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"Philosophy of Education"

2015 year, number 1

Features of educational system in the conditions of globalization

K. K. Begalinova1, A. S. Begalinov2
1Kazakh National Satpaev Technical University, Kazachstan, Almaty, Saptayeva str., 22
2JSC «Khabar Agency, Kazachstan, Almaty
Keywords: education system, upbringing, globalization, integration, anti-globalization, mass culture, industrial values, technocratism, humanism humanization, spiritual-moral culture

Abstract >>
The article discusses the features of education-upbringing system in the context of globalization. It is shown that globalization is brought to life by the objective processes and has a direct impact on the modern system of education, increasing the negative trends. We are talking about the scientific-technological revolution, the constant increase in scientific and technological progress in the field of transport, communications, enabling further computerization of society, the expansion of multimedia, visual space. This civilization is the media industry, which now becomes not only an independent, but also a dominant field of life activity of the society and person. Its influence is particularly important in the field of education and upbringing. A feature of modern education-upbringing process is also conditioned by the paradigm of technological civilization, which subordinates the human being to the machine and technology. Technocratism permeates all levels and areas of social life, all aspects of training and education to such extent that spirituality becomes one-sided. This cannot but affect the human being him/herself. On one hand, the technologization of the society, the progress in the field of engineering sciences contribute to the improving the life of the human being, improving his/her everyday life, raising his/her status. On the other hand, such technologization dehumanizes the person. The person, losing his/her personal qualities, becomes the average person. In this regard, it is noted that in the modern upbringing there should be strengthened the spiritually-moral component; the humanistic component of upbringing also needs understanding. The changed spiritual situation of the beginning of the III millennium guides education in general and the higher one in particular towards a new methodology. A universal logic arising from a holistic worldview plays a role of a general methodology of modern higher education. This means that it is necessary to consider the human being and the world in harmony and unity; to understand the person as a whole and integral being, combining the spiritual and the material, the general and the particular, the intellectual and the moral, the personal and the cosmic. Such combination is formed through the system of education and upbringing, including the training based on the principles of humanization and humanities, the subject-object relationship between teacher and student, on the principles of activity of the student and the teacher, on the moral principles of interpersonal relations between them. The new methodology requires new methods of training, new educational technologies.

The influence of geopolitical factors on the formation of education

I. A. Pfanenshtil, M. P. Yatsenko
Siberian Federal University, Svobodnyy prospekt, 82, Krasnoyarsk
Keywords: geopolitical factors, multipolarity, bipolarity, universality, education, education, upbringing

Abstract >>
The article notes that, at the present stage, the mankind is faced with a system-global mega-crisis, which is linked to the fact that mankind in its development has come to a kind of anthropological border, when all the old meanings of Homo sapiens have been exhausted. The indicated transformation becomes so widespread in the world that we can talk about a certain trend that threatens the foundations of modern civilization. According to some scholars, it is not by chance that the restoration of bipolarity in the beginning of new millennium is associated primarily with the prospects of dynamic development of the Asia-Pacific region, more precisely, China. The coming bipolarity is defined by the supporters of this concept as a "civilizational" opposition. They believe that it is necessary to create a predictable, fair and humane world; and such a radical change in the current world order involves a transition from a unipolar to a multipolar world. The authors believe that today, in the geopolitical theorizing it makes sense to shift the focus from the global picture (of the research of world order) to the "middle level". An optimal unit of analysis can be a region as a kind of geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-cultural integrity, demonstrating a dynamic moment in the geopolitical analysis (the cross-border nature, variability of contours, change of the dominant regional power, cultural, ethnic and demographic transformation). In our opinion, the attempts of regional geopolitical analysis of Europe or the former Soviet Union are also not without meaning. The ideology of forcible globalization leads to the neglect of unique regional experience having centuries-old traditions. However, the regional experience of sustainable existence appears the most interesting, because a) it traces the rapidly changing real life; b) it is accessible, because it is not presented by a dry scientific language, but is formulated on the everyday common level; c) it is often associated with the most important instinct of self-preservation of specific social units, that is, its importance is confirmed on the anthropological level. Instead of a Western-type world in which the dominant positions are occupied by the ground-laying parameters of the Western rationalist civilization, there should arise a new civilization on the basis of organic combination of unity and indivisibility of the international community, on one hand, and the diversification and diversity of peoples, cultures, religions, on the other. In today's world, education is seen not only as an information-communication tool and a mechanism of translation and dissemination of knowledge, but also as a social institution of spiritual-moral development of the individual as the basis of socialization of personality, its active inclusion into various spheres of social life.

Globalization of education and the global challenges of modern era

M. S. Ashilova1, N. V. Nalivayko2,3
1Ablai Khan Kazakh University of International Relations and World Languages, Muratbayeva str., 200, Almaty, Kazachstan
2Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
3Institute of Philosophy and Law, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: globalization of education, global challenges, internationalization of education, the East–West problem, global threats of modern time

Abstract >>
Globalization of education is one of the factors of universal globalization. It is controversial and can bring both positive and negative results to any of the affected countries. The article there are analyzed the issues of positive and negative sides of global education. It is shown that global education serves as an effective means of positive development of globalization, because only the educated society and educated mankind can critically and rationally put the positive development processes up against the negative ones. Humanity, being concerned about its survival, is increasingly turns to the problems of education, its development and improvement, because it is already today that it is being decided whether the new century will be enlightened or ignorant, humane or aggressive. But it is necessary to consider not only the positive potential of education, but also the barriers to learning: the existing relations in the global context of social conflict, which are exacerbated by the divergence of responsibility for education between society and the state, opposition between religions and differences in mentality, situation of acute social conflicts and traditions in the education system itself and others. Globalization has enabled the developed countries of Europe and Northern America to open new international markets and gain access to additional resources. As a rule, the developing countries are the main and permanent 'customers' of the West including in the sphere of education. Nevertheless, such situation is not an axiom. The article investigates positive experience of Eastern countries, in particular, of Peoples Republic of China, which can be taken as an example of defeating negative factors of globalization in the field of education for the post-Soviet countries.

The influence of self-identification and the value orientations of youth on the choice of educational strategies

M. A. Abramova1,2, V. G. Kostyuk2, G. S. Goncharova2
1Novosibirsk State University, str. Pirogova, 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: youth, acculturation strategy, values, identity, profession

Abstract >>
The authors emphasize that in modern conditions of interrelated processes of globalization and social transformations of the multiethnic Russian society, to ensure its sustainable development it is important to examine the role of education in the formation of different types of identities and the value orientations of young people. The education system as a social institute, which is, in particular, a transmitter of the state orientations, fosters the development of certain kinds of identities. The basic structure of personality can be represented as a set of identities that were formed at different stages of life on the basis of different needs and conditions of social environment, values. In addition, each type of identity is characterized by its "core", the basic value (or a group of values). The social function of education is ultimately to form the personality of a particular type, which is defined by the basic values of the society. An analysis of the formation process of the education system development strategy has demonstrated a contradictory character of the current tendencies. For example, using the results of interviews with schoolchildren, conducted in Novosibirsk and Novosibirsk region under the grant RGNF 13-03-00028 «New meanings in the educational strategies of youth (under supervision of D. L. Konstantinovsky), the authors identified the dependencies between acculturation strategies of young people, their value orientations and the choice of future profession. The conclusions were made that the type of identity that determines the choice of acculturation strategies of youth affects the content and character of the value orientations of school graduates, including in selecting the future profession. The young people with the integration strategy is characterized by the highest compared with other groups orientation toward the choice of not only the Novosibirsk higher education institutions, but also the institutions located in other regions of Russia. With the increasing importance of ethnic identity, the percentage is growing of the young people planning the career options related to technology, health, education, finance and economy, and the percentage is reducing of the ones oriented toward the political-legal professions. This is especially noticeable for the technical professions among those for whom ethnicity is not important. The interviews have showed that the most balanced in terms of industries are the professional interests of the young people, who adheres to the «integration acculturation strategy, for which both the ethnic and Russian identity are very important. The formation of exactly this type of acculturation strategies for the schoolchildren is the most important task of the education system.

Existentialist direction in the philosophy of education

O. D. Oleinikova, B. V. Saprygin
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: philosophy of education, existentialism, Existenzial, borderline situation, moral education, existentialist pedagogy, pedagogical atmosphere, crisis, ideal of human being, personality

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The twenty-first century that has recently begun brings up the issue of formation of a personality capable of giving an adequate response to the challenges of modern times. The humanistic ideas of existentialism, by their penetration into pedagogy, are able to provide a methodological assistance in solving this problem. Existentialist philosophy is relevant in all times because of imperfection of the world and human relations and, therefore, it ought to have a certain influence on the development of educational thought, although it may not have an immediate access to the education system. Of all existentialists, it was O. F. Bollnow who addressed the issues of philosophy of education most fully. He believed that the traditional existentialism has to be modernized because, «although it expresses the challenges of our time, but for that very reason it makes no reference whatsoever to the direction of a conscious search for solutions». Therefore, Bollnow tries to give it a new form, combining it with pedagogical issues which are always topical. In his book Existenzphilosophie und Padagogik, O. F. Bollnow represents pedagogy as an applied philosophical discipline whose focus of analytic attention is on the issues of upbringing of the person who is open to the world, his/her forms of existence being labile. In studying a variety of labile forms of human existence he describes peculiarities of this existence using the existentialist categories such as crisis, admonition, encounter etc. and introduces a concept of functional upbringing. In his opinion, any information or influence, any objective environment or sociocultural milieu always perform a function of upbringing. The existentialist pedagogy was identified by O. F. Bollnow as the pedagogy of non-permanent forms so far as the pedagogical situations and the pupils themselves are impermanent, changeable over time, and consequently it is not possible to technologize the process of upbringing or to work out an algorithm once and for all. Although he proceeds from the assumption that the existentialist philosophical analysis should become a methodology of humanistic pedagogy, Bollnow nevertheless believes that success is possible only if certain overcoming of existential philosophy should be brought about. By overcoming he means that the pedagogy should be given an optimistic direction. Studying the foundations of the German philosophy of education seems to be fruitful and important as its investigations have shown the importance of understanding the variety of interpersonal emotional attitudes and relations which allow the teacher to realize all the incomprehensibility of existence and therefore to have respect for the inner world of the pupil and to show willingness to understand its depths and riches.

The influence of individual experience on the victimization of the teenagers personality

O. O. Andronnikova
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: victimization of personality, victim behavior, individual experience, teenagers, factors of victimization, deformation of the adolescent's personality

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The relevance of this study is conditioned by the fact that the category of individual experience still remains poorly understood. Also there remain uncertain the questions of influence of the individual experience on the process of victimization of the personality. The purpose of this article consists in studying individual experience as a factor of victimization of the teenagers identity. The conducted theoretical analysis of the approaches to victimization research allows us to draw conclusions that it is expedient to consider this process through the behavioral manifestations of the personality, because it is in them that the personality realizes the victimization, i.e. the predisposition to become a victim. In addition, we have assumed the position of a social-psychological nature of the victimization of the individual. The category of individual experience is used in different directions of psychological science, which leads to the formation of completely different methodological ways of its research. However, in each work there is recognized the importance and inevitability of the influence of the individual experience on the actual behavior of the individual, which gives us a reason to consider individual experience as a factor of victimization of the personality. The article considers the influence of individual life experience on victimization of the individual and formation of different types of victim behavior of adolescents. There is provided a general overview of research papers on the impact of life experience on the psychological and physical condition of the person. An analysis is carried out of the main approaches to the study of the influence of life experience on the processes of socialization of the child in ontogeny. The events are singled out that lead to victimization of personality. There are presented the general results of empirical studies of the effect of the adolescents life experience on the victimization of personality, which have been carried out over five years as a part of the diploma and master's works. The total number of adolescents having been studied is 196. As a result of analysis of the individual experience of teenagers, there have been identified four factors of victimization of adolescent's personality, containing the following characteristics: poorly structured memories with the absence of samples of productive conflict resolution; cognitive simplicity and weak reflexivity over the experienced events; object-ness and the teenagers not being included into the events taking place; the experience of actions of the helping nature associated with the desire to receive and give support to others. The practical significance of this study is in the possibility of using the obtained results by the experts to develop preventive, remedial programs of psychological development of adolescents.

Formation of the value orientations of the personality of the student in the context of modernization of russian higher professional technical education (a social–philosophical aspect)

L. V. Stepanenko
Novosibirsk state technical University, Prospekt Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, 630073
Keywords: sociocultural modernization of education, regional component of education, ideology, sociocultural adaptation of personality

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The article analyzes the processes taking place in the contemporary Russian higher technical education related to the formation of a system of value orientations of the personality of the student. The domestic higher education system is developing in the conditions of social-cultural modernization, the change of the structure and content of education. The socio-cultural situation in the XXI century, formed in the Russian society, is characterized by the search for a new ideological model. The main goal of education is the development of a certain type of personality in the interests of the society. The main aspect of education is associated with self-education and self-upbringing, development of the spiritual, creative personality. The spiritual world is seen as a significant factor in terms of organization of human activity: the development of values of the younger generation on the basis of knowledge of the various ethno-national, cultural, regional elements in the aspect of «tradition and innovation», studying the works of art and culture, own artistic creativity of young people. An important role in modern life and modern education is played by the process of socio-cultural adaptation of the person, which is carried out in the conditions of consolidation of knowledge, science and technology. The sociocultural processes of modernization of domestic education in fundamentally new conditions — in the context of globalization trends - should be focused on the prospects of development of spiritual culture of the individual. In the conditions of globalization, professionalism, competitiveness, socio-cultural adaptation of personality are the basic criteria for evaluating the quality and efficiency of higher vocational and technical education.

Value orientations of students during the university education

L. N. Zybina
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: values, value orientations, social value-related structure, core of personality, social behavior, value orientations as a psychological phenomenon, dispositional mindsets

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The article describes the main approaches to the definition of «value orientations», reveals the psychological foundations of value orientations of the individual depending on the formation of social experience in terms of teaching and professional activities. The article substantiates the position that the value orientations have an alternative character (good — evil, beauty ugliness), and they do not dictate or prescribe the individual any particular type of behavior, but offer him/her a choice which has to be realized by the person him/herself. The article gives a detailed analysis of the structure of value orientations of 85 students aged 20–22 years in the conditions of teaching and professional activities. The assessment of the significance of the differences in the structure of value orientations between two groups of subjects of mathematicians and psychologists of the third year of studying is analyzed and interpreted. Significant differences are revealed in the structure of value orientations: help and compassion towards other people, cognition of the new in the world, nature and the human being, high social status and management of people, social activity in order to achieve positive changes in society, altruism. These indicators are superior in the group of psychology students. The index of love in the group of students of mathematics is higher than in the group of psychology students. The obtained results show that for third-year students of psychology such value orientations are more important as helping people, cognition of the new, social activity. Altruism is their more distinctive social mindset. The research results may be useful for teachers in the process of organization of teaching and professional work of students in order to create conditions for the formation of value orientations of the specialists of a given sphere.

The role and place of harmonica in the formation of moral qualities of today's youth

N. A. Primerov
Kemerovo State University of Culture and Arts, Voroshilova str. 17, Kemerovo, Russia, 650029
Keywords: harmonica, folk music-making, tradition, cultural values, musical and singing creativity, spirituality, patriotism, national instrument, continuity

Abstract >>
The article considers a problem of forming the spiritual and moral potential of personality, value orientations by associating it with the traditional musical and singing culture of Bayan and Harmonica players. Folk instruments occupy an important place not only in the education of young generation, but also in the preservation of the national and social community. The author tries to draw a comparison between folk music, singing and musical creativity with the spiritual and moral preferences and beliefs of schoolchildren. The author investigates also the reasons, which hinder the preservation and development of folk singing and musical culture in Russia, touches on the problematic issues of national education in the sphere of music education and upbringing. The article determines the social importance of folk instruments in the life of the Russian people and the Russian society as a whole. The author points to the weak role of the state in the preservation of national cultural traditions of music and the contradictory process of education and training in secondary schools and universities. The author believes that the penetration of alien culture into Russian culture is a phenomenon which is not harmless, and it is necessary to take countermeasures to protect national culture and traditions, and preserve original musicians, educate the young on the best examples of folk art. Harmonica and its use in singing of all musical genres have the most important and effective role in preserving and recreating the spiritual and moral potential of society, formation of national identity and patriotic education of youth. Based on these studies a set of measures is proposed for the spiritual and moral education of the young generation, as well as a concept of educational and social activities in the preservation and propagation of cultural values, introducing schoolchildren and students to them.

Laws of designing the patriotic upbringing in the military educational institutions

S. I. Fomenko
Admiral Ushakov State Maritime University, Pr. Lenin, 93, Novorossiysk
Keywords: methodology, regularities, laws of the theory of patriotic upbringing

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The article discusses the problems of development of the theory of patriotic upbringing in the military educational institutions of Russia, the emphasis is being made on military training, improving the social status of military personnel. The methodological basis of the theory of patriotic upbringing is laws and categories. The article presents the author's interpretation of the key trends in the theory of patriotic upbringing of the military personnel, on the basis of which the author defines the laws of patriotic upbringing in educational military institutions. During the research, generalization of facts and events, systematization of knowledge about the educational process in the military facilities, the laws of a local (specific) nature, proposed for the research, can help discover the laws of a global nature after their reflection in the consciousness of the society. The military science has its own methodology, which should also be learnt in the practical activity, for example, in the process of the military personnel training. Training of military personnel can be called a global process. Each state considers the theory of patriotic upbringing of its military personnel in its own way. However, in the process of continuous reforms of educational military organizations, there can be discovered some identical relationships defining the general laws. The general laws of development of the theory of patriotic upbringing allow constructing a common communications environment, which contributes to consolidation and the development of the principles of tolerance and humanism. The local laws of the theory of patriotic upbringing confirm the level of economic, cultural and political development of the state. Identification of the regularities in the process of upbringing and training of military personnel leads to the creation of an accessible learning environment, which has uniform local and general laws of development. The article concludes that the study of specific military laws and regularities, for example, in the theory of patriotic upbringing should be carried out simultaneously in several directions: the structural (internal and external), administrative, and informational-technological ones. However, not all military educational institutions take an integrative account of all the mentioned directions. The knowledge of the laws and regularities, according to the author, provides an opportunity to discuss the problem of creating conditions for patriotic upbringing in all higher education institutions of the country and for all categories of military men. Identified by the author stable relationship and various interdependencies occurring during activation of patriotic upbringing in military art, allow establishing a number of subjective regularities of the process of patriotic upbringing which justify the laws in terms of methodology of pedagogical science. The article also analyzes some aspects of the system of patriotic upbringing as an argument for the existence of significant regularities of its development.

Problems of realization of inclusive education in the conditions of transformation of higher education in Russia: to the statement of the question

D. N. Kulikova
Novosibirsk state technical University, Prospekt Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, 630073
Keywords: inclusive education, transformation of the role of teacher, crisis in education, the Bologna process, transformation of the higher education system

Abstract >>
The author analyzes the problems faced by higher education when implementing inclusive education in the conditions of transformation of the education system in Russia. This transformation is associated with the search for the ways out of the crisis of the education system, which manifests itself, in particular, in the implementation of the Bologna process and the transformation of the role of teacher in the educational process, as well as in the consolidation of science and higher education. The main groups of the problems related to realization of inclusive education in the practice of higher education include the problem of accessibility of infrastructure, readiness of the participants of the educational process to inclusion. The problems of creating the accessible facilities for the people with limited health abilities include the problems of financing and the problems of infrastructure modernization not being well-thought-of, and also large amount of work, because it is necessary to change not only the infrastructure of educational institutions but also the surrounding areas, and better all the territory of the city. The second group of problems is connected with unpreparedness of major participants of the educational process for the implementation of inclusive education in the practice of higher education. The main participants are the people with limited health abilities, persons accompanying them, students, teachers, parents (parents of disabled children and normal children). Also some researchers single out into a separate category the administration of educational institutions, including the management of inclusive education. Each of these categories of participants is facing with specific problems. The main problems of persons with disabilities include problems associated with self-organization, self-motivation and insufficient level of knowledge for studying in higher education institutions. Speaking of accompanying persons, it should be noted the lack of qualified personnel and the problem of financing. The problem of the students as participants in the process of inclusive education is the problem of tolerant attitude towards people with limited health abilities. The problem of readiness of parents to inclusive education consists mainly in a negative attitude of parents of «normal» children to this process. If we talk about the problems of preparedness of teachers as participants of realization of inclusive education, the following issues should be noted: professional, methodical and psychological readiness, communication problems with the persons with limited health abilities and with accompanying persons as well as with parents of these children. In this case, the problems of university teachers are complicated by the processes of transformation of higher education.

Inclusive education as a form of the disability policy implementation in the current conditions: on the formulation of the problem

O. V. Zinevich, V. V. Degtyareva
Novosibirsk state technical University, Prospekt Karla Marksa, 20, Novosibirsk, 630073
Keywords: policy of disability, inclusive education of the person with disabilities, disability discourse

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This article is devoted to the formulation of the problem of inclusive education as a form of implementation of the strategy of the disability policy. The authors identified a significant contradiction between the need to develop the disability policy as one of the priority areas of social policy, declarations of such a policy by the discourses of social justice and equality and the lack of (or failure of) the practical conditions for its implementation. The disability policy is regarded as a set of actions initiated by the state in order to create equal conditions for the people with disabilities. The authors emphasize that the disability policy is based on the existing social discourses of disability, methods of codification and nomination of the processes inclusion and/or exclusion of people with disabilities into (from) social functioning. The development of various discourses of disability allows determining the policy of disability, the basic idea of which is thinking about the nature of disability in general. Inclusive education is seen by the authors as the most acceptable form of the disability policy implementation, because it directly addresses the issue of inclusion of people with disabilities into social functioning. The question of implementation of the practice of inclusive education in all educational stages makes us to treat in a special way the development of models of inclusive education and their practical implementation. It is noted that the current inclusive practice has a rather non-systemic, local and project character. The authors insist on the need for real conceptualization and construction of theoretical images of inclusive education. The need for serious examination of the readiness of educational institutions to the development and implementation of inclusive practices is seen by the authors as a real mechanism for the implementation of disability policy as a whole. Together with the discourses of humanistic content, there are circulating in the society the discourses, which express a historically established and fixed in the traditions attitude towards disabled people, which does not always coincide with the discourse of equality and justice. The artificially borrowed discourses of inclusion live their own life, appearing in the reports and declarations; however, the real practices are far from the declarations and have imitative character. That is why the disability policy reflects the need for the development of law, actual practices of inclusion and participation, which represent the normalized discourse of disability. So, the problem of development of the disability policy is associated with the need to select and support social institutions, which create special conditions for exercising the right of the person with disabilities to become a full-fledged subject of social life. These institutions are to implement the state policies on social support and protection of the people with disabilities.

On an approach to education in the light of the tacit knowledge conception (on the example of foreign language teaching)

B. V. Saprygin, M. Yu. Verkutis
Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: tacit knowledge, implicit and explicit knowledge, rule-following, foreign language, unsupervised study, instructed learning

Abstract >>
In connection with the adoption of new educational standards, a greater role in education has been given to unsupervised study of students. But is it really so that a student is able to acquire the necessary knowledge by self-study? This is often the case that the students, without the help of an instructor, simply misinterpret the content of instructional materials, giving some alien meaning to them. This phenomenon must have some objective reasons. To settle the problem it would be of some use for us to turn to some concepts of modern epistemology and philosophy of science, such as M. Polanyis concept of tacit knowledge, Wittgensteins rule-following argument, T. Kuhns idea of relativity and subjectivity of knowledge, L. Flecks observation on how a scientific fact is formed. For example, according to Wittgenstein, it is our being accustomed to acting in accordance with the rules in a certain way, our using them regularly, our practice that give meaning to the rules and signs. The essence of language is the regular use of certain rules and signs in certain circumstances. It is a wrong rule-following that students commit when they misunderstand the words of a textbook. Only the joint activity of people makes it possible to establish stable and intersubjective language rules, and the collective practice and regular use support these rules. The concept due to M. Polanyi is close to Wittgenstein's idea. The former identifies two types of knowledge: explicit knowledge which is rational and can be formalized and tacit, implicit, nonformalizable knowledge. Both types of knowledge are fundamentally important from the epistemological point of view; both of them are always there in any act of cognition. It is the formalized knowledge that students found in their textbooks while doing their unsupervised study. However, tacit knowledge cannot be communicated through a textbook. It is just this kind of knowledge that students lack; this is why they often do not get the point of what they read. To make understanding possible, tacit knowledge ought to be communicated in the course of its being used by an expert. The idea of implicit component in the process of acquiring knowledge takes on a special significance when we talk about learning a foreign language. The learned, explicit knowledge is obtained as a result of conscious learning when the students attention is focused on the formalized features of linguistic phenomena. In contrast, acquired knowledge is obtained by involuntary, unconscious learning in the process of communication. Hence it is increasingly important to participate in a classroom activity: in a group and under the supervision of an instructor. The above observations show how important for the acquisition of knowledge instructed learning is, guided by an instructor who is able to share his or her inarticulable experience.

The development of the professional-pedagogical mobility of the teachers of humanities at the chair of state and municipal management

V. N. Bobrikov, N. N. Ravochkin
T. F. Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, Vesenyaya str., 28, Kemerovo, Russia, 650000
Keywords: mobility, education, professionalism, pedagogy, development

Abstract >>
The publication presents the content-related characteristic of the category of «professional-pedagogical mobility. The professional-pedagogical mobility and its development is an important problem of modern education system. In modern conditions, its solving is a necessary factor for successful development of the entire domestic educational system and a key for effective usage of the social-economic potential of domestic economy. In our opinion, the professional-pedagogical mobility is a complex and multidimensional category, which, on one hand, characterizes the teacher as a person, and, on the other, as a professional in his/her field. Both aspects together are reflected in a wide range of realization of the basic and special competencies and are manifested in the form of value-semantic construct of the personality of the teacher, which is presented as an integrative personal quality, influencing the nature and dynamics of professional activities, as well as its results. The formation of professional-pedagogical mobility should be understood not as a spontaneous process, but as a systematic and purposeful movement. In our opinion, this process should include a number of interrelated stages. 1. Diagnostic stage. At this stage there should take place the diagnostics of teachers of humanities in order to check the level of professional and educational mobility. 2. Extensive stage. The basis of this stage should be the training of the teaching personnel to changing themselves, their activities as a reflexive reaction to the «perturbations of the educational environment. 3. Intensive stage. Within the framework of this stage there should take place the study of pedagogical objects from the perspective of advancing to the heights of teaching excellence, such as the attainment of career growth. 4. Innovation stage. The fundamental direction of this area of work should be the inclusion of the teachers of humanities into the process of their own professional development. The study has examined the mechanisms and instruments of development of the professional-pedagogical mobility taking into account the specific features of professional work of the teachers of humanities of the Chair of "State and Municipal Management" in the conditions of a higher education institution.

The problems of assessing the competences of higher education students

N. V. Chekaleva
Omsk State Pedagogical University, Quay Tukhachevskogo, 14, Omsk, 644099
Keywords: competence-based approach, competence, competence profile, competence map, assessment, complex assessment, assessment of competences, assessment tools, model of the assessment process, higher education students

Abstract >>
The author raises a question about the complexity of assessment of the higher education students competences: its structure, content, and procedure. The author thinks that, first of all, the complexity of competence assessment is connected with the differences in the interpretation of competence. Some views on how to interpret the meaning of competence are presented in the article: in Great Britain - it is ones ability to perform required professional functions, in France - these are resources for carrying out certain activity, in Germany - these are professional and personal knowledge and skills. It is underlined that in Russia competence-based approach is an innovation and in Russian practice competence is ones ability to complete professional tasks. It is supposed that the development of a complex assessment will assist to identify the levels of competence. The assessment criterion of the levels of the higher education students competences is students readiness for professional activity that includes personal, theoretical and practical components. The article presents the European practice of assessing specialists competences: developing the competence profiles and competence maps. The competence profile of the specialist is a certain image of this specialist that includes a set of characteristics. The competence profile is a basis on which the structure and content of the specialists competences are identified. The competence map consists of actual and potential competences of the specialist. The author points to the main problems of assessing students competences in Russian higher education institutions and proposes some ways to solve these problems; describes a model of the competences assessment process and gives a set of assessment tools for carrying out the procedure of competences assessment. The author thinks that a set of assessment tools should contain case-study, in-basket exercises, simulations, skills tests, direct observation, problem situations, portfolio, resume, preparation of course and diploma projects, problem solving projects, action-demonstration techniques and questions techniques, additional oral and written tests, etc. In conclusion, the author indicates the directions of how to develop the practice of assessing the higher education students competences: developing a clear understanding of the competence structure, studying the labor market requirements for specialists competences, developing cooperation with the representatives of labor market, developing competence profiles of specialists and competence maps of University students, identifying the place of each University discipline in the process of students competences development, elaborating assessment tools for competence assessment in accordance with the determined competence units. Moreover, the author admits the necessity to elaborate the tools that can assess the unique experience of each person.

Activation of creative activity of students at the plein air painting lessons

O. V. Shalyapin1, Z. Zh. Rabilova2
1Novosibirsk state pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
2Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, pr. Dostyk, 13 Almaty, Kazachstan, 050010
Keywords: creativity, painting, plein air, landscape composition, plan, activity, problem training

Abstract >>
In the article, the possibilities of plein air practice for the development of creative activities of the future art teachers are considered. In this context, there is emphasizes the task of forming a picturesque idea of the future image that includes the emotional image assessment, painting and expressive possibilities of specific painting materials, as well as the direction of the painting actions. The main objective of plein air practice consists in deepening and consolidation of theoretical and practical knowledge of the art disciplines received in the course of training. It is necessary to teach students to transfer in the works the integrity of landscape motives, taking into account the general tone and color condition of illumination, to compare colors of nature with respect to the color tone, lightness and saturation, to maintain the tone and color scale. An effective condition of painting training in the plein air is the organization of the process of vocational training on the basis of the principles of activity approach to training, in which such qualities of the personality are realized as independence and creative activity necessary for the artist-teacher for successful work. Special tasks on the change of color accents in composition with several color spots orient students towards the development of original system of interaction of spots in the color space of landscape motive, which activates the creative activity of the future artist-teacher. The technique of training of landscape painting needs to be based on understanding of creative activity as a fundamental incentive of mastering the landscape art. The pedagogical orientations should be aimed at the formation of an initial picturesque plan which realization has to include the entire process: from the search for a composition, through the etude work in the plein air and up to a final solution in the material.

Interethnic community of the Altay Republic: ethnosocial and ethnocultural processes

E. A. Erokhina, S. A. Madyukova, O. A. Persidskaya
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Nikolaeva str., 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: interethnic community, ethnosocial processes, ethnocultural processes, ecotourism, indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, the crisis of culture

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the analysis of specificity of ethnosocial and ethnocultural processes in the Altay Republic. Using the achievements of the Novosibirsk ethnosociological school, the authors apply the concept of «interethnic community» as a key concept, emphasizing its subjective (the subject of self-organization, formed as a result of stable interethnic cooperation at a local level, such as the municipal and regional level) and objective (the object of state administration which seeks to regulate interethnic relations) components. This methodological position allows us considering the region under study as a systemic integrity in view of its multi-ethnicity, multi-religious character and multi-culturalism. In the article, the economic, social, political and cultural characteristics of the region are given; the areas of inter-ethnic tensions are designated. In particular, since the Kosh-Agach district is a specific area of interethnic tensions, this causes increased interest of the authors to the analysis of ethnosocial processes in this area. On the basis of empirical sociological research conducted in the Altai Republic in the period of 2013–2014 years, the authors examine the characteristics of ethnosocial processes and interethnic relations in the region. The ethnosocial and ethnocultural specifics of the region is reflected in the analysis of the opinions of the respondents and experts community from the region about government; about the attitudes to the influx of migrant workers and specificity of their interaction with the local habitants of the republic, about specificity of internal migration in the Altai Republic; about tourism business in the region and consequences of its impact on the local population, about tourism-related changes in the economic behavior of the inhabitants of the Altai, the relations of Altai people with the tourists; in addition, the respondents' opinions about the problems of indigenous peoples living in the territory of the Republic are analyzed, and in particular, the views about the problems of preservation of cultures of indigenous peoples and the crisis of Altai culture in general.