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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2015 year, number 3

High Mountain Vegetation of North Asia: Dryad Tundras

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: North Asia, high mountain regions, dryad tundras, cenoflora, structure

Abstract >>
The main distribution patterns of dryad tundras in high mountain regions, where they form a large cryophilic florocenotic system, were studied. The cenoflora of dryad tundras comprises 286 species of vascular plants, among which there are several marker groups that indicate dryad tundras in general and their regional features in particular. These groups also reveal floristic connections with other phytocenotic systems that form a unified mountain-tundra complex.

Peculiarities of Meadows in the Subtaiga Subzone of the West Siberian Plain in Connection With their Previous Agricultural Use

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: meadows, long fallow lands, differentiative species, subtaiga subzone, West Siberian plain

Abstract >>
The comparative study of meadows on long fallow lands and natural meadows from the subtaiga subzone of the West Siberian plain was carried out using the species activity and occurrence indices. It was shown that floristic composition of grass communities depended on their previous agricultural usage. Groups of differentiative species for long fallow and natural meadows were determined. At the same time, a group of species showed similar occurrence and activity indices in all the variants of meadow communities. This fact proves the unity of meadow vegetation on the territory of the subtaiga subzone of the West Siberian plain.

The Role of Arboreous Species in the Functioning of Needlefir BroadLeaved Forest Landscapes of the Southern Primorye

Pacific Geographical Institute FEB RAS, 690041, Vladivostok, Radio str., 7
Keywords: needle firbroad leaved forests, parsell structure, biocycle, ash elements

Abstract >>
The role of arboreous species in the functioning of lowland needlefir broadleaved forest landscapes of the southern Primorye was estimated. Forest stand structure as well as biocycle parameters (measured in main structure-functional points called parsells) of the needlefirbroadeaved forests and soils were investigated. The macroelemental composition of assimilating organs of trees (leaves and needles) and characteristics of leaf fall and litter were studied. It was established that broadleaved trees with high ash content, especially hornbeam and Actinidia, significantly increase the capacity and speed of the biocycle. Therefore, such trees support the biological productivity and stable functioning of the studied landscapes.

Impact of limate hanges on Aquatic Vegetation of Hydromeliorative Facilities

Dejana DZigurski, Branka LjevnaiC-MaSiC, Dubravka MiliC, Jelena ACanski
University of Novi Sad, 21000, Serbia, Novi Sad
Keywords: climate change, aquatic vegetation, hydromeliorative facilities, Maxent

Abstract >>
Distributions of 20 aquatic associations in the Danube-Tisza-Danube hydrosystem were mapped using published data and personal field observations resulting in 562 georeferenced collection sites. The Maxent modeling software was used to estimate the current potential and future distribution of the associations by the year 2050 (2 x CO2 climate conditions, CCM3 model). Based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), climate data at the collection sites described climatic preferences of different aquatic associations. The central-eastern part of the investigated area showed the most favorable climatic conditions for aquatic vegetation growth and thus the highest potential for future biodiversity. The stands of Lemnetum trisulcae, Ceratophyllo-Azolletum filiculoides, Najadetum marinae, Salvinio natantis-Spirodeletum polyrhizae, Elodeetum canadensis and Potametum denso-nodosi associations displayed a marked invasive potential in the forecasted distribution scenarios. The results revealed that the stands of Nymphaeetum albae and Nymphaeo albae-Nupharetum luteae subass. nupharetosum associations are likely to be significantly less abundant in the future. As the key climatic factors used in the analysis were annual mean temperature, as well as mean temperature of the wettest and warmest quartile, the findings suggest that, if adequate protective measures shall not be taken, these provenances could become degraded in the next decade and some could even become extinct at the locations where they presently occur naturally.

Comparative Ecology of the Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris flava Gm.) and the Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis L.) in the Subarctic and Arctic Zones

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: Arctic, horned lark, snow bunting, adaptation, habitat

Abstract >>
The ecological features of snow buntings and horned lark were discussed. Their ecology has so much in common that they become the only representatives of the Passeriformes order in polar deserts and arctic tundra. Under the climate conditions of the Arctic there is no northern range limit for snow buntings. The northern range limit of the horned lark is determined by biotopic factors, food supply and temperature; these factors dont allow the horned lark to occupy a considerably large part of the Arctic zone. Southern limits of distribution of horned larks and snow buntings are probably determined by the light regime in the region - outside the polar day zone the birds do not come into a state of breeding. An additional requirement of snow buntings to their breeding area is the mean July temperatures below 10 .

Philopatry and Dispersion in Wolf Populations (Canis lupus L.)

Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve, 172521, Tver region, Nelidovo district
Keywords: , , , , , philopatry, dispersion, wolf, den area, population growth, den location

Abstract >>
The manifestations of philopatry and dispersion of wolves at the family level, population groups level (Central Forest Reserve) and population level (Tver region) were studied. The importance of the wolfs den location in territorial structure formation was shown. The phylopatric behaviour of 35 wolves from seven families was analyzed. In the course of the study 32 individuals (16 adults and 16 youngsters from different families), being encircled with flags, crossed the flag line towards the den and only 3 individuals chose a different direction. Such behavior was typical for all the population groups: for young individuals born and raised in the place and for adult wolves (both resident wolves and their children who had started new families here). The role of dispersant wolves in 19721982 was emphasized: the rapid increase in the population size was caused by young individuals who had traveled short distances. Analysis of the available field data and literature shows that dispersant wolves transfer ecological, behavioral, spatial-functional and structural features of their families, i. e. they are the bearers of family traditions.

Variations in the Growth Rate of Cladonia Lichens During LongTerm PostFire Successions in the North of West Siberia

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: fruticose lichens, relative growth rate, postfire recovery, taiga, foresttundra, West Siberia

Abstract >>
The results of the study of Cladonia lichen post-fire growth rate dynamics in different zonal units of West Siberia were presented. Relative growth rate of lichens in forest-tundra and taiga zones was assessed with regard to the pyrogenic factor. The growth rate varied from 1.2 mm/year at the early stage of progressive succession to 11.9 mm/year at the stage with dense lichen cover. The variations in lichen growth rate at different stages of recovery were observed in southern and middle taiga communities. In open forests and foresttundra communities of northern regions the growth rate of lichens was not characterized by significant changes.

Estimating the Influence of Environmental Factors on the Fire Radiative Power Using Satellite Imagery

V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: satellite data, fire, fire radiative power, heat emission, fire danger, correlation

Abstract >>
In this work the influence of environmental factors (prevailing tree stands, intensity of the fire season, weather conditions) on the fire radiative power (FRP) was analyzed. The data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used to characterize the variations of fire radiative power. Our studies showed that during the periods of high fire activity the FRP was 10 % higher than during the periods of low fire activity. The correlation level between the FRP and weather fire danger was determined. In particular, the fire weather index (FWI) of Canadian weather fire danger assessment system showed a closer relationship with the FRP in comparison with the Russian PV1 index. It was also found that the fires in Siberian forests with the predominance of larch trees generally had 2025 % higher FRP values than the fires in deciduous and pine forests.

The Peculiarities of Biochemical and Morphological Adaptation of Siberian Crabapple (Malus baccata L. Borkh) to the Conditions of Insufficient Humidity on the Boundary Between Forest Zone and Dry Steppe

1Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 132
2entral Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Malus baccata L. Borkh, Siberian crabapple, water availability, adaptation, dwarfing, stomata, IAA, ABA

Abstract >>
The peculiarities of adaptation of Siberian crabapple (Malus baccata) to the lack of humidity on the boundary between forest zone and dry steppe were studied. A significant decrease in the growth rate, eventually leading to dwarfing, was found out. In the course of such adaptation, there was reduction in the photosynthetic surface of the leaves and increase in the stomatal density. At the same time, the size of the stomata decreased. It helped to optimize the loss of water during transpiration. It was found that the decrease in the growth rate of Siberian crabapple cuttings was accompanied by a three-fold decrease in the content of endogenous indoleacetic acid in the tips (11613 ng/g of dry weight for the dwarf forms vs. 35039 ng/g of dry weight for the tall-growing forms). There was no significant difference in the content of ABA in the tips of both the forms studied (21018 and 21321 ng/g of dry weight for the tall-growing and dwarf plants respectively).

Ecological Flexibility of Astragalus mongholicus (Fabaceae) in the Mountains of South Siberia

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Fabaceae plants, cenopopulations, the variability of morphological characteristics, mountains of South Siberia

Abstract >>
The morphostructure of the aboveground part of sprouts of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge s.l. in Altai, Buryatia and Irkutsk region was studied. A complex of adaptive morphological characteristics was determined for this species, and the influence of height above sea level on the plants was estimated.

The Use of Biotic Indices and Metrics in the Evaluation of Water Quality on the Territory of the Ergaki Nature Park (the South of Krasnoyarsk Krai)

Institute of Computationl Modeling SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50
Keywords: small streams, the Ergaki nature park, macrozoobenthos, lithoreophilous community, bioindication, water quality, biotic indices

Abstract >>
The species composition, spatial distribution and structure coefficients of benthic communities in small mountain streams on the territory of the Ergaki nature park (the south of the Krasnoyarsk Krai) were characterized. The comparative analysis of biotic indices and metrics, some of which are used by the European Water Framework Directive to evaluate water quality, was carried out. It was determined that the EPT, BMWP and IBGN indices had greater sensitivity, therefore they could be recommended as the standard in the evaluation of water quality of small mountain streams of that region. The gradation of water quality was determined and the integrated index was introduced after the ranking of obtained biotic indices and metrics in comparison to the background value.

Vertical Fluxes of Methane on the MesoOligotrophic Boreal Peatland in Northeast Russia

Institute of Biology of Komi Science Center UB RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28
Keywords: methane, vertical fluxes, meso-oligotrophic peatland, eddy-covariance technique

Abstract >>
The data on the measurements of vertical methane fluxes in the meso-oligotrophic peatland of middle taiga subzone with the use of the eddycovariance technique was presented. It was established that the rate of methane emission depended on water table level and soil temperature at the depth of 15 cm. The overall methane emission from April to October was 22.4 g m2, which is higher than the results of measurements made by other authors for peatland ecosystems of circumboreal zone.

Climate Changes and their Connection with CO2 Emission in Agroecosystems on Agrogrey Soil of the Baikal ForestSteppe

Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontova str.,132
Keywords: CO2 emission from soils, agroecosystem, hydrothermal indicators, climatic changes

Abstract >>
Long-term (19972012) monitoring of agroecosystems on the agrogrey soil of the Baikal forest-steppe was carried out. The influence of climatic factors on CO2 emission to the atmosphere in different seasons of the year was studied. There was a close correlation between the CO2 flux and hydrothermal indicators in spring and autumn. The contribution of the summer season to the annual flux of CO2 made up 67 and 72 % in the fallow and wheat crop respectively. On the basis of 16-year observations the average annual CO2 emission was calculated: it amounted to 173 g C/m2 in the fallow and 229 g C/m2 in the wheat crop.

Impact of Viruses on Mortality of Heterotrophic Bacteria in the Rivers of Cherepovets city (Upper Volga region)

1Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742, Yaroslavl Region, Nekouzskiy District, Borok
2Cherepovets State University, 162612, Cherepovets, Gogolya str., 5
Keywords: viruses, bacteria, frequency of infected cells, virus-induced mortality of bacteria, small rivers

Abstract >>
The abundance and production of planktonic viruses, frequency of infected bacterial cells, the number of mature phages in infected bacterial cells and virus-induced mortality of bacterioplankton were studied in two small rivers and the large Sheksna River (Cherepovets city) in April October 2011. High positive correlations were determined between the abundance of planktonic viruses and bacteria and between the number of viruses attached to bacterial cell walls and the frequency of infected bacteria. The number of planktonic viruses and the mortality of bacteria caused by virusinduced lysis in hypertrophic and eutrophic small rivers were higher than in the mesotrophic Sheksna River.

The Influence of Bacillus spp. Bacteria on the Causing Agent of Grey Mold of Strawberry and the Host Plants Resistance to the Disease

Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Novosibirsk, Dobrolubov str., 160
Keywords: strawberry plant, phytopathogenic fungus, grey mold, biological control, bacterial strains, polyfunctional properties

Abstract >>
The influence of Siberian strains of Bacillus spp. on the causing agent of grey mold of strawberry (the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr.) and the host plants resistance to the disease were studied during three seasons with different weather conditions. The bacterial strains B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis suppressed the B. cinerea fungus in vitro and in vivo. In addition to the antifungal action, the bacterial strains positively influenced the strawberry plant growth. These results showed that the Siberian strains of Bacillus spp. revealed polyfunctional properties towards strawberry plants infected with B. cinerea.

Changes in the Trophic Activity of Birch LeafEaters Along the Pollution Gradient Near the Middle Ural Copper Smelter

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: leaf-chewing insects, miners, white birch, trophic activity, copper smelter, industrial pollution, heavy metals, Middle Urals

Abstract >>
Foliar damage to white birch (Betula pubescens) caused by leaf-chewing insects and miners was assessed in 20052006 and in 2008 in the vicinity of a large copper smelter in the Middle Urals (Revda, Sverdlovsk oblast). The following indices were considerably lower near the smelter than in the background and buffer zones: the total leaf area removed by the insects (311 times), the number of damaged leaves (14 times), and the average leaf area removed per damaged leaf (2 times). The effect size was similar for all the three parameters and remained stable with time. Both groups of insects showed lower trophic activity in the impact zone, but the impact of pollution was greater on leafchewing insects than on miners.