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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2014 year, number 6

From the Editor-in-Chief

A. A. Onuchin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation

Vegetation Fuel Mapping

A. V. Volokitina1, T. M. Sofronova2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2V. P. Astafiev Krasnoyasrsk State Pedagogical University, Ada Lebedeva str., 89, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: vegetation fuel classification and methods of vegetation fuel mapping

Abstract >>
All vegetation sites as objects of burning are structural complexes of various fuels. Especially complex are forest biogeoceonoses. For practical use, pyrological characteristics of vegetation are reflected on plans and maps showing both general one-sided estimations with site descriptions (for example, their fire hazard) and detailed multi-sided characteristics of all compounds in the vegetation fuel complexes. The latter become basic maps for obtaining various pyrological estimations and are called vegetation fuel maps. Vegetation fuel (VF) mapping can be made using two methodological approaches: first, by distinguishing pyrological vegetation categories as standard complexes; second, by individually characterizing each vegetation site in terms of VF. Obviously, the standard VF characteristic of sites can be only approximate and rough, since the possible number of studied site categories is limited. For large-scale mapping, the detailed individual characteristic of vegetation sites in terms of VF is more preferable and precise but more expensive. Therefore, historically, the first approach to VF mapping got its development, i. e. distinguishing and mapping of certain vegetation categories with standard characteristics. Foreign and Russian methodical approaches to vegetation fuel (VF) classification and mapping are considered. Examples of VF mapping at different scales and guidelines for their use are given.

To the Question of Rhododendron L. Genus Phylogeny Based on ITS1ITS2 Spacers Sequence Studies

T. V. Baranova1, R. N. Kalendar2, V. N. Kalaev1
1Voronezh State University, Botanical Garden, Botanicheski sad, 1, Voronezh, 394068 Russian Federation
2University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari, 1, Helsinki, 00014 Finland
Keywords: phylogeny, phylogenetic community, nuclear ribosomal RNA, ITS sequence, nucleotide, Rhododendron, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, species-specific

Abstract >>
The first and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions of the ribosomal DNA and 5.8S rRNA gene from Rhododendron L. were analysed. This study reveals phylogenetic relationships and collation of data on the phylogeny of the genus Rhododendron L. according to the research of other authors using molecular and classical methods. Sequence analysis of ribosomal spacer showed low variability between species of the genus Rhododendron series of Dauricum. Rh. mucronulatum Turcz., Rh. dauricum L. and some other studied species had identical nucleotide ITS1–ITS2 sequence indicating the artificial division into separate species. Found species differing from each other by 12 or few nucleotides, which allows assuming their common phylogenetic affiliation or excluding one taxonomic unit. According to the analysis of ITS1ITS2 sequences identified 16 groups of species with similar sequence ITS1ITS2. When comparing the morphological descriptions of some species of the genus Rhododendron L. with a similar sequence of ITS1ITS2 marked their small differences. Based on the results of molecular genetic analysis it has been assumed that Rhododendron dauricum L., Rh. ledebourii Pojark, Rh. sichotense Pojark and Rh. mucronulatum Turcz belong to the same species. The establishment phylogenetic relationships based on sequence ITS1ITS2, applicable only in respect of highly isolated species Rhododendron L. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Rhododendron L. necessary to expand the comparative analysis of the DNA sequences of universal genes or complex repeats elements (retrotransposons).

Lignification in Scots Pine Callus as Reaction to Cultivation Conditions and Nutrient Medium

G. F. Antonova1, T. V. Zheleznichenko2, V. V. Stasova1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russian Federation
Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , , Scots pine, callus, duration of cultivation, light, darkness, sucrose, polyvinylpyrollidon, ferulic and ascorbic acids, cell morphology, lignin, structure

Abstract >>
The effect of nutrient medium composition and of the conditions of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) callus on the morphology of its cells, the degree of their differentiation and lignification was studied. The morphological characteristics of callus cells, the content and macromolecular structure of lignin considerably vary in the dependence on the duration of callus cultivation, the degree of illumination and on the content of sucrose, polyvinylpyrollidon (PVP), ferulic and ascorbic acids in nutrient medium. The increase in the duration of callus cultivation from 21 to 60 days promotes the differentiation of cells, the homogeneity of morphological cell wall structure and intensification of lignification. The cultivation of callus in the darkness suppresses its growth and lignification, whereas under the conditions «light- darkness» leads to the growth of the callus and the accumulation of lignin. The callus grown in the darkness contains more low-molecular lignin and less high-molecular lignin than that cultivated in the light. The increase in sucrose concentration in nutrient medium to 5 % leads to the growth of callus mass and its lignification, to heightened content of high-molecular fraction in lignin and influences the composition of lignin structural units, especially under such conditions as light–darkness. The effect of PVP on lignification depends on the development stage of callus cells, the conditions of illumination and the time of cultivation. With the cultivation in the darkness during 21 days PVP suppresses the lignification of callus, but it contributes to appearance of siringyl units in the composition of lignin. The increase in the duration of cultivation with PVP to 60 days promotes the condensation of lignin precursors that increases the quantity of high-molecular fraction. The ferulic acid, added in the medium, contributes to the development of the secondary wall thickening of callus cells as matrix for deposition of lignin, increases the content of low-molecular fraction and decreases the high-molecular fraction. The addition of ascorbic acid to nutrient medium favourably affects the proliferation of cells and the growth of the callus mass, but it impedes its lignification.

The Impact of Ecological and Phytocenotic Conditions on Fraction Composition of Proteins and Sowing Qualities of the Siberian Fir Seeds

S. G. Prokushkin1, V. V. Ermolenko1, Z. V. Erohina2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian State Technological University, Prospekt Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: fractional composition of proteins, laboratory germination of seeds, Siberian fir

Abstract >>
The content and fractional composition of nitrogenous compounds and their role in sowing qualities of the Siberian fir has been identified. In particular: there were significant differences in the content of total protein nitrogen and individual fractions of proteins in seeds of site depending on the fir, the rate of growth of the trees, the location of the seeds in the generative layers of the crown and the vitality of the tree. It was found that the viable seeds of the Siberian fir in middle taiga contains the maximum amount of protein nitrogen, the main fraction of which are sparingly soluble and albumin. Whereas, in the seeds from the southern taiga protein nitrogen content is much less prevalent and sparingly soluble fraction and globulins. A positive correlation between protein content in seeds and their nitrogen laboratory germination component with r = 0.88 and the approximation validity with R2 = 0.77, which is typical for the trees of the Ist, and IVth class of growth by Kraft. Positive relationship has been established between laboratory germination and water-soluble fractions which, according to the researchers, serves as a catalyst. Also a relationship between seed germination and the content of salt–soluble fractions and sparingly soluble fractions, which amounted to 0.93 and 0.76, respectively, has been found. The high content of sparingly soluble protein fraction in the seeds of fir and a very high correlation with its germination is quite natural, as insoluble proteins play a role in improving the energy efficiency of respiratory cells, as well as they are a part of the cellular structures. A correlation between the amount of saltsoluble fraction and germination of seeds has been shown. This correlation is natural, since they are mainly seed storage proteins, for a number of different specific features. The relationship between the content of the alcohol and alkali-soluble protein fractions in the seeds and their germination were insignificant (0.010.27), which is also consistent with the data obtained for the Gmelin and Siberian larch seeds.

Modeling of Forest Insect Pheromone Communication System. Female as a Source of Information

V. G. Soukhovolsky1,2, P. E. Volkova2, O. V. Tarasova3
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2International Scientific Center for Study of Extreme Men State Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
3Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodny, 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest insect, communication system, reliability, pheromon, production, female, behavior, modeling

Abstract >>
The system of pheromone communication in insects-phyllophagous was considered in terms of its effectiveness as a communication system. A selected lepidopterous insect (Lepidoptera) was chosen for analysis of pheromone communication system. We analyzed data on 250 species of insects from three families — Lasiocampidae, Geometridae, Lymantriidae . Specificity of the chemical composition of the complex pheromones and pheromone component count was assessed for all of these females. Characteristics of complexes of insect pheromones and possible female strategies of behavior were modeled using the methods of information theory, utility theory and game theory. We estimated complementarity for various types of chemical compounds in pheromone composition. The uniqueness of the pheromone signal of separate species of Lepidoptera is achieved by using a multi-component pheromone. There are no hard links between existence or absence of individual components in multi-component pheromones. The model was proposed for explanation of regularities of pheromone composition. Nonmonotonic of relative frequency of insect species curve with different number of components can be explained in terms of a trade-off between increasing the efficiency of males seeking females of the same species with an increasing number of individual components and the complexity of the synthesis of pheromones multi-component pheromones. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the validity of the model description. Possible mechanisms of pheromone signal amplification studied were associated with the aggregation of a large number of individuals in a limited area. If females in the process of attracting individuals of the opposite sex are aggregated, then the source of pheromones is not a private individual, but a group of females, and the intensity of the flow of the group of molecules is defined as the intensity of pheromone release pheromones individual animals and the number of females in the cluster. The analogy game-theoretic problem «Prisoner's dilemma» use for evaluating of the effectiveness of the group strategy to attract for the simplest case, which dealt with two players the females capable of generating pheromone. The proposed approach allows evaluation of the reliability of the pheromone communication system in insects phyllophagous.

All European Ash Species are Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) — a Far Eastern Invader

Yu. N. Baranchikov1, L. G. Seraya2, M. N. Grinash2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2N. V. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya Str., 4, Moscow, 127276 Russian Federation
Keywords: Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus angustifolia, Fraxinus ornus, emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, host plants, resistance, invasive species, Europe

Abstract >>
Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) — an example of a destructive invasive insect which abruptly enlarged its initially East–Asian area in 8090s of the previous century. Nowadays this species is the main pest of ash ( Fraxinus) trees in USA and Canada and is quickly spreading over 11 administrative regions of Russia. It is very important to determine a list of possible host plants of A. planipennis for the pest risk assessment of invasion of this pest over the territory of Central and Western Europe. In its native area NorthEastern Asia this buprestid is a secondary consumer of dying trees of East-Asian ash species F. hinensis and F. mandshurica. Healthy trees of these species are highly resistant to the pest. No examples of resistant ash species were found at North American continent. Documentary data are presented for the first time on infestation of three European ash species at the territory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia by the emerald ash borer. At the first time this pest was registered at the garden in 2011. During the period of 20102014 EAB killed from 70 to 100 % of trees of European ash species: Fraxinus excelsior, F. angustifolia (= F. oxycarpa) and F. ornus. At the same period from 81 to 90 % of specimens of North American ash species ( F. pennsylvanica and F. americana) were killed by this buprestid. Simultaneously dead trees of Asian species F. mandshurica and F. chinensis (= F. rhynchophyla) did not carry any trace of EAB infestation. This case study is a good example of the «sentinel trees» concept’s usefulness. Arboretums with collections of non-native plants may serve as ecological traps for the local pests and pathogens - potential invasive organisms in the source regions of introduced plants.

XXIV IUFRO World Congress «Sustaining Forests, Sustaining People: The Role of Research (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 511 October 2014)

E. N. Muratova, G. F. Antonova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation

Nikolai Alexandrovich Moiseev (to 85 years of birthday)

Stanislav Grigorievich Prokushkin (to 75 years of birthday)