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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 12

1.
Annual cycle in variability of aerosol microstructure parameters determined from solar photometry data

V. V. Veretennikov, S. S. Menshchikova
V. E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: aerosol microstructure, aerosol optical depth, inverse problem

Abstract >>
Special features of the annual behavior of aerosol microstructure parameters are considered. The aerosol parameters are retrieved by solving the solar photometry inverse problem. Average hourly measurements of aerosol optical depth in the spectral range 0.37–4 mm in Tomsk are used as the input data for the inversion. The experimental spectra are processed using the algorithm based on the integral distribution method. The volume concentration, total geometric crosssection, and mean particle radius are calculated using the retrieved integral size distribution function. In particular, it is established that the volume concentration is minimal in November and maximal in April. Statistical relationships between the aerosol optical depth and retrieved microstructure parameters were also studied.
																								



2.
Spatial characteristics of the filamentation region of gigawatt laser pulses at their various focusing along an atmospheric path

D. V. Apeksimov1, O. A. Bukin2, S. S. Golik3, A. A. Zemlyanov1, A. N. Iglakova1, A. M. Kabanov1, O. I. Kuchinskaya4, G. G. Matvienko1, V. K. Oshlakov1, A. V. Petrov1, E. B. Sokolova2, E. E. Khoroshaeva1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Automation and Control Prosesses Far Easten Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio Street, Vladivostok, 690041
3Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: laser radiation, femtosecond pulse, self-focusing, filamentation, atmosphere, focusing, spectrum

Abstract >>
Results of experiments on controlling the position and length of the filamentation region of femtosecond laser pulses along an atmospheric path 30 m long using different initial spatial focusing are presented. A dependence of the filamentation region length on the values of numerical aperture of beam is derived. The obtained data on the filamentation region length and the amount of filaments are compared with the results of earlier experiments and data of other authors.
																								



3.
Analysis of approaches to modeling the annual and spectral behaviors of the atmospheric aerosol optical depth in regions of the Siberia and Primorye

S. M. Sakerin1, S. A. Beresnev2, D. M. Kabanov1, G. I. Kornienko3, S. V. Nikolashkin4, V. A. Poddubnyi5, M. A. Tashchilin6, Yu. S. Turchinovich1, B. N. Holben7, A. Smirnov7
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620083, 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, Russia
3Ussuriisk Astrophysics Observatory, Posyolok Gornotaezhnoe, Primorsky krai, Ussuriisky region, 692533
4Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave.
5Institute of Industrial Ecology Ural branch of RAS, 20a, str. Sof'i Kovalevskoj, GSP-594, 620219, Ekaterinburg
6Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
7NASA/Goddart Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Keywords: aerosol optical depth, annual behavior, spatial distribution

Abstract >>
Data of many-year sun photometer measurements in the Asian part of Russia are used to analyze the issues of modeling the annual and spectral behaviors of the atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) based on separation of the contributions of fine and coarse aerosol. The specific features of the spatial distribution and seasonal variations in AOD characteristics in different regions are discussed; a three-parameter model of annual behavior of spectral AOD in the range 0.34–4 μm for the Western Siberia (Tomsk) is suggested.
																								



4.
Anthropogenic black carbon emissions to the atmosphere: surface distribution through Russian territory

A. A. Vinogradova
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric pollution, anthropogenic emissions, black carbon, Russian emissions

Abstract >>
Black carbon (BC) is one of the short-living climate significant species n the global scale. The lack of information on Russian BC emissions to the atmosphere makes it difficult to analyze its long-range transport and to estimate its climate and ecological effects. This work analyzes official Russian state statistic data on anthropogenic emissions from towns and regions (for 2010) and calculates atmospheric BC emission distribution through the territory. Calculations are based on carbon monoxide (CO) emission and BC emission data, assuming proportional correlations between BC and CO emissions for every administrative unit, separately from transport and stationary sources. 54 regions and almost 100 towns are included in the analysis. We regard the area within (50–72°N × 20180E), which covers about 94% of Russian territory. We, for the first time, model Russian BC emissions through the territory under investigation in grid cells (1 × 1). The total annual BC emission from this area is estimated at (210 ± 30) Hz. The main anthropogenic BC sources are situated at industrial regions of the central European part, and in the South of Ural and Western Siberia, as well as on the large sparsely populated Western Siberian territories with natural oil/gas extractive industry.
																								



5.
On temporal variability of ion content in surface soluble aerosol in some sites of the Southern Baikal and Primorsky Krai

V. E. Pavlov1, L. P. Golobokova2, I. V. Khvostov1, T. V. Khodzher2
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str. IWEP SB RAS
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric monitoring, ion content in soluble aerosols, log normal law, correlation analysis, statistical modeling

Abstract >>
The issue of 12–year changes in the content of H+, Mg2+, Na+, l, K+, NO3, Ca2+, NH4+, and SO42 ions in soluble aerosol sampled in Mondy settlement, Southern Baikal, and on the Pacific coast is considered. In 2001-2006 and 20072012, despite a pronounced dispersion, the logarithms of geometric mean ion concentrations, without their seasonal differentiation, were in good agreement at Mondy station, Irkutsk, and Primorskaya station. The linear correlation coefficients were more than 0.96. The corresponding regression equations were derived. The issue of changing the ion order by concentration at different observation stations is studied. Tabular material on the content of ions, which can be used in modeling the chemical composition of ground aerosol particles in the South-Eastern Siberia is given.
																								



6.
Experimental study of the interaction between terahertz radiation from the Novosibirsk free-electron laser and water aerosol

G. N. Kulipanov1, A. A. Lisenko2, G. G. Matvienko2, V. K. Oshlakov2, V. V. Kubarev1, E. N. Chesnokov3, S. V. Babchenko2
1Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 11, Ac. Lavrentieva
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: THz radiation, free-electron laser, remote sensing

Abstract >>
The interaction of high–power terahertz radiation from the Novosibirsk free-electron laser at a wavelength of 130 mm in atmospheric transparency window with a model aerosol cloud having the known droplet size distribution function has been studied experimentally for the first time. The experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations obtained from solution of the lidar equation for conditions of the experiment.
																								



7.
Study of the quasi-biennial oscillation of total ozone and ozone concentrations at individual altitude levels over Arctic and Tomsk according to data of TOMS satellite instrumentation

O. E. Bazhenov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: total ozone content, vertical ozone profile, equatorial zonal wind, quasibiennial oscillation

Abstract >>
The paper analyzed the pattern of the quasi-biennial oscillation of the total ozone (TO) and ozone concentrations at separate altitudinal levels in the stratosphere over Arctic territory and Tomsk according to data of TOMS satellite instrumentation. The correlation coefficient between TO changes and variations in equatorial zonal wind for the period of 1996–2013 is statistically insignificant. The average springtime (over MarchApril) values of ozone concentration and zonal wind mostly show the correlation in the interval of 0.23 ÷ 0.26. The time series of the mixing ratio, composed for separate altitudinal levels over the period of 20052013, exhibit quasi-biennial oscillation, which takes shape at heights of ~30 km and weakens in overlying regions. The correlation dependence between the ozone mixing ratio and the equatorial zonal wind index most distinctly manifests itself in the Western Hemisphere and is more complex in the Eastern Hemisphere.
																								



8.
Regional features of long–term changes of cloud cover in the Siberian sector of the Northern hemisphere during the last 45 years (from 1969 to 2013)

V. S. Komarov, G. G. Matvienko, S. N. Ilin, N. Ya. Lomakina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: amount of total and lower cloudiness, long–term changes, trends, climatic zoning, Siberian region

Abstract >>
This paper presents the statistical analysis results of the regional features of long-term changes in cloud cover over the territory of Siberia realized by the data of climatic zoning of the region according to total and lower cloudiness conditions, using the 45–year (19692013) series of meteorological observations of 60 stations located in the Siberian sector of the Northern hemisphere. It has been found that in all seasons and for the year as a whole a visible trend to increase of total and lower cloudiness took place at a spatial averaging of data across the Siberian sector and also on the territory of Western and Eastern Siberia separately during the 45year period (from 1969 to 2013), as well as from 1976 to 2005, when the intense global warming was observed. A significant decrease of total and lower cloudiness took place over the Siberian sector during all seasons (except autumn) and for the whole year in recent years (from 2006 to 2013), when a tendency to weakening of the intensity of global warming became apparent.
																								



9.
Optical characteristics of the night sky over Eastern Siberia after the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall. I. Night sky brightness

A. V. Mikhalev1, S. V. Podlesnyi1, P. V. Stoeva2
1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
2Institute of Space Research and Technology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113, Sofia, ul. Akademika Georgi Bonchev, 1, Bulgaria
Keywords: Chelyabinsk meteorite, night sky brightness

Abstract >>
We present observation results of the night sky brightness in Eastern Siberia after the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall on February 15, 2013. During the first nights following the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall (February 15/16 and 16/17), diurnal variations in the night sky brightness showed both an increase and a decrease in average night values of the night sky brightness relative to the preceding (background) nights. There was an increase in brightness of the night sky in late February – early March. The increase in brightness of the night sky was not observed in previous years and was atypical for the seasonal variations in intensity of the continuous spectrum of night airglow.
																								



10.
Photophoretic interaction of aerosol particles and its effect on coagulation in the atmosphere

A. A. Cheremisin1,2, A. V. Kushnarenko1
1Siberian Federal University, 79, Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
2Krasnoyarsk Railway Institute, 89 Lado Ketskhoveli str., 660028, Krasnoyarsk region, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: photophoretic interaction, aerosol particles, coagulation, radiation

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of an investigation of photophoretic interaction between spherical aerosol particles depending on the atmospheric altitude and particle size. The photophoretic interaction is shown to decrease the coagulation constant of submicron particles strongly absorbing solar radiation in the daytime by orders of magnitude as compared to the constant in darkness.
																								



11.
The results of research of the acoustic field generated by supersonic jet

V. A. Banakh, D. A. Marakasov, V. M. Sazanovich, R. Sh. Tsvyk
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: acoustic field, supersonic jet, correlation function, spectrum

Abstract >>
Results of research of the acoustic field are analyzed, which is generated by a flooded (going in the environment) supersonic jet. It is shown that the basic source of a sound is located at a height of 230–260 mm from the nozzle, frequency of the basic harmonic makes 6 kHz. The ratio of amplitudes of harmonics depends on conditions of generation and the distance from nozzle. The field of a sound wave is non-uniform in the space around the jet axis.
																								



12.
Diagnostics of liquid–drop aerosols dispersity by small-angles scattering method

V. F. Trofimov1, V. A. Arkhipov2, I. K. Zharova2
1National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Scientific Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: liquid-drop aerosol, ejection- type nozzle, spray jet, scattering function, small-angles method, gamma-distribution, experimental study

Abstract >>
The methodology and results of an experimental study of liquid–drop aerosols dispersity in the ejectiontype nozzles spray jet are presented. Smallangle scattering method for the particle size distribution function obtaining was used. It is shown that the particle sizes spectrum in the spray jet corresponds to the gamma distribution.
																								



13.
Pulse–frequency modulation of CuBr laser emission

F. A. Gubarev1,2, G. S. Evtushenko1
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenina ave., 30
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: metal-vapor laser, copper–bromide laser, optical communication, wireless communication, over–the–horizon link, pulse–frequency modulation

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of study of CuBr laser operation in a mode of pulse–frequency modulation of lasing. This modulation method can be used for implementation of atmospheric bistatic optical communication links. Modulation has been performed in accordance with a digital code coming from a personal computer. Experimental results are presented illustrating the effect of the transmitted digital code on the lasing pulse energy at different carrier frequencies and deviation of the pulse repetition period from the period of the carrier frequency. It is shown that, depending on the mode of laser operation, a significant (up to 17 %) variation of lasing energy can be observed when transmitting logical “0” and 1.
																								



14.
Study of metal vapor laser power supply with pulsed charging of storage capacitance

M. V. Trigub1,2, D. N. Ogorodnikov2, V. A. Dimaki1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: metal–vapor laser, copper–bromide laser, power supply, charge circuit, simulation

Abstract >>
In this paper, the operating modes of a power supply for metal vapor lasers, in particular CuBr lasers, with pulsed charge of working capacitor were studied. A half–bridge inverter has a function of charging circuit for the storage capacitor. By varying the ratio of capacitances in the halfbridge circuit and the storage capacitor we observed different modes characterized by different charging time of the storage capacitor and amplitude of charging current. Based on requirements for a laser designed, it is useful to choose different operating modes of the inverter. When developing a highfrequency laser, it is better to use the operating mode with total discharge of capacitances in the halfbridge circuit, because it provides more time for closing the switch.
																								



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