic for windward macroslopes of the West and East Sayans: Scotch pine-Birch-Aspen subtaiga ( Pinus sylvestris L., Betula pendula Roth., Populus tremula L.), chern forest with ( Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica), mountain Siberian fir ( Abies sibirica) taiga within perhumid climate, subalpine open woodlands with ( Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica). They were singled out earlier with traditional methods. Position of the mountain polygon-transect (study area) in the system of natural zonation of Altai-Sayan ecoregion and its belonging to barrier-rain mountain landscapes of South Siberia are defined more exactly with help of forest inventory and remote sensing data. Initial phases of forest successions by the above mentioned four ABCs are considered with special attention to regeneration of Pinus sibirica. In contrast to Abies sibirica it remains weak or absent for more than 50 years. It shows unstable positions of Siberian pine in all ABCs due to high general humidity and well developed herb layers. For chern ABC, the dynamics of primary and secondary stands structure are researched on a number of representative plots with the use of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer 1:100 mapping three times in a 45 year period. It is shown that species number and composition remain stable on permanent plots whereas synuzial diversity and the share of their participation in herb layer vary significantly and influence location of regeneration. The features of coniferous ecosystems with Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica referred to chern forests correspond to the status of preserved objects due to their unique and virgin character. A number of Pinus sibirica genetic reserves (permanent plots) are located in the chern ABC.

The Effect of Slope Exposition on the Growth Dynamics of Larix Gmelinii in Permafrost Conditions of Central Siberia. I. Differences in Tree Radial Dynamics Growth in the Northand South-Facing Slopes

A. V. Benkova, D. A. Mashukov, V. E. Benkova, A. S. Prokushkin, A. V. Shashkin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: радиальный прирост, климатические факторы, поток солнечной радиации, мохово-лишайниковый покров, термические почвенные условия, Центральная Эвенкия, Средняя Сибирь, radial increment, climate factors, solar radiation, moss-lichen cover, thermal soil properties, Central Evenkia, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
This paper is devoted to revealing the distinctive characteristics of radial growth of larch trees ( Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) growing in permafrost contrast conditions of the north and south facing slopes (Central Siberia, 64°19´23˝ N, 100°13´28˝ E). Even-aged larch stems regenerated after strong fire in 1899 in opposite north and south facing slopes of the hills situated on the banks of Kulingdakan stream were under study. Two sample sites at the middle part of the slopes were established. 23 model trees in the north facing slope and 13 ones in the south-facing slope were selected for dendrochronological analysis. From each tree, disks at 1.3 m height of the stems were taken. Tree ring widths were measured, comparative analysis of dynamics of radial growth in the slopes was made. In order to separate time intervals, characterized by distinctive climate impact on radial increment, sliding response functions were calculated and analyzed. Daily solar radiation for both sample sites was calculated. The results showed that solar radiation in the north-facing slope is 20 % less than that in south-facing slope. Solar radiation regime promotes intensive thickening of moss-lichen cover, so that its thickness to 2009 was nearly two times thicker than in south-facing slope. Both factors affected the worth thermal soil growth conditions in the north facing slope. The latter was responsible for narrower ring widths formation in the stems and governed higher sensitivity of the trees to air temperature in the periods of cambium reactivation, start and intensive growth.

The Structure of Tree Stands and Wood-Destroying Fungi of Native Pine Biogeocoenoses of the Russian Plain

V. G. Storozhenko
Institute of Forest Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Uspenskoe Village, Odinscovsky District, Moscow Oblast, 143030 Russian Federation
Keywords: коренные сосновые леса, возрастные поколения, дереворазрушающие грибы, величины пораженности древостоев, indigenous pine forests, age generations, wood-destroying fungi, volumes of affection

Abstract >>
The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr.) Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr.) Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr.) A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr.) Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic complex’ wood-destroying fungal attack and described the features of mottled but rot ( Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) affection in the pine forests.

After Fire Regenerative Successions in Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) Forests of the Central Khangai in Mongolia

M. Undraa1, K. Kawada2, Ch. Dorjsuren1, T. Kamijo2
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Zhukov avenue, 77, Ulaanbaatar, 210351 Mongolia
2University of Tsukuba, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8572 Japan
Keywords: forest fire, succession, regeneration, sapling, seedling, pseudotaiga, forest conservation, detrended correspondence analysis, C. C. Raunkiær life form classification, Tarbagatai Mountain Range, Central Khangai, Mongolia

Abstract >>
The changes in the composition and the projective cover of understory species and regeneration after fires in 1996 and 2002 in pseudotaiga larch forests of the Central Khangai, Mongolia have been investigated. Descriptions of vegetation and inventory of natural regeneration were carried out in 2007, 2010 and 2012 on permanent sample plots that were established in each of two sites. According to the Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), no drastic changes were observed in species composition of the plant community during 11, 14, 16 years after fire of 1996 and 8, 10 years after fire of 2002. Regarding the plant cover, remarkable change was not observed in vegetation, except in 5 year-old stand. Grasses-herbs community with young larch saplings 10 years after fire of 2002 was formed. Loose herbs community with young larch saplings 16 years after fire of 1996 was established. Moreover plant life forms were identified during the succession years post-fire. By Christen C. Raunkiær life form classification (1937), life forms such as cryptophytes and hemicryptophytes either kept or shared their dominant position following fire. These plants seem to be fire-resistant and have a high ability to recover post-fire. After the fires, natural regeneration was successful. However, grazing may affect negatively to larch regeneration. It can be explained by difference of large saplings in two plots. The number of large saplings per hectare was low despite the long recovery period in one plot.

Technogenic Pollution of Pine Forests by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

O. V. Kalugina, E. N. Taranenko, T. A. Mikhailova, O. V. Shergina
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Lermontova str., 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная (Pinus sylvestris L.), полициклические ароматические углеводороды (ПАУ), соединения с разным количеством бензольных колец, бенз[а]пирен, перилен, алюминиевое производство, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), compound with different amount of aromatic rings, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, aluminium industry

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Anthropogenic pollution of boreal forests by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in the vicinity of the Bratsk aluminium smelter - one of the largest aluminium smelters in the world. The fieldwork was performed in 2012-2013 on 34 index plots, set in mixed herb and sedge-mixed herb pine forests (mostly site class III). It is shown that the total accumulation of PAHs reaches its highest level (more than 6000 ng/g) in pine needle samples collected at sites up to 3 km from the aluminium smelter. PAH total quantity decreases with increasing the distance from the pollution source and at a distance of 50 km reaches values close to background ones. The highest concentrations of PAHs were detected in needle samples collected at plots located from the plant in a direction corresponding to the prevailing emissions transfer. There was also detected a significant difference in compositions of individual PAHs: there were 18 compounds identified in samples collected near the aluminium smelter whereas only 6 compounds were identified in samples collected on the background territories. Among the PAHs accumulated in pine trees assimilation organs the substances with 3-4 aromatic rings (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene) were dominant with their total number reaching 90 % of the total. Compound with 5-6 aromatic rings (benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[g, h, i]perylene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene).comprises a smaller proportion (from 6 to 27 %) in total PAHs content. High concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and perylene in needle samples collected in the vicinity of the aluminum smelter indicate technogenic character of forest pollution.

Variability of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) Generative Organs in Mountain Populations in Mongolia and Adjacent Regions of Russia

A. P. Barchenkov1, L. I. Milyutin1, S. Jamiyansuren2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorogok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Zhukov avenue, 77, Ulaanbaatar, 210351 Mongolia
Keywords: лиственница, изменчивость, морфологические признаки, шишки, семенная чешуя, Siberian larch, variability, morphological features, cones, seed scale

Abstract >>
The Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) is the main forest genus in Siberia and Mongolia. The systematization of Siberian larch is based on morphological diversity, so the study of morphological features variability is actual for selecting and foresting of this forest genus. Analysis of variability of cones’ morphological features for Siberian larch have been carried out. The morphological features variability for more than thirty coenopopulations in different vegetation conditions have been investigated. The basic laws of larch features differentiation in mountain regions Mongolian and Russian Altai and Khangai have been revealed. The main factors, deciding the variability of cones morphological features are exposure, elevation and exposition of mountainside. The intrapopulation variability of cone morphological features increases with increasing elevation of the coenopopulation above sea level. The highest values of metric features of cones have been found in more moist northern and north-eastern flanks of the Altai and Khangai. The trees with rounded form of seed scale have been most common in the populations structure of Siberian larch. However, the increase of the occurrence of trees with a straight and notched form of seed scale edge has been observed with increasing elevation of the population above the sea level. Apparently, the increase of the occurrence of trees with a straight and notched form of seed scale edge is not typical for this genus larch shows that these features are revealed in extreme environmental conditions.

Scientific Heritage of Alexey Ivanovich Buzykin (to 85 Years of Birthday)

L. S. Pshenichnikova, M. D. Evdokimenko, V. V. Ivanov, A. A. Onuchin, V. G. Soukhovolsky
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorogok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Алексей Иванович Бузыкин, леса Сибири, продуктивность, густота, рубки, минеральное питание, динамика лесов, Alexey Ivanovich Buzykin, forests of Siberia, productivity, density, forest felling, mineral nutrients, forest dynamics

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The paper analyzes the scientific achievements and heritage of Alexey Ivanovich Buzykin, a well-known Siberian forest researcher, the Honored Forester of the Russian Federation, who contributed remarkably to improve the knowledge of the forests of Siberia. He was the first to explore the possibility to increase Siberian forest productivity by its scientifically justified regulation. He accurately estimated forest productivity responses to increasing soil nitrogen using a large amount of data, studied structural, species composition, and density changes that occur in young mixed stands after tending felling, revealed stand productivity dependence on stand density, and showed how structure and dynamics of forest generations are manifested through vegetation succession. Along with studies of natural ecosystems, Alexey I. Buzykin did large-scale experiments on managing forest ecosystems by different types of sanitary cutting, application of fertilizers to soil, regulation of cold soil thermal regime, and by establishment of Scots pine, spruce and larch plantations covering a range of stand densities. To achieve his forest management objectives, he developed original forest research methods, among them methodologies to assess seedling and sapling amounts, to estimate forest response to fertilizer application, and to classify young forest stands by formation type. He also developed tables of small-sized young tree trunk volumes. During his last years, Alexey I. Buzykin, in collaboration with other researchers, accomplished a series of theoretical studies. He suggested that mathematical tools should be used for interpreting different kinds of events and changes occurring in forest ecosystems including the use of phenomenological models of stand establishment processes, stand growth models, forest succession models, and other models. The results of Alexey I. Buzykin’s research studies are still very important regarding large-scale forestry activities. They have been used for many years to improve forest management practices in Siberia and have been considered in the forest use normative documents of the federal level. A list of Alexey I. Buzykin’s major research works concludes the paper.

Scientific Heritage of Reginald Ivanovich Loskutov (11.06.1932-18.07.2014)

A. I. Lobanov, M. D. Evdokimenko
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorogok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Р. И. Лоскутов, кедр сибирский, искусственное восстановление, Западный Саян, интродукция древесных растений, дендрарий Института леса им. В. Н. Сукачева СО РАН, Reginald Ivanovich Loskutov, Siberian stone pine, artificial reforestation, Western Sayan Mountains, introduction of woody plants, arboretum of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

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The analysis of scientific achievements and scientific heritage of the oldest Siberian forester and introducer - Reginald Ivanovich Loskutov, who has made a significant contribution to the technology of growing conifers in Siberia, and list of his major scientific publications is presented in the article. It is noted that proved particularly fruitful activity of Reginald I. Loskutov in the introduction of woody plants, and in the creation of the Arboretum of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch and decorative renovation of urban green spaces in the city of Krasnoyarsk. For 38 years Reginald I. Loskutov tested about 450 species, varieties and forms of unique ornamental trees and shrubs. Now in the collections of the Arboretum successfully grow more than 260 species, varieties and forms of plants belonging to 75 genera and 28 families. Reginald I. Loskutov and academician Igor Yu. Koropachinsky tested basic range of woody plants of different botanical and geographical areas of the world, numbering nearly 250 species recommended for cultivation in the city of Krasnoyarsk and its related climate areas of southern Siberia.