

2015 year, number 2
E.S. Manuylovich^{1}, V.A. Astapenko^{1}, P.A. Golovinskii^{1,2}
^{1}Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, per. Institutskiy, 9, Moscow Region, Dolgoprudnyiy, 141700, Russia ^{2}Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 394006, Voronezh, ul. 20letija Oktjabrja, 84
Keywords: ultrashort pulse, air dispersion, diffraction, propagation, humidity, chirp
Abstract >>
The computer simulation results on propagation of a few femtosecond pulses in dry and humid air are presented. Rapid spreading of such pulses is demonstrated. The propagation of a pulse with a negative initial chirp in dry and humid air is considered. A strong dependence of the minimum pulse width distance on air humidity is found.

V.A. Banakh, I.A. Razenkov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: backscatter amplification, turbulent atmosphere, aerosol lidar with two receiving channels
Abstract >>
Construction of the aerosol lidar with two receiving channels for study of the effect of amplification of radiation power backscattered in the atmosphere is described in the paper. One of the receiving (monostatic) channels coincides with the transmitter channel, the other one (bistatic) receives the backscattered radiation at small angle to the probing beam axis. Relation of the echo signal power registered in monostatic channel to that in bistatic channel is a measure of the effect of backscatter amplification. The results of lidar atmospheric experiments show that, as a rule, power of echosignal registered in monostatic channel exceeds that in bistatic one.

V.V. Nosov, V.P. Lukin, E.V. Nosov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: turbulence, coherent turbulence, coherent structure, topological soliton, simulation of coherent structures, hydrodynamics equations, NavierStokes equations, topological precursor
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Coherent structures (threedimensional topological solitons) inside closed rooms had been simulated by solving numerically hydrodynamic equations (Navier–Stokes equations). A closed room is a volume without the exchange of internal and external medium through the borders. Results of eight boundary value problems are given: spectrograph pavilion and telescope dome of large astronomical telescopes (LSVT and BTA), cubic room, flat square cuvette, square section tube, parietal turbulence (thermals), dome (hemisphere with a viscous medium), and open space above one heated spot. Solitary large vortices (coherent structures or topological solitons) are observed inside the volume. The patterns of air motion as a result of simulation of coherent structures with identical boundary conditions are practically the same as the patterns, independently recorded earlier in our experiments (indoors LSVT and BTA). Also inside other volumes the patterns of medium motion as a result of simulation of coherent structures are practically the same as the patterns, previously recorded at experiments by other authors. Simulations confirm the previously formulated experimental conclusion that mixing of many coherent structures with different close sizes (and with close frequencies of main vortices) gives noncoherent Kolmogorov turbulence. In addition, relatively long inertial intervals of spectrum with Kolmogorov 5/3exponential decay are observed in highly viscous media.

E.A. Vilisova, V.G. Chernyak
Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: thermophoresis, accommodation coefficients of energy and momentum, thermal polarization of the aerosol particle, gas, molecule
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The role of accommodation coefficients of energy and tangential and normal momenta in the phenomenon of thermophoresis of a spherical aerosol particle in the Knudsen (free–molecular) mode was studied. Feature of this work is that it does not use any assumptions about the distribution function of the gas molecules reflected from the surface of particles. Accommodation coefficients are introduced into the equations directly through the momentum and energy fluxes. The expressions for the force and rate of thermophoresis, as well as for thermal polarization of particles (the difference in temperatures at diametrically opposite points on the particle surface in the direction of incoming flow of gas) were obtained. It was shown that in the Knudsen mode the force and rate of thermophoresis depend only on the accommodation coefficient of momentum, and do not depend on the accommodation coefficient of energy. The value of thermal polarization, on the contrary, is directly proportional to the accommodation coefficient of energy, but does not depend on the accommodation coefficient of momentum.

S.V. Zhilkin, G.V. Kharlamov
Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20, K. Marksa av., Novosibirsk, 630073, Russia
Keywords: diffusion coefficient, Lennard–Jones potential, phase transition, autocorrelation function of the velocity
Abstract >>
In this paper, we have calculated the diffusion coefficients of the Lennard–Jones gas in a wide range of density and temperature. A universal dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the density for homogeneous systems was found. A deviation from this dependence in terms of the vapor — liquid phase transition was obtained. Two relaxation phases of autocorrelation velocity function of the system in terms of the phase transition were analyzed and explained.

S.F. Abdullaev, V.A. Maslov, B.I. Nazarov, U. Madvaliev, T. Davlatshoev
S.U. Umarov PhysicalTechnical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Rebublic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Tajikistan, 734063, Dushanbe, Akademgorodok, ul. Ajni, 299/1
Keywords: radiation, technological transfer, soil, radioactive contamination
Abstract >>
The geochemical pollution index and integrated pollution index of soil and dust haze samples by heavy metals have been analyzed in Tajikistan. Extremely high value of the index of contamination of samples of soil and dust aerosol by heavy metals such as: bismuth, arsenic, and copper was find. The reason for the enrichment of the soil, particularly, the south–central part of Tajikistan, by bismuth, arsenic, and copper is transboundary pollution transport of the dust storms (dust haze) from neighboring countries. The study of the elemental composition of the surface layer of the soil allows us to state that the northern part of Tajikistan is apparently exposed to powerful influence of industry in the region.

A.V. Polyakov, Yu.M. Timofeyev, A.V. Poberovskii, Ya.A. Virolainen
Saint Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: groundbased spectroscopic measurements, gas total content, hydrochloric acid vapors in the atmosphere, nearssurface pollution of the atmosphere
Abstract >>
Spectral measurement show that solar radiation can contain the information on extremely high nearsurface concentrations of the hydrochloric acid vapor that leads to impossibility of estimation of its general content using the background a priori information. The alternative representation of a priori information is proposed that allows the number of retrieved values of hydrochloric acid vapor be increased by 10%. The existence of high nearsurface concentrations of the gas is confirmed by the received results of the processing of spectral data. The good agreement between estimates of stratospheric contents of the hydrochloric acid vapor retrieved from groundbased measurements using the proposed a priori information and independent satellite data is shown: mean differences between data received by two methods are 4.4%, the standard deviation of the differences is 5.7%, and the correlation coefficient is 0.85.

B.M. Desyatkov, N.A. Lapteva, A.N. Shabanov
State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, 630559, Russia
Keywords: boundary layer of the atmosphere, unknown point sources of admixture, conjugate equation
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A method of search for a hidden point sources of impurities in the atmosphere having different powers and located at different points in space is proposed. The method is based on the use of the conjugate equation of turbulent diffusion. The effect of the number of control points used in measuring the concentration of admixture and inevitable measurement errors on the accuracy of parameters of the sources is analyzed. The results of test calculations are shown.

V.P. Lukin, N.N. Botygina, V.A. Gladkikh, O.N. Emaleev, P.A. Konyaev, S.L. Odintsov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: turbulence, atmosphere, differential method, optical measurements, acoustic measurements
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The complex atmospheric turbulence measurements using differential turbulence meter, wavefront sensor, and ultrasonic meteostations were carried out. The structure constant of the refractive index were measured daily along horizontal optical paths at Basic Experimental Station of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics. The comparative analysis of data obtained is given.

A.S. Zapevalov^{1}, N.E. Lebedev^{1}, K.V. Pokazeev^{2}
^{1}Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 99011, Ukraine ^{2}Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP1, Leninskie Gory, 1/2, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Keywords: sea surface slopes, wind speed, measurement error
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The error of the wind speed determining by means of optical scanners, caused by the variety of physical factors forming topographic structure of the sea surface, is analyzed. It is shown that this error consists of two components. The first one is caused by the stochastic nature of a relation between wind speed and energy of short surface waves, it does not depend on the average wind speed and has a value of 0.2 m/s. The second one is due to deviation of the sea surface slope distribution from Gaussian; it increases with wind speed, varying from 0.1 m/s when the wind speed is 1.5 m/s to 0.4 m/s when the wind speed is 15 m/s.

M.G. Dembelov^{1}, Yu.B. Bashkuev^{1}, A.V. Loukhnev^{2}, O.F. Loukhneva^{2}, V.A. San’kov^{2}
^{1}Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, UlanUde, 8, Sakhyanovoy str ^{2}Institute of the Earth's Crust of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 128, Lermontova str
Keywords: GPS measurements, troposphere zenith delay, meteorology data, refraction index, atmosphere water vapor
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A continuous GPS network consisting seven permanent points of observation is created for the study of the geodynamic processes in the Baikal region. The results of processing the primary GPS data provide continuous atmospheric data in the form of total zenith troposphere delay, which can be used for meteorological and climatological studies. The total delay is the sum of “dry” or hydrostatic and wet components. The wet component determines the integrated amount of water vapor and quantily of precipitated water above the point of measurement. Thus, GPS measurements provide the possibility of obtaining initial data for development of new numerical models of zenith troposphere delay and integrated precipitated water vapor for the problems of meteorology.

V.A. Lapchenko^{1}, A.M. Zvyagintsev^{2}
^{1}Karadag Nature Reserve of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 24 Nauki str., Kurortnoye stlm., Feodosia, AR Crime, 298188 ^{2}Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
Keywords: surface ozone, minor gases, nature reserve, seasonal and diurnal variability, critical concentrations of pollutants
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We present data of concentrations of surface ozone and some other minor atmospheric gases at the Karadag nature reserve, the Crimea, during March 2013 — February 2014. During all period of observations, concentrations of primary pollutants (CO, NO_{2}, SO_{2}) were tens times less than national critical levels. Variability of surface ozone is similar to one observed at rural territories of the southern West Europe. The diurnal maximum of ozone concentration is observed in 1417 h LT. Two ozone maxima are observed during a year; the main maximum is observed in the end of July — beginning of August and the weaker maximum is in April. There were several ozone episodes in hot periods where ozone concentration exceeded the national ozone critical level (160 mcg × m^{–3}) but no more than by 10%. We conclude that according to the WHO criteria air quality at the Karadag nature reserve and, probably, at all Black Sea resorts of the Crimea are fully formed only by surface ozone concentration.

V.A. Tartakovsky
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: forcing factor, signs of synchronicity, hidden components
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A hypothesis is suggested that the forcing synchronizes the climatic processes and manifests itself in the similarity of their essential signs. Orthogonal components are introduced; they differ because of coincidence and noncoincidence of essential signs. The relationship between components can be interpreted as a supply of energy from the Sun, and as an energy sink. For the computation, the algorithms have been developed using the Fourier transform in the basis of trigonometric functions. The theory is applied to decompose the series of the Wolf numbers and temperature from 818 weather stations of the Northern Hemisphere in the range from 1955 to 2010. The new approach characterizes the manifestation of the forcing and corresponds to the wellknown notions of natural and climatic processes, so, it is informative, consistent, and suitable for the analysis of series of observations.

A.L. Rukosuev, A.V. Kudryashov, A.N. Lylova, V.V. Samarkin, Yu.V. Sheldakova
Moscow State University of mechanical engineering, 107023, Moscow, Bolshaya Semenovskaya, 38
Keywords: adaptive optics, deformable mirror, atmospheric turbulence, Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor
Abstract >>
Fast adaptive system for atmospheric turbulence compensation working with a frequency of 200 Hz is presented in this paper. As a stacked actuator, deformable mirror with 97 piezoactuators and 2 kHz Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor were used for adaptive system design. The dependence of residual correction error of the sine signal upon the time of the system reaction is also considered.

