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Journal of Mining Sciences

2015 year, number 4

1.
Nonlinear Deformation-Wave Processes in Various Rank Coal Specimens Loaded to Failure in Varied Temperature Field

V. N. OPARIN1,2, T. A. KIRYAEVA1, O. M. USOL’TSEVA1, P. A. TSOI1, V. N. SEMENOV1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 4, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: связи, температурное поле, деформационно-волновые процессы, стадии метаморфизма, образцы, угольные месторождения Кузбасса, напряженно-деформированное состояние, выход летучих, предельная внутренняя энергия, релаксация метаноносности, connections, temperature field, deformation-wave processes, ranks, specimens, Kuzbass coal deposits, stress-strains state, volatile yield, limit internal energy, methane relaxation

Abstract >>
Aiming to build up a phenomenological basis for the theory of interaction between geomechanical, thermal and physicochemical processes in methane-bearing coal in Kuzbass, the authors have performed a set of laboratory bench tests on uniaxial stiff loading of various rank coal specimen to failure at a rate of 3.3∙10-6 m/s. The pressure versus temperature dependences are obtained for coal specimens with granite interbeds using high-precision computerized thermal scanner. It is shown that temperature change in coal specimens subjected to loading to failure is connected with volatile yield and internal energy relaxation of methane in Kuzbass coal. Using jointly thermal imaging and laser measuring equipment ALMEC-tv for high-precision and detail control of deformation-wave processes in loaded coal specimens by speckle-method, it has for the first time been proved that nonlinear pendulum-type movements of structural elements are possible in coal specimens under varied temperature field, which is of fundamental importance for actualization of previously ignored mass and gas exchange processes in high-stress different-grade coal seams under mining.
																								



2.
Stress Redistribution in Deep Open Pit Mine Zhelezny at Kovdor Iron Ore Deposit

A. A. KOZYREV, I. E. SEMENOVA, V. V. RYBIN, I. M. AVETISYAN
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 24, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: геомеханика, напряженное состояние, устойчивость бортов карьеров, математическое моделирование, разработка месторождений полезных ископаемых открытым способом, geomechanics, stress state, pit wall stability, mathematical modeling, open pit mineral mining method

Abstract >>
The full-scale measurements of initial stresses and numerical modeling of stresses in rock mass enclosing deep open pit mine Zhelezny under planning at Kovdor Mining-and-Processing Integrated Works are presented in the article. The authors have located hazardous areas in pit wall rock mass and validated stability conditions for pit walls with vertical benches.
																								



3.
Determination of Gas-Kinetic Parameters of a Block Coal Seam by Solving Inverse Problem Based on Borehole Gas Measurements

L. A. NAZAROVA1, L. A. NAZAROV1, A. L. KARCHEVSKY2, M. VANDAMME3
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 4, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Ecole des Ponts ParisTech-Laboratoire Navier, 6-8 Av. B. Pascal, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne, France
Keywords: углепородный массив, дегазация, газосодержание, коэффициент диффузии, обратная задача, coal and rock mass, degassing, gas content, diffusion coefficient, inverse problem

Abstract >>
In the framework of the developed and implemented nonlinear geomechanical model of a coal seam having block structure to describe gas influx in borehole, the authors propose the method for quantitative estimate of gas content and diffusion and mass exchange coefficients based on solution of inverse problems using pressure measurements taken in shut-in borehole in the “pressure drop” mode. Besides the main function, the set problem had an auxiliary objective function with the less number of arguments. Numerical experiments with synthetic input data show that the auxiliary objective function has a number of local minimums. The authors also put forward a technique of finding global minimum that provides the set problem solution.
																								



4.
Calculating Stress State of Support and Sidewall Rocks in Stagewise Face Drivage in Long Excavations

V. M. SERYAKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: горные породы, напряжения, деформации, поперечное сечение выработки, элементы крепи, этапы разработки сечения, расчет напряженного состояния, матрица жесткости, зоны растяжения, rocks, stresses, strains, cross section, support elements, face drivage stages, stress state calculation, stiffness matrix, tension zones

Abstract >>
The issues of calculation of stresses and strains in the elements of support and in rock mass in stagewise drivage of a production face are under discussion. In order to take into account sequences of mining and support installation, it is required to solve problems on extra stresses due to small cross section drivage. Geomechanical estimation of support and rocks used the method based on single-stage formation of stiffness matrix to describe rock mass prior to mining start. Sequential drivage of excavations and change of mechanical properties in the calculation system are modeled using initial stress procedure. The author calculates two scenarios of mining with stagewise face drivage under conditions of elastic deformation of rocks and support and analyzes behavior of stress redistribution in elements of support being installed in stages. It is shown that mining sequence considerably influences stresses in support elements upon drivage completion. The scenario of mining with initial installation of sideways support elements results in increased tensile stresses in the support as against the scenario when the underroof space is cut and supported in the first place.
																								



5.
Axisymmetric Rigid-Plastic Modeling Approach to Determination of Ultimate Pitwall Parameters

A. I. CHANYSHEV, G. M. PODYMINOGIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: устойчивость, борт, карьер, массив пород, жестко-пластическая модель материала, глубина карьера, stability, pit wall, open pit, rock mass, rigid-plastic model, pit depth

Abstract >>
The authors describe mathematical model for estimation of cone-type pitwall stability in the framework of rigid-plastic deformation of rocks, with finding safe ultimate pit depth.
																								



6.
Numerical Modeling of Wave Fields of Microseismic Events in Underground Mining

M. V. KURLENYA1, A. S. SERDYUKOV1,2, A. V. AZAROV1, A. A. NIKITIN2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum-Gas Geology and Geophysics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: микросейсмический мониторинг, геодинамические процессы, математическое моделирование, численные методы, анизотропные среды, тензор сейсмических моментов, Microseismic monitoring, geodynamic processes, mathematical modeling, numerical methods, anisotropic medium, seismic moment trend

Abstract >>
The article describes modeling procedure and calculation of wave fields in microseismicity monitoring in anisotropic medium. The research findings are intended for testing of processing algorithms for data of seismic observations in underground mining.
																								



7.
Analysis of Time-to-Time Variation of Load Exerted on Interchamber Pillars in Mines of the Upper Kama Potash Salt Deposit

A. A. BARYAKH, S. YU. LOBANOV, I. S. LOMAKIN
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: целики, кровля, математическое моделирование, степень нагружения, разрушение, длительная прочность, pillars, roof, mathematical modeling, loading, failure, long-term strength

Abstract >>
The procedure to estimate growth in load exerted on interchamber pillars with time is based on mathematical modeling of stresses and strains in structural elements of room-and-pillar mining method using roof rock failure criteria. The calculation results illustrate a real time scale of variation in strength of rocks and the associated partial collapse of a parting and failure of edges of interchamber pillars when their height is increased.
																								



8.
Effect of Deformation Properties of Discontinuities on Intensity of Induced Seismicity Sources in Rocks. Part I: In Situ Observations

A. N. BESEDINA1, S. B. KISHKINA1, G. G. KOCHARYAN1,2
1Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 38, Bld. 1, Moscow, 119334 Russia
geospheres@idg.chph.ras.ru
2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii pereulok 9, Dolgoprudny, 141700 Russia
Keywords: индуцированная сейсмичность, сейсмическая энергия, сейсмический момент, горно-тектонические удары, жесткость разломов, induced seismicity, seismic energy, seismic moment, tectonic shocks, fault rigidity

Abstract >>
The authors analyze mine logs of seismic events in Poland, Finland, Canada, Russia and South Africa. For the analyzed events, induced seismic energy varies by 2-3 orders of magnitude at the same value of seismic moment. The upper and lower limits of the range correspond to “hard” and “tender” sources, respectively. The most probable cause of the wide scatter of the reduced energy values seems to be fluctuating properties of discontinuities due to change in material composition of fracture filler and in water content of rocks.
																								



9.
Estimating Deformation Properties of Rocks by Pressuremeter Test Data Obtained in Hydrofractured Interval

M. V. KURLENYA, S. V. SERDYUKOV, A. V. PATUTIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: массив горных пород, скважинные прессиометрические испытания, гидроразрыв, трещина, модуль Юнга, коэффициент Пуассона, напряженное состояние, rock mass, pressuremeter test, hydrofracturing, crack, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, stress state

Abstract >>
The authors propose the method to estimate deformation properties of rocks by the data on pressure meter tests in hydrofractured interval, allowing in situ values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of rocks. It is shown that integration of pressure meter tests and hydraulic fracturing expands the scope of deformation measurements and improves efficiency of stress assessment in rocks using hydrofracturing method.
																								



10.
Justification of Extraction Panel Parameters in Ecologically Balanced Coal Mining Cycle

M. V. RYL’NIKOVA1, V. A. EREMENKO1, A. P. ERUSLANOV2, S. A. PROKHVATILOV2
1Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Novokuznetsk Paramilitary Mine Rescue Team, Paramilitary Mine Rescue Unit, ul. Gornospasatel’naya 5, Novokuznetsk, 654028 Russia
Keywords: экологически сбалансированный цикл, месторождение, комплексное освоение, шахта, угольный пласт, выемочный столб, размеры, выработанное пространство, система мониторинга, кислород, метан, ecologically balanced cycle, deposit, comprehensive extraction, mine, coal seam, extraction panel, dimension, mined-out stope, monitoring system, oxygen, methane

Abstract >>
The article focuses on ecologically balanced, comprehensive extraction of coal reserves, with minimized impact exerted on human environment by gas emissions. It is found that geometrical design of extraction panels should be based on modeling of oxygen distribution in mined-out stopes followed with the model calibration based on in situ test data.
																								



11.
Geomechanical Service in Mining under Gas-and-Dynamic Phenomena

A. A. BOTVINNIK
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: разрез, грузооборот, работа по перемещению горной массы, перевалка вскрыши, точки концентрации, конфигурация трасс, open pit mine, rock mass tranportation work, overburden rehandling, concentration points, road configuratrion

Abstract >>
In the framework of geo-information model of coal deposit and open pit mine, the author derives analytical expressions for calculating work of rock transportation from face to start point of transport incline, considering road characteristics obtained in the course of geo-information modeling. Alternative calculations of freight turnover and transportation work to overcome gravity and road adhesion are analyzed. The example of calculations for the conditions of a particular open pit coal mine contains comparison of one- and two-flank mining schemes.
																								



12.
Reduction of Coal Bed Methane Release under High-Rate Advance of Production Face

A. A. ORDIN1, A. M. TIMOSHENKO2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2VostNII Science Center, ul. Institutskaya 3, Kemerovo, 650002 Russia
Keywords: шахта, угольный пласт, абсолютное и относительное метановыделение, скорость подвигания очистного забоя, концентрация метана, mine, coal bed, absolute and relative methane release, production face advance rate, methane concentration

Abstract >>
The theoretical proof is presented for absolute coal bed methane release as a nonlinear extremal function of production face output. The article givers actual and theoretical evidences of reduction in absolute coal bed methane release under high-rate advance of production face.
																								



13.
Experimental Validation of Mechanism of Pulsed Energy Effect on Structure, Chemical Properties and Microhardness of Rock-Forming Minerals of Kimberlites

I. ZH. BUNIN, V. A. CHANTURIA, N. E. ANASHKINA, M. V. RYAZANTSEVA
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: породообразующие минералы кимберлитов, высоковольтные наносекундные импульсы, ИК-фурье-спектроскопия, рентгеновская фотоэлектронная спектроскопия, микроскопия, поверхность, микротвердость, kimberlite rock-forming minerals, high-voltage nanosecond pulses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, surface, microhardness

Abstract >>
Using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), microscopy and microhardness test methods, the change in the crystalline and chemical properties and in microhardness of rock-forming minerals of kimberlites as a result of exposure to high-power nanosecond electromagnetic pulses (HPEM) has been studied. Based on the data of FTIR and XPS, non-thermal effect of HPEM results in damage of surface microstructure of dielectric minerals due to formation of microcracks, surface breakdowns and other defects, which ensures effective weakening of rock-forming minerals and reduction in their microhardness by 40-66%.
																								



14.
Modeling and Analysis of Physicochemical Processes in Recirculating Water Conditioning

I. V. PESTRYAK
National University of Science and Technology-MISiS, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
Keywords: оборотные воды, кондиционирование, катионы меди, технические жирные кислоты, подземные воды, флотация руд, recirculating water, conditioning, copper cations, commercial-grade fat acids, ground water, ore flotation

Abstract >>
The current technologies of mineral mining, processing and beneficiation require introduction of water circuiting. A common ecological and technological objective is in this case reduction of concentration of copper and commercial-grade fat acid ions that worsen flotation. A promising way of reaching the set objective is preliminary mixing of different waste water flows with maximum concentrations of the specified ions. The thermodynamic calculations justify optimized water treatment modes when engineering-and-economic performance of copper-molybdenum ore dressing remains unaltered, consumption of fresh natural water is lowered, and water supply is enhanced.
																								



15.
Composition of Multicomponent Heracleum Extracts and Its Effect on Flotation of Gold-Bearing Sulfides

T. A. IVANOVA, T. N. MATVEEVA, V. A. CHANTURIA, E. N. IVANOVA
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 11120 Russia
Keywords: селекция сульфидов, флотация, золотосодержащие сульфидные минералы халькопирит, пирит, извлечение, растительные модификаторы, экстракция, борщевик, Sulfide selection, flotation, gold-bearing chalcopyrite and pyrite sulfides, recovery, vegetable modifiers, extraction, Heracleum

Abstract >>
Using proprietory method, the authors have obtained flotation agent BO-extract of atomized leaves and stalks of Heracleum sosnowskyi , and analyzed its composition. Qualitative tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometry and flotation tests show that aqueous and organic extracts contain substances that differ in chemical and process properties. The article gives test results for aqueous, alcoholic and aqueous-alcoholic extracts BO used as modifiers in chalcopyrite and pyrite flotation. Selective properties of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extracts BO are characterized. The highest depression ability relative to pyrite is a characteristic of aqueous BO extract obtained at pH = 3, with heating and treatment in ultrasonic bath. Organic extracts contain mostly furocoumarins, aspic oils and resins, and have no material effect on flotation activity of pyrite.
																								



16.
Interaction of Gold-Bearing Sulfides with Modified Chlorine Solutions

A. L. SAMUSEV, E. S. TOMSKAYA
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: упорные золотосодержащие руды, арсенопирит, пирит, хлор, гипохлорит, электрохимическая обработка, rebellious gold ore, arsenopyrite, pyrite, chlorine, hypochlorite, electrochemical treatment

Abstract >>
The article reports tests on studying mechanism of interaction between modified chlorine solutions and gold-bearing sulfides. The change in texture, structural properties and elemental composition of sulfides after electrochemical treatment is analyzed. The authors indicate basic negative factors reducing dissolution velocity of sulfides.
																								



17.
Collecting Ability of Easily Desorbed Xanthates

S. A. KONDRAT’EV1, N. P. MOSHKIN2, I. A. KONOVALOV1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 15, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: флотация, флотационная активность реагента, поверхностное натяжение, прослойка жидкости, уравнения теории смазки, физическая форма сорбции, селективность, flotation, agent flotation activity, surface tension, water film, lubrication theory equations, physical adsorption, selectivity

Abstract >>
The analysis focuses on collecting ability of easily desorbed (ED-forms) ethyl and butyl xanthates. The authors give visual proof of “dry” spot extension on mineral surface when xanthates that are active relative to air-water interface are desorbed from it. It is shown that ED-forms of agents, being products of interaction between xanthates and heavy metal salts, can remove water from film between mineral particle and air bubble. The main force on water in the film is conditioned by surface tension nonuniformity at the moment of local rupture and by surface pressure of molecules in the film of agent ED-forms. The collecting ability of ED-forms of xanthate is determined as the rate of its influence on water in the film. The forces exerted on water in the film of ED-forms of ethyl and butyl xanthates are estimated numerically. The dependence of volumetric water flow from the film on the surface tension of agent ED-forms active at air-water interface is found. It is shown that collecting ability of an agent is dependent on surface tension of solution of its ED-forms and is governed by structure of hydrocarbon fragment of the collector.
																								



18.
Geomechanical Monitoring of Temporal Lining in Rail Tunneling in Complex Geological Conditions

V. N. OPARIN1,2, V. F. YUSHKIN1, G. N. POLYANKIN3, A. N. GRISHIN3, A. O. KUZNETSOV3, D. E. RUBLEV1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Siberian State University of Railway Transport, ul. Dusi Koval’chuk 191, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia
Keywords: блочный массив, временная крепь, обделка тоннеля, деформационный мониторинг, лазерное сканирование, сейсмическая волна, коэффициент крепости пород, спектральный анализ, block rock mass, temporal lining, tunnel lining, deformation monitoring, laser scanning, seismic wave, rock hardness coefficient, spectrum analysis

Abstract >>
The article describes the integrated method and results of deformation-wave monitoring of temporal lining in rail tunneling in complex geological conditions on the south of Western Siberia. 3D geometric parameters of temporal lining are measured by laser scanning at a span of 3 months, which enables comparing actual 3D models of temporal lining and rocks in reinforced tunnel section. Based on the data obtained at various times of observation, shifting of unmarked points of temporal lining and deformation of tunnel walls and arch was determined. High density scanning allows remote identification of comparatively small zones where structure of rocks and state of lining are changed. The authors analyze seismic vibration of rocks under hammering, which shows that peak spectral densities of elastic wave in rocks are conditioned by low-frequency (pendulum) wave generated at siltstone and coal interface, and are related with dimension of joints and with mechanical properties of rocks.
																								



19.
Precision Dilatometer with Built-In System of Advance along the Borehole

S. V. SERDYUKOV, N. V. DEGTYAREVA, A. V. PATUTIN, L. A. RYBALKIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: скважинный дилатометр, горные породы, прессиометрические исследования, деформационные свойства, система транспортирования по стволу скважины, borehole dilatometer, rocks, pressure meter tests, deformation characteristics, system of advance along borehole

Abstract >>
The article describes engineering designs of dilatometer to measure transverse deformation in borehole subjected to internal pressure exerted through impermeable shell. The device is equipped with the robotized system for advance along the borehole without special sectional barrels. Functionality and capacities of the dilatometer are optimized for surveying in long directional drill holes in mines.