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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2015 year, number 2

THE HERITAGE: THEORY AND MUSEUM PRACTICE IN SIBERIA

O.N. Shelegina1, T.S. Kuryanova2
1Institute of History of SB RAS, 8 Nikolaev St., Novosibirsk, 630090
2Tomsk State University, Str. Lenina, 36, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: cultural heritage, actualization, museumification, museum-preserves, Siberian museum world

Abstract

The article considers global and national tendencies in understanding the cultural heritage concept and phenomenon. It is revealed that cultural heritage is a multi-component and constantly evolving category. The authors define basic directions of the cultural heritage preservation such as museumification and the concept of cultural landscapes. Museumification is transformation of heritage objects into the objects of museum exhibition. The second direction is based on methodology of cultural landscape viewed as a holistic cultural and natural complex. This methodology synthesizes various categories of heritage. According to the most common interpretation, the cultural landscape is both a specific heritage category and landscape conservative practice of cultural and natural heritage. In practice, objects created within these directions may have similar features. These theoretical and practical approaches have been applied to analyze activities of 12 Siberian museum-preserves specializing in archaeology, architecture, ethnography, ethno-ecology as well as memorial museums. The authors conclude that, as a rule, such profilisation of museums existed only at the initial stages of their formation. They underline that the heritage in Siberia, a multi-ethnic social macro-region of Asian Russia, contains a distinct ethno-cultural component and is developed in almost all Siberian museum-preserves; prove that their essential role in the heritage development of the Siberian region is determined by positioning these regional objects as prestigious brands included in the tourism industry; by active integration of science, culture, education; by representing subsistence culture of the Siberian population; and by using an intangible heritage for social and cultural adaptation of population; allocation and museumification of specially protected historical and cultural sites.