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Region: Economics and Sociology

2014 year, number 4

Spatial Interdisciplinary Synthesis: Programmatic Research Practices

Pavel Minakir
Economic Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk
Keywords: interdisciplinary synthesis, space, fundamental research program, spatial diversity, regulation

Abstract >>
The paper considers theoretical prerequisites and results of applied research on problems concerning spatial development of Russian society within the framework of fundamental research programs launched by the Presidium of the RAS in 2009–2014. It examines general grounds for interdisciplinary synthesis and summarizes results of main full-scale studies of the Russian economic, social, infrastructural and institutional spaces.

Agent-based Modeling of Spatial Processes in World Economy

Viktor Suslov1, Dmitriy Domozhirov1, Vitaliy Kostin1, Larisa Melnikova1, Naimdzhon Ibragimov2, Aleksandr Tsyplakov2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: agent-based models, interaction of agents, economic space

Abstract >>
The paper demonstrates some limitations of traditional spatial models in the representation of spatial dynamics of the modern economy. We substantiate the necessity of agent-based approach to spatial economic modeling. The pilot version of an agent-based multiregional input-output model for Russian economy is presented. Special attention is paid to the method of accounting spatial factor in the model. A conventional example illustrates trade mechanisms with the account of agents' transportation costs. The article states future prospects to develop the model.

The Baikal-Amur Regional and Transport Megaproject: Lessons from Exploitation

Anatoliy Kin
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Trans-Siberian Railway, Baikal-Amur Mainline, North-Siberian Railroad, construction of BAM, BAM area exploitation, development prospects, problems of transit traffic

Abstract >>
The article sums up the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline experience, analyzes the reasons why it was unfinished and why its exploitation is lossmaking. We show that the tunnels were not only essential for transportation, they were a large testing ground for new domestic and foreign mining operation practices, new technologies in drilling under permafrost and soil stabilization techniques. New construction technologies developed and tested at the BAM today help to masterfully build roads, tunnels and ports in extreme climatic conditions. Excessive turnover was due to mistakes made in the mainline construction project. As a result, today's villages along the BAM consist primarily of old and dil apldated houses. We draw a conclusion that state protectionist policy is required to effectively develop large-scale projects in the BAM area; the BAM will never be profitable if territories surrounding the railroad are not economically exploited. The paper demonstrated which circumstances are favorable for the BAM to specialize in handling heavy-tonnage trains and for the Trans-Siberian Railway to handle special-purpose trains.

Government Programs as an Instrument for Regional Development

Aleksey Alekseyev
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: economic development of regions, government program, objectives, goals, indicators, programmatic approach

Abstract >>
Basing on the example of the government program «Regional policy and federal relations», the paper analyzes how programs of regional development are organized in the Russian Federation. We study the current system of indicators which shows that a program is successfully implemented if it meets its objectives. It is claimed that used indicators are not appropriate for the set objectives. Many indicators either do not reflect the program objectives or, in fact, diiute them. Our analysis demonstrates that the program needs improvement in terms of stricter adherence to the methodology of the programmatic approach.

Social Vector of Russian Agrarian Reforms

Zemfira Kalugina
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: agrarian reform, food supply security, quality of life and well-being, social modernization

Abstract >>
The article assesses the social and economic consequences of the market agrarian reforms in Russia in the context of food supply security, improving rural livelihood and social modernization of the Russian village. We analyze the Russia's food self-sufficiency, size of agricultural import, and food availability for different demographics. Dynamics of rural livelihood and the existing social structure of income are evaluated. We draw an inference that there are no economic and institutional preconditions to form and develop the middle class as a support for economic and social modernization of the village. The paper ends with a conclusion on the low social efficiency of market reforms in the agricultural sector of Russia.

Workforce Productivity in Siberian Regions

Boris Lavrovskiy1, Igor Murzov2
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk
2Siberian State Transport University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: workforce productivity, level of technological development, region, Big Siberia - Siberia and Far East

Abstract >>
The article explains how workforce productivity can be used to measure and compare levels of technological development in various regions under certain conditions and limitations. We demonstrate that sectoral structure of the economy should not necessarily be identical. Gradually reducing before 1998, workforce productivity in Russia had regained its 1990 level by 2005. During 2009-2012 positive annual growth of productivity in the whole country was achieved almost at the sole expense of the eastern regions. We have calculated projected productivity indicators in Russia and in leading regions of Big Siberia till 2025 against the background of global trends.

Siberia's Role in Protecting Russia's Food Supply

Irina Shchetinina, Anatoliy Balashov
Siberian Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, Novosibirsk
Keywords: food supply security, agro-industrial complex, Siberia, food availability, crop yield, productivity, government support, investments

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The article substantiates Siberia's role in ensuring food supply security of the country. We specify problems of the Siberian agro-industrial complex and ways to overcome them that would eventually allow the agro-industrial production to contribute significantly to food supply security of the country. The paper assesses a need in additional investments.

Assessing Factors of Regional Differentiation for Indicators Characterizing Population Reproduction in Russia

Natalia Bozo1, Vadim Gilmundinov2
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Russian federal districts, birth rate, death rate, migration, natural population reproduction, econometric assessment, regional differentiation, social and economic factors

Abstract >>
The paper demonstrates regional differentiation of indicators of natural population reproduction in Russia, domestic and foreign migration by federal districts. On the basis of econometric equations on panel data for 78 subjects of the Russian Federation in 2003-2011, we have identified significant factors influencing birth rate, death rate and life expectancy in Russia. Obtained quantitative evaluations are of considerable interest. In particular, increase in well-being and availability of housing has positive influence on birth rate. One of the main reasons for the Russian people to have fewer children is poor quality of life which does not satisfy current needs of the population and shows that social programs for young families support are very desirable. Maj or decrease in birth rate against the background of increasing proportion of urban population proves necessity to support and develop rural areas around large cities. Obtained assessments help to conclude that natural reproduction rate of the Russians is lower than the average one in the country. Excessive alcohol consumption reduces life expectancy by an average of1.59 years, and adverse climatic conditions do by an average of 0.47 years in comparison to the favorable Black Sea climate.

Social Base for State Youth Policy in Rural Areas

Yuliya Novikova1, Fauziya Suleymanova2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Special Educational and Scientific Centre, Novosibirsk
Keywords: youth policy, rural youth of Novosibirsk Oblast, quality of life, social activity, NGOs

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the attitude of rural population in Novosibirsk Oblast towards national and regional youth policy. We assess how satisfied the rural youth is with life and current changes in the country. There has been identified that the younger generation is loosely involved in development of the territory where they reside. We discover high potential of youth policy social base in rural areas which can be unlocked by raising awareness of rural youth about the current youth policy programs. The paper demonstrates a specific attitude of rural youth towards youth policy.

Considering Real Options to Develop an Industry While Implementing Industrial Policy

Roman Melnikov
Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow
Keywords: industrial policy, diversification of economy, government business support, subsidizing of interest expenditures, real options, demonstration effects, indirect effects, national economic and fiscal project performance

Abstract >>
The paper considers approaches to evaluate how effective is selective government support for investment projects within state industrial policy. It is hypothesized that using modern concepts of industrial policy, suggested by foreign scientists and oriented towards stimulating the search for new business solutions that diversify the structure of national economy, requires a shift from a traditional model of discounting costs and benefits to a model of evaluating real options while selecting projects and providing government support. We give a characteristic of similarities and differences between a classic real option to expand business, used to prove commercial performance of a project, and a real option to develop an industry, which justifies economic viability of selective government support of certain projects from national economic points of view.

Hydro-economic Problems in the South of Western Siberia

Valentina Vasilenko
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Western Siberia, Ob-Irtysh basin, water supply, water management, redistribution of the river flow, technological inferiority, environmental consequences

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes factors which aggravate hydro-economic tension in the southern part of Western Siberia, which are due to climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact on water resources leading to their depletion and deterioration. We examine ways to reduce water scarcity: redistribution of the river flow from regions with abundance of water to regions with its deficit and improvement of technological situation in agriculture, industry and public utilities. It is emphasized that agrartan production is currently under natural regime - its efficiency is largely determined by weather conditions; so development of hydraulic reclamation (irrigation and drainage) should make it stable. It is shown that development of domestic production for the water sector of economy and overcoming dependence on import are the main ways to decrease hydro-economic tension, increase quality of water resources, and improve environmental situation and conditions of social and economic development of the southern part of Western Siberia.

Cross-border Cooperation in Regional Development Management: Practices of Europe and Ukraine

Lyudmila Deyneko, Ella Sheludko
Institute for Economics and Forecasting, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Keywords: cross-border cooperation, Euroregion, regional management, modernization

Abstract >>
In this paper, based on the generalized Ukrainian experience in the formation and implementation of regional governance models, the activities of Euro-regions as central elements in the system of inter-regional and cross-border cooperation were analyzed, as well as the environmental and economic aspects of Euroregions were identified. We have also established the prospects and ways to modernize regional municipal governance by ensuring coherence and coordination of the actions and decisions in the functional activity of these control subjects territorial development, strengthening inter-regional relations and the expansion of international cooperation.

Life Cycle Contract as a Mechanism of Interaction between the State and the Private Sector

Talgat Matayev
Eurasian Economic Commission, Moscow
Keywords: state, private sector, public-private partnership, transport sector, life cycle contract

Abstract >>
The article deals with characteristics of the life cycle contract as a promising mechanism of public-private partnership in the transport sector. The main advantages of the life cycle contract to the state and business are revealed. The organizational scheme of the life cycle contract implementation in the transport sector is offered. We give recommendations on development of the mechanism of public-private partnership basing on the life cycle contract in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Some Characteristics of Credit Behavior in Novosibirsk Oblast in Retail Lending Sector

Margarita Petukhova
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Novosibirsk Oblast, debtors, retail lending, credit behavior, borrowing capacity, social and demographic characteristics

Abstract >>
The article demonstrates the differences in debtors' behavior in Novosibirsk Oblast based on their sex, age, education and civil status before the crisis, during the crisis and after the crisis during the economic recovery. Standard hypotheses about debtors' behavior in a region were tested, including one about the changing in behavior of different groups of debtors. We received precise assessments characterizing borrowing capacity and solvency of debtors in Novosibirsk Oblast.

Regional Economy and Spatial Development: Critical Notes

Vyacheslav Seliverstov
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk
Keywords: regional economics, spatial development, regional policy, strategic planning, territorial planning, mechanisms of development, modeling, regional models, interregional models

Abstract >>
The article contains a review of the book «Regional economics and spatial developments». This edition is a new major milestone in the Russian educational literature, and it will certainly be popular among teachers and students in the related specialties both at the economics departments and at the area of state and municipal management. At the same time, the paper makes a number of comments and gives a few suggestions (e.g. no special section devoted to modeling spatial development of the country as a system of interacting regions, insufficient reflection of the domestic experience of regional and interregional modeling; not enough criticism when actual conditions of spatial development and regional policy in Russia are presented) which may be taken into account in the next edition of the book.