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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2015 year, number 1

1.
Aerosol lidar for study of the backscatter amplification in the atmosphere. Part I. Computer simulation

V.A. Banakh, I.A. Razenkov, I.N. Smalikho
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: backscatter amplification, turbulent atmosphere, non-axial receiving

Abstract >>
The results of numerical simulation of operation of an aerosol lidar with two receiving channels for study the effect of amplification of radiation power backscattered in the atmosphere are presented. Simulation was performed with consideration for location of one of the receivers apart from the probing beam axis. Requirements on the parameters of the lidar transceiver and probing path geometry for sufficient registration of the backscattered radiation power amplification effect were defined. It is shown that for path length more than 1 km and small receiving apertures the amplification coefficient for the backscattered radiation power can exceed 1.4.
																								



2.
Global modeling of NO2 central line positions

A.A. Lukashevskaya1, O.M. Lyulin1, A. Perrin2, V.I. Perevalov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, 94010 Creteil Cedex, France
Keywords: , 14NO2, , , , - , ,

Abstract >>
The global modeling of the NO2 central line positions has been performed within the framework of the method of effective operators. 195 parameters of polyad model of effective Hamiltonian have been fitted to 28 016 line positions collected from the literature in the 0.006-7916 cm–1 wavenumber range. The global root mean square residual of the fit is 0.017 cm1. The used effective Hamiltonian takes explicitly into account both the spin-rotation interactions within each vibrational state together and numerous vibrationalrotational resonances. Indeed, because of approximate relations ω1 ≈ ω3 ≈ 2ω2 between the three harmonic frequencies of NO2, resonances due to first and second order Ctype Coriolis interactions and to several Fermi and DarlingDennison resonances had to be accounted for.
																								



3.
Effective potential energy surface of HD16O for calculation of highly excited states of nν3 and ν1 + nν3 types

B.A. Voronin1, S.N. Yurchenko2, S.S. Voronina1, A.V. Kozodoev1, J. Tennyson2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Keywords: potential energy surface, HD16O, VTT

Abstract >>
A new spectroscopically determined potential energy surface (PES) for HD16O is presented. This surface is constructed by adjusting the high accuracy PES by fitting to nν3 and ν1 + nν3 energy levels. This refinement used experimentally derived term values up to 25 600 cm–1 and with J ≤ 8: a data set of 740 energy levels once some levels with ambiguous assignment is excluded. To improve the extrapolation properties of the empirical PES, the restraint that the resulting PESs remain close to the ab initio surface was imposed.
																								



4.
Fourier–spectroscopy of water vapor in the volume of aerogel nanopores. Part 2. Calculation of broadening and shift of spectral lines by adsorbed molecules

A.M. Solodov1, T.M. Petrova1, A.A. Solodov1,2, V.I. Starikov3,4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia
4Yurginskiy Technological Institute (branch) of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 652055, Kemerovo region, Jurga, st. Leningrad, 26
Keywords: water vapor, half-widths and shift of spectral lines, aerogel, nanopores

Abstract >>
The model proposed in the first part of paper [2] for simulation of the profile of water vapor confined in nanoporous aerogel was advanced. In the developed model, the loss of the degree of rotational freedom of the adsorbed water molecules was taken into account, the collisions with which give a strong contribution to the line broadening and shift. The half-widths and shift calculated using this model are in good agreement with experimentally determined ones.
																								



5.
Estimation of sensing possibility of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gases above underlying surface with a spaceborne IPDA lidar

S.V. Babchenko, G.G. Matvienko, A.Ya. Sukhanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, lidar, carbon dioxide, methane

Abstract >>
A possible error of measurements in troposphere of CH4 and CO2 in the presence of clouds based on the IPDA methodology, the choice of wavelengths, and a brief description of the implemented software for the simulation of radiation transport for spaceborne lidar sounding is presented. It is shown that multiple scattering can influence the signal power, but differential absorption method eliminates this drawback. Errors in the calculations depending on the underlying surface heights and presence of clouds are given.
																								



6.
Study of the correlation technigue for measurements of N2O content in atmospheric layers from a satellite

S.A. Shishigin, S.F. Balandin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: correlation radiometer, nitrous oxide, atmosphere, radiation

Abstract >>
The analysis of the gas filter correlation technique for measurements of the nitrous oxide content in the atmosphere in the 2530–2590 cm1 spectral region has been carried out. The influence of the gas pressure in the correlation cell and the cell length on the observed results has been discussed. The influence of the N2O concentration in atmospheric layers and emissivity of the atmosphere on the N2O measurement error in the atmospheric column has been investigated. The feasibility of the gas filter correlation technique for measurements of the nitrous oxide content in the atmospheric boundary layer from aerospace platform has been examined.
																								



7.
Summer atmospheric circulation of the Northern hemisphere in strong and weak East Asian summer monsoon periods

O.Yu. Antokhina1, P.N. Antokhin1, O.S. Kochetkova2, V.I. Mordvinov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: East Asian summer monsoon, general atmospheric circulation, weakening of monsoon, geopotential, wind velocity field, meridional flows, tropospheric trough

Abstract >>
The composite analysis of average for July pressure and wind fields in the strong and weak East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) periods was carried out using ECMWF ERA–40 and ERAInterim data. The study showed that the strong EASM periods are characterized by increased meridional flows over East Asia, especially in the area of the monsoon and mid-latitude circulation interaction, where an increased cyclonicity zone appeares. Over large parts of Asia, the atmospheric pressure is higher in the weak EASM periods. In the weak EASM periods, the polar vortex is weak; however, troughs over the Kara Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and Hudson Bay are clearly developed. In the Aleutian depression area, the pressure is also reduced. The strongest and most significant long-term changes in the pressure field, indicating weakening of the meridional exchange in recent decades, are characteristic for areas of convergence of the meridional flows of the East Asian and African monsoon.
																								



8.
Evaluation of local features of long–term changes in cloud cover over the territory of Siberia from results of climatic zoning according to total and lower cloudiness conditions

V.S. Komarov, G.G. Matvienko, S.N. Ilin, N.Ya. Lomakina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: amount of total and lower cloudiness, long–term changes, trends, climatic zoning, Siberian region

Abstract >>
The statistical analysis results of the local features of long–term changes in cloud cover over the territory of Siberia realized using 45year (19692013) series of meteorological observations of 60 stations and data of the climatic zoning of the region according to total and lower cloudiness conditions are shown. It has been found that a weak growth of the amount of total and lower cloudiness took place almost everywhere (except Arctic regions of Siberia, where the tendencies to decrease in total clouds and to increase in lower ones were dominated) during all seasons for 45year period and from 1976 to 2005, during intense global warming, while from 2006 to 2013, when the intensity of this warming became much weaker, well marked decrease in both the total and lower cloudiness was observed especially in winter and spring.
																								



9.
Statistical analysis of extreme drought and wet conditions in Russia

D.N. Utkuzova, V.M. Han, R.M. Vilfand
Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: precipitation, statistical analysis, extreme drought, extreme wet, SPI index, climate variability

Abstract >>
Statistical analysis of extreme drought and wet conditions in Russia has been conducted using the SPI index calculated over 500 stations with records from 1966 to 2010. Different parameters of SPI frequency distribution and long–term tendencies were calculated, as well as spatial characteristics indicating drought and moisture propagation. Results of the analysis demonstrate a tendency toward an increase in the intensity of drought and moisture extremes in Russia during last years. There are fewer drought in the northern regions. The drought propagation decreases for the European territory of Russia in June and August and increases in July. The tendency for the moisture is opposite. For the Asian territory of Russia, the drought propagation significantly increases in July along with a decrease in moisture.
																								



10.
Seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters in Dushanbe according to AERONET data

S.F. Abdullaev, V.A. Maslov, B.I. Nazarov
S.U. Umarov Physical-Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Rebublic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Tajikistan, 734063, Dushanbe, Akademgorodok, ul. Ajni, 299/1
Keywords: AERONET, optical thickness of the atmosphere, moisture, Ångström parameter, dust aerosol, dust haze, repeatability histogram

Abstract >>
The article describes the results of measurements, which were carried out systematically from 2010 to 2013 at the AERONET station in Dushanbe. Variations of AOT, moisture content, and Ångström parameter were measured. The seasonal and annual variations of these parameters are analyzed. The regularities of repeatability of histograms as statistical characteristics of the atmospheric parameters are studied.
																								



11.
Determination of volume and density of pollen grains of anemohhyle plants in Novosibirsk region

V.V. Golovko1, K.P. Kutsenogii1, V.L. Istomin2
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 15, Ac. Lavrentieva ave
Keywords: pollen, volume, mass, density, confocal scanning microscopy

Abstract >>
The change in the volume of pollen grains upon drying was estimated. The volume and density of the pollen grains of the dominating ecosystems of West Siberia were determined.
																								



12.
Prediction of ecological consequences of toxic aerosol clouds spreading in the fall areas of waste booster stages

V.A. Arkhipov1, I.K. Zharova1, E.A. Kozlov1, A.S. Tkachenko2
1Scientific Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics by Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634041, Tomsk, 60, Kievskaya str., Russia
Keywords: ecology, atmosphere, rocket–carrier, liquid rocket fuel, toxic components, evolution of liquid–drop cloud, mathematical modeling

Abstract >>
The results of mathematical modeling of liquid–droplet aerosol cloud formation and evolution at separating and falling of waste booster stages are presented. The ecology problems related to the air and ground pollution by toxic components of liquid rocket fuels in the fall areas are discussed.
																								



13.
Two–section bromide vapor laser

A.G. Filonov1, D.V. Shiyanov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: copper bromide vapor laser, sectional active volume, discharge circuit inductance

Abstract >>
The results of the copper bromide vapor laser operation with sectional active volume are presented. It is shown that sectioning improves parameter E/p and reduce the inductance of discharge circuit. With the available excitation conditions achieved, an increase in the average output power and efficiency by 1.7–1.8 times were achieved. The efficiency of this copper bromide vapor laser was 1.5%.
																								



14.
The criterion approximation suitability for distribution of the probability densities of fluctuations of focused laser beams in snowfalls

N.A. Vostretsov, A.F. Zhukov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: criterion approximation, density of probabilities, dependent and independent samples, scattered radiation, laser of beam, snowfall

Abstract >>
The results of measurements of fluctuations of the scattered radiation of a focused laser beam in snowfalls are presented. The suitability of the criterion of first output values that approximates experimental distributions measured for both dependent and independent sample values of scattered radiation is shown.
																								



15.
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