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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2015 year, number 1

1.
Main Climate Parameters of the Winter Season and Peculiarities of the Biological Spectrum of Vascular Plants Flora in the Tom River Basin

S. A. SHEREMETOVA, R. T. SHEREMETOV
Institute of Human Ecology SB RAS, 650065, emerovo, Leningradsky ave., 10
Keywords: life forms, biological spectrum, climate, winter season, air temperature, snow cover, snow depth, snow storage, correlation analysis, the basin of the river Tom

Abstract >>
The calculation of pair correlation coefficients was made using the biological spectrum of vascular plants of the Tom River basin as well as the data on mean monthly air temperature during the winter season, snow cover thickness and snow water equivalent. It was determined that the impact of air temperature on different life forms on the plains and in the mountains not only has various character, but is also displaced in time. The studies showed that the peculiarities of the biological spectrum of the flora are largely determined by hydrothermal conditions during the winter season.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010126
																								



2.
Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Cajanderi Larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr) in the North of the Russian Far East

N. V. ORESHKOVA1,2, V. P. VETROVA3, N. V. SINELNIKOVA4
1Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
3Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS, 683024, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Rybakov ave, 19-
4Institute of Biological Problems of the North, FEB RAS, 685000, Magadan, Portovaya str., 18
Keywords: Cajanderi larch, microsatellite loci, phenotypic markers, genetic variation, population structure

Abstract >>
The study of genetic and phenotypic diversity of Cajanderi larch was carried out in the north-east of Asia - in the Magadanskaya Oblast and on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Genetic diversity of the larch was investigated using eight nuclear microsatellite loci (bcLK056, bcLK066, bcLK224, bcLK232, bcLK260, bcLK235, UAKLly6, UBCLXtet-1-22). Phenotypic diversity was estimated using shape characteristics of the cone-scales determined by methods of geometric morphometrics. The microsatellite analysis revealed high level of genetic diversity of L. cajanderi in the Far North of Asia. Significant genetic and phenotypic differences between L. cajanderi samples from the Magadanskaya Oblast and Kamchatka suggested early isolation of the larch on the peninsula. Deficiency of heterozygote genotypes was detected in all investigated larch populations in Kamchatka, which related to high degree of inbreeding. Excess of heterozygote genotypes was observed in the Magadan populations of L. cajanderi, which was probably due to the balancing selection in favor of heterozygotes.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010096
																								



3.
Effect of Defoliation on the Growth and Metabolism of Scots Pine

N. E. SUDACHKOVA, I. L. MILYUTINA, L. I. ROMANOVA, N. V. ASTRAKHANTSEVA
Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok 50/28
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L, defoliation, xylem, phloem, photosynthetic pigments, starch, oxidative stress

Abstract >>
The effect of spring defoliation on different aspects of growth and metabolism of 10–year Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) in natural stands of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe region were studied. These aspects included the structure of annual xylem and phloem increments, the content of starch and photosynthetic pigments in phloem, and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in xylem and phloem. It was shown that defoliation caused reduction of shoot elongation, as well as decrease of length and mass of needles, and width of annual rings in xylem and phloem. It also stimulated late wood formation, increase in total contents of photosynthetic pigments in the needles of newly formed shoots, and reduction of starch contents in stems’ phloem. Significant increase of peroxidase activity in the xylem of defoliated trees can be a sign of oxidative stress. Defoliation had an evident negative effect on the formation of the annual rings of xylem, but didnt have that strong impact on phloem genesis. In general, during defoliation the reserve function of the trees prevailed over the growth function.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S199542551501014X
																								



4.
Taxonomic Diversity, Ecologic and Trophic Peculiarities of Basidial Macromycetes Biota of the Tatyshev Island (the Yenisei River, Krasnoyarsk Krai)

O. E. KRYUCHKOVA1, D. E. ALEKSANDROV2
1Institute of Economics, Mangement and Environmental Studies Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodniy ave., 79
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of ForestSB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: fungi, macromycetes, ecology, the Tatyshev Island, the Yenisei River, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
The article presents the study of taxonomic diversity and some ecological aspects of basidial macromycetes of the Tatyshev Island (the Yenisei River, Krasnoyarsk Krai). Ninety species, for the most part belonging to the orders Agaricales, Polyporales, Russulales and Boletales, were detected. Mycorrhiza-forming fungi, xylotrophe fungi and humus saprotrophic fungi predominated in the trophic structure. A considerably high proportion of ruderal species of fungi was noted.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010084
																								



5.
Patterns of Geographical Distribution of Carpenter Moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in the Old World

R. V. YAKOVLEV
Altai State University, 656049, Barnul, Lenin ave., 61
Keywords: carpenter moths, Cossidae, zoogeography, zoogeographical borders, centers of species diversity, centers of endemism

Abstract >>
Geographical distribution of carpenter moths (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in the Old World was studied. The cossid faunas of different zoogeographical zones of Earth were characterized. Zoogeographical boundaries, centers of species diversity and generic diversity, centers of endemism in the Palaearctic part of the Holarctic Kingdom, as well as in the Afro-tropical, Indo-Malayan and Australian zoogeographical regions were specified. The Papuan choron was proposed to be regarded as a subregion of the Indo-Malayan region of the Paleotropical Kingdom. The Australian and the New Zealand chorons were also suggested to be included into the Paleotropical Kingdom as the Australian region. Finally, it was proposed that the border between the Holarctic Kingdom and the Indo-Malayan region should be rectified and that the Eastern-Gobi choron should be considered as the separate zoogeographical superprovince.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010151
																								



6.
The Shrews (Sorex) of the Nadym River Basin (the North of Western Siberia)

N. E. DOKUCHAEV1, L. G. EMELYANOVA2, P. T. OREKHOV3
1Institute of Biological Problems of the North FEB RAS, 685000, Magadan, Portovaya str., 18
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1
3Institute of Earth Cryosphere SB RAS, 625000, Tyumen, Malygin str., 86
Keywords: Sorex, shrews, reproduction, sex and age composition, diet, helminths, the Nadym River, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
Four species of shrews were found in the Nadym River basin: Sorex tundrensis Merriam, 1900, S. caecutiens Laxmann, 1788, S. minutissimus Zimmermann, 1780 and S. minutus Linnaeus, 1766. Data on reproduction, sex and age composition, diet and helminths were given. Among young S. tundrensis the number of females was two times larger than the number of males. Nadym basin was defined as the western boundary for the distribution of nematode Soboliphyme jamesoni.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010035
																								



7.
Biological Characteristics of Phoxinus phoxinus L. in the Rivers Chulman and Ungra (Southern Yakutia)

T. E. BOUTORINA1, I. V. REZNIK2
1Far-Eastern State Technical Fisheries University, 690087, Vladivostok, Lugovaya str., 52b
2Holding Company Yakutugol, 678960, Neryungri, Lenin str., 3/1
Keywords: Phoxinus phoxinus, Southern Yakutia, the rivers Ungra and Chulman, population, age composition, parasites fauna, infusoria, myxosporea

Abstract >>
The results of the study of common minnow populations in the Ungra River (conservation zone) and the Chulman River (Neryungri town) in Southern Yakutia were presented. The main biological characteristics of the fish were given. Minnows proved to be highly adaptive: their lifespan could exceed 10 years in the technogenic zone of the Chulman River in the absence of predators and competition for food. Common minnow was a host to 36 species of parasites, 11 of them were typical for this fish, and 9 species were detected for the first time in Yakutia.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010011
																								



8.
Distribution of Cyprinid Fish in the Reservoirs of the Siberian Subarctic Region

P. A. POPOV
Institute of Aquatic and Ecological Problems SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Morskoy ave., 2
Keywords: Siberian subarctic region, fishes, ichthyocenoses structure, adaptation

Abstract >>
The composition and distribution of cyprinid fish in the subarctic region of Siberia were analyzed. While there are 20 species of cyprinids living in the reservoirs of Siberia, only 10 species of this fish family were found in rivers and lakes of the Siberian subarctic region. The populations of these species were relatively low because of the habitat conditions: mainly due to the lack of solar energy absorbed by the reservoirs in high latitude zones.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010102
																								



9.
Invertebrates of the Cheegrass Steppe on Solonetz Soils of the Transbaikalia: Space–Time Structure

L. T. KHOBRAKOVA1, I. N. LAVRENTIEVA1,2, S. N. DANILOV1, L. L. UBUGUNOV1,2, V. I. UBUGUNOVA1,2, S. V. ZAITSEVA1
1Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS, 670042, Ulan-Ude, Sakhanovoi str., 6
2Buryat State Agricultural Academy Nmed V. P. Philiov, 670034, Ulan-Ude, Pushkin str., 8
Keywords: invertebrate animals, cheegrass (Achntherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski) community, solonetz, population structure, biomass, seasonal activity dynamics, Transbaikalia

Abstract >>
As a result of soil study and zoological researches conducted on solonetz soils of Transbaikalia in the cheegrass (Achntherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski) steppe, the structure, dominant groups and features of space-time distribution of invertebrates were defined. The peculiarities of the zoological complex were poor taxonomic diversity, small number of invertebrates, and low biomass. The factors limiting the activity of invertebrates were detected: poor botanical composition of the soil, low moisture content and soil temperature, physical and chemical properties of the soil and its salinity. The study of the spatial distribution of invertebrates showed that cheegrass was the basic edificator of the community. In Transbaikalia, depending on the seasonal precipitation, the two main types of invertebrate communities can be formed: desert-steppe and meadow-steppe. The variety and abundance of the invertebrates caught in traps positively correlated with precipitation amount and had negative correlation with the temperature. The size of cheegrass root system had the greatest impact on the distribution of the invertebrates.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010072
																								



10.
GroundDwelling Invertebrates in a Large Industrial City: Differentiation of Recreation and Urbanization Effects

M. P. ZOLOTAREV, E. A. BELSKAYA
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: urbanization, recreation, ground-dwelling invertebrates, ground beetles, rove beetles, spiders, harvestmen

Abstract >>
Communities of ground-dwelling invertebrates of natural pine forests in and around Yekaterinburg were studied. The two main factors were taken into account while comparing different forest sites: urbanization (mainly air pollution) and recreation (frequency of visits by people). The activity density of the taxa most abundant in specimens and species (ground and rove beetles, spiders and harvestmen) increased in urban forests as compared to the suburban sites. Different taxa experienced different changes in species diversity due to urbanization. Decrease in species richness in the city was accompanied by the increased dominance among arachnids and the decreased dominance among ground beetles. The evenness of the rove beetles population structure in the urban sites was the same as in the suburban sites. The impact of recreation on ground-dwelling invertebrates was relatively low as compared to urbanization. The effects of recreation were significant in ground beetles (decreased abundance and species richness under severe impact of recreation) and arachnids (increased abundance).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010163
																								



11.
Application of an Integral Index to Evaluate the Spatial Differentiation of Biological Properties of Soils Along an Aridity Gradient in the South of Russia

K. Sh. KAZEEV, Y. S. KOZUN, S. I. KOLESNIKOV
Southern Federal University, 344006, Rostov-on-Don, Bolshaya Sadovaya str., 105
Keywords: arid soils, biological properties of soils, biodiagnostics, climate, spatial differentiation

Abstract >>
A close correlation between the degree of aridity and biological properties of soils in southern Russia was detected. The number of microarthropoda and microorganisms, humus content, enzyme activity and the integral index of biological state (IIBS) of soils were decreasing with the increasing aridity in the following sequence: chernozem → chestnut soils → light chestnut soils → brown desert-steppe soil. IIBS value variation range for surficial units was 41 %. The difference between the soils increased when biological activity of the whole soil profile was taken into account. In this case the difference in IIBS between the soils increased to 75 %.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010060
																								



12.
Podgorodnenskaya NaturalTechnogenic Soil Catena: Morphological, PhysicalMechanical and Chemical Properties

A. M. DERBENTSEVA1, A. V. CHERNOVALOVA1, M. M. SURZHIK2, O. V. NESTEROVA1, V. A. SEMAL1, N. A. RIBACHUK1, L. P. MAYOROVA3
1Far Eastern Federal University, 690000, Vladivostok, Okeanskaya str., 28
2Mountain-Taiga Station nmed after V. L. Komarov, 692533, Primorskiy region, Ussuriyskiy district, Gornotayozhnoye village
3Pacific Ocean State University, 680035, Khabarovsk, Tikhookeanskaya str., 136
Keywords: caten, terricones, litostrats, granulometric composition, microaggregate composition, heavy metals

Abstract >>
Building of man-made industrial complexes in natural landscapes created the necessity to study the changes of the properties of soils, which lost their natural state. The most productive way of monitoring these changes is to study natural–technogenic soil catenas. The article reflects the results of a regional research made by the authors. It provides the characteristics of a representative catena, formed in conditions of technogenesis. The estimation of morphological, physicalmechanical and chemical properties of technogenic surface formations created due to underground coal mining, natural soils and manmade chemozems was given.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010023
																								



13.
Dynamics of Iron Content in the Soils of Technogenic Landscapes of Forest–Steppe Areas in the Kuznetsk Depression

V. G. DVURECHENSKIY
Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrentiev ave., 8/2
Keywords: group and fractional composition of iron, embriozems, technogenic landscape, steppe areas

Abstract >>
The study of iron content in young soils formed on pit heaps of technogenic landscapes allowed diagnosing the soil formation processes occurring there. Monitoring of the content and distribution of various forms of iron in embriozems showed the speed and direction of the soil-forming processes in disturbed ecosystems. It was detected that the ratio of different forms of iron and their distribution in the soil profile can be used as an indicator.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010047
																								



14.
Distribution of Inorganic Pollutants in a Peat Deposit

O. G. SAVICHEV
Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin ave., 30
Keywords: bog waters, pollutants, geomigratory calculations

Abstract >>
The model of distribution of inorganic substances in the polluted waters of an oligotrophic bog was developed and geomigratory calculations were carried out on the example of the Vasyugan Bog. The inflow of industrial wastewater had affected the TDS level of the bog waters, and the most significant changes of TDS were detected in the top layer about 0.5–1.0 m in thickness. The use of loam as an insulating barrier in the active layer of the bog helps to reduce the negative impact on the waters, but does not provide the preservation of their baseline state on the lower layer.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010114
																								



15.
Functional Specificity in the Structure of Streptomycete Complexes in the Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

I. G. SHIROKIKH1,2, E. S. SOLOVYEVA1, T. J. ASHIHMINA1
1Institute of Biology Komi Scientific Center of Ural Division of RAS and Vyatka State University of Humanities, 610002, Kirov, Svobody str., 122
2N. V. Rudnitski Zonal North-East Agricultural Research Institute, 610007, Kirov, Lenin str., 166a
Keywords: soils, heavy metals, Streptomyces, radial growth rate, frequency of occurrence, biomass, biosorption

Abstract >>
The data on growth kinetics of the representatives of the genus Streptomyces under the influence of lead, zinc and copper ions was used to show the differences in the functional structure of soil streptomycete complexes in ecotopes with various degrees of heavy metal pollution. We compared streptomycetes obtained from moderately (residential zone, garden patches) and severely polluted soils (traffic zone, industrial area) with streptomycetes taken on the background site. As the result, the former showed higher radial growth rate under the influence of 3 mg/l of metal ions and lower biomass accumulation in liquid medium supplemented with 10 mg/l of Pb2+ than the latter.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010138
																								



16.
Growth Status of Scots Pine Artificial Stands Under the Influence of para–Aminobenzoic Acid

V. P. IVANOV1, S. I. MARCHENKO1, D. I. NARTOV1, YU. V. IVANOV2
1Bryansk State Technological Academy of Engineering, 241037, Bryansk, Stanke Dimitrova str., 3
2K. A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya str., 35
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris, seedlings, stimulating effect, accelerated growth, tree branchiness

Abstract >>
The article summarizes 27 years of observations on the growth status of Scots pine artificial stands, established after single seed treatment with para-aminobenzoic acid (concentration range: 3.7–18.2 mM). Longterm stimulating effect of PABA on artificial stands’ height growth (up to 47 %) and diameter (up to 42 %) was discovered. By the age of 27 years, selfpruning of the artificial stands increased by 18 %. The possible mechanisms of long-term PABA physiological effect are now being discussed.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010059