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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 11

1.
Numerical statistical simulation of terahertz radiation propagation in cloudiness

E.G. Kablukova1, B.A. Kargin1,2, A.A. Lisenko3,4, G.G. Matvienko3,4, E.N. Chesnokov5
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
5V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: terahertz range, remote sensing, method Monte Carlo, local estimates

Abstract >>
The numerical estimates of the time distribution of the terahertz LIDAR based on the Novosibirsk Free Electron Laser radiation reflected by the lower cloudiness boundary are obtained by Monte Carlo method taking into account specific initial and boundary geometrical optical conditions, the cloudiness type, and water vapor attenuation along the sensing path. The location signal structure is analyzed as dependent on the multiple scattering background, wavelengths, water vapor concentration in the atmosphere. It is shown that intensity gradient of the reflected signal grows with the attenuation coefficient. Ratios between the contributions of single and multiple scattering in the echo signal structure are estimated depending on the optical depth of sensing.
																								



2.
Remaining distortions conditioned by the dimension of a guiding source

V.P. Lukin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: correction, guiding source, image, phase, coherence

Abstract >>
Efficiency of the adaptive focusing of coherent beam of radiation is examined in a turbulent atmosphere. The calculation of distributing of averaged intensity of the field of coherent laser beam focused in a turbulent environment with the use of adaptive phase correction of image of non-coherent source as a guiding source is executed.
																								



3.
Multifilamentation of collimated Ti:Sapphire-laser beams in water

D.V. Apeximov1, O.A. Bukin2, S.S. Golik3, A.A. Zemlyanov1, A.M. Kabanov1, O.I. Kuchinskaya4, A.Yu. Mayor2, G.G. Matvienko1, V.K. Oshlakov1, A.V. Petrov1, E.B. Sokolova2, E.E. Khoroshaeva1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Automation and Control Prosesses Far Easten Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio Street, Vladivostok, 690041
3Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: laser radiation, filamentation, femtosecond pulse, liquid, spectrum

Abstract >>
The results of experimental studies of femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in water are presented. The dependencies of filament number, laser radiation spectrum width, distance of nonlinear focusing, diameter of filamentation zone on laser pulse power are measured. A part of the scale of relative power is marked out; filament number increases dramatically after passing it.
																								



4.
Optical beam wavefront control based on off-axis receiving of the atmospheric backscatter signal

V.A. Banakh1, V.V. Zhmylevskii2, A.B. Ignatiev2, V.V. Morozov2, I.N. Smalikho1, R.Sh. Tsvyk1, A.N. Shesternin1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2JSC GSKB Almaz-Antey named after A.A. Raspletin, 80/16, Leningradsky av., Moscow, 125190, Russia
Keywords: wavefront, compensation, atmospheric backscatter, off-axis receiving

Abstract >>
The theoretical and experimental results of study of feasibility of compensation of aberrations of the optical beam initial wavefront by the aperture sounding methods based on off-axis receiving of the atmosphere echo signal of an additional laser source are presented in the paper. It is shown experimentally that the off-axis receiving of the backscatter radiation provides for the refocusing of the additional laser source beam to the set range with simultaneous compensation of the initial wavefront aberrations of the additional and the main beams. As a result of the adaptive wavefront control the backscatter signal registered by an off-axis receiver on the ground path increases by 3–3.5 times.
																								



5.
Water vapour continuum absorption in the near-IR atmospheric windows

I.V. Ptashnik, T.M. Petrova, Yu.N. Ponomarev, A.A. Solodov, A.M. Solodov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: H2O continuum, MT_CKD continuum, atmospheric windows, FTS spectroscopy

Abstract >>
Measurement of the near-infrared water vapour absorption is made in the spectral region 2000–8000 cm1 at a temperature of 287 K on the basis of high-resolution Fourier spectrometry. The water vapour continuum absorption spectrum is retrieved using known absorption in 2500 cm1 region as a reference point. It is shown that in the conditions under investigation the continuum absorption in four windows differ no more than by 20%. This is in contradiction with MT_CKD continuum model that predicts much stronger variability of the continuum in these windows.
																								



6.
Comparison of ground-based IR spectrometer and radio sounding total column water vapor measurements

A.O. Semenov, Ya.A. Virolainen, Yu.M. Timofeyev, A.V. Poberovsky
Saint Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: water vapor, Fourier spectrometry, radio sounding

Abstract >>
We compared two datasets of total column water vapor measurements near St. Petersburg (obtained in 2009–2012): ground-based IR spectrometer measurements at Peterhof station and radio sounding measurements at Voeikovo station. Despite a good correlation of daily measurements in Peterhof and Voeikovo, RMS mismatch is significant, reaching 20% or more for most subsets taken for the comparison. Strong mismatch is, mainly, due to the natural spatial variability of total water vapor content, accounting for the 50 km distance between Peterhof and Voeikovo. This variability needs to be considered in validating the satellite measurements of water vapor content by ground-based measurements.
																								



7.
The influence of the city on the atmospheric aerosol characteristics in Tomsk Akademgorodok in transitional seasons

E.P. Yausheva, M.V. Panchenko, V.S. Kozlov, S.A. Terpugova, D.G. Chernov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: regional background aerosol, impact of city, submicron aerosol, black carbon, mass concentration, parameter of condensation activity, spring and autumn seasons

Abstract >>
The influence of the city of Tomsk on the optical characteristics obtained in Akademgorodok in monitoring mode is studied on the basis of two-site experiments carried out at the Aerosol monitoring station IAO SB RAS and in the background region in spring and autumn 2011. Data of previous years are also considered. The peculiarities of temporal dynamics of the mass concentrations of the dry matter of aerosol and black carbon, as well as the parameter of condensation activity in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere are analyzed. It is shown that the influence of the city on the aerosol characteristics in Akademgorodok increases during last years. It is revealed that the excess of average values of the mass concentration of fine aerosol at the Aerosol monitoring station over the concentration values at the Fonovaya observatory is by 1.7 times in spring and 1.1 times in autumn. The excess of the concentration of black carbon is by 2.0 and 1.8 times, respectively. Maximum differences in the daily average behaviors at two sites are observed in the period of evening-nighttime maximum of concentrations (up to 3.0 times).
																								



8.
Peculiarities of photonic nanojet formation near the surface of spherical microparticles exposed to a focused laser beam

Yu.E. Geynts, A.A. Zemlyanov, E.K. Panina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: light scattering, microparticle, focused laser beam, photonic nanojet

Abstract >>
The optical field parameters in the photonic nanojet area formed near the surface of dielectric spherical microparticles irradiated with a focused laser beam are theoretically considered. The influence of the beam waist on the photonic nanojet parameters (length, width, intensity) is investigated. The optimum ratio between key parameters of the photonic flux is shown to be implemented when the beam waist and particle diameter are on the same scale.
																								



9.
Connection between the rainbow track of the Tunguska cosmic body and its trajectory

O.G. Gladysheva, D.V. Skorodumov
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia
Keywords: Tunguska cosmic body, trajectory, rainbow trace

Abstract >>
The Tunguska event, which took place on June 30, 1908, was a unique incident of interaction of a cosmic body with the Earth. In spite of this phenomenon was investigated more than 100 years, discussions about a nature of the Tunguska cosmic body are continued. In this work, we show that the Tunguska cosmic body could be only a comet, since the object discharged water during its flight. The track was formed on the sky after the object and a dozen of eyewitnesses noted a rainbow in this track. Calculations of trajectory of the Tunguska cosmic body (the azimuth A = 300 and the inclination a = 20) allowed one to determine that this rainbow was a fragment of the sun halo with a radius of 22. This halo was unique because it was formed at the altitude of the mesopause.
																								



10.
Study of aerosol composition in Tomsk region background and urban stations (the winter period 2012/13)

A.V. Talovskaya1, D.V. Simonenkov2, E.A. Filimonenko1, B.D. Belan2, E.G. Yazikov1, D.A. Rychkova1, S.S. Ilenok1
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric aerosols, snow, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, scanning electron microscopy, modes of occurrence, dispersion

Abstract >>
The paper shows the results of aerosol quasi-synchronous study. We have researched chemical, mineral, and disperse composition of the insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow as well as PM2.5. In winter period 2012/13 samples were collected in the background and urban sites where IAO SB RAS stations are located. There is a good correlation between obtained and synoptic data. It makes it possible to detect some sources of aerosols. Studies revealed the mineral modes of some chemical elements in the insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow and PM2.5.
																								



11.
Optical-microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol from SP-6 and CE-318 sun photometers data

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Menshchikova, D.M. Kabanov, S.M. Sakerin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: aerosol optical depth, AERONET, aerosol microstructure, inverse problem

Abstract >>
The results of comparisons of synchronous aerosol optical depth measurements made using sun photometers SP–6 and CE318 and microstructure parameters recovered by solution of the inverse problem are presented. Measurements were carried out in Tomsk during a year. The volume concentration integrated over the whole depth of the atmosphere, and mean particle radius are considered as microstructure parameters. These parameters are evaluated for the total ensemble of particles and for fine and coarse aerosol fractions separately. We have shown satisfactory agreement between the compared parameters. Possible reasons for discovered discrepancies are discussed.
																								



12.
Laboratory observation of mini sprites and blue jets in discharges initiated by runaway electrons

V.F. Tarasenko, D.V. Beloplotov, M.I. Lomaev, D.A. Sorokin
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 4, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
Keywords: pulse discharges in air and nitrogen, beam of runaway electrons, mini sprites, mini blue jets

Abstract >>
The areas of diffuse discharge with various colors are registered in discharges, initiated runaway electrons at high pressure of air and nitrogen. The observed areas have similar color as sprites, blue jets and halo that observed in the upper atmosphere. It was found that the red areas are mainly formed near flat electrode, and the blue area near an electrode with a small radius of curvature regardless of the polarity of the voltage pulses. It was shown that the color areas are registered near bright spots on the electrodes on the background of the diffuse discharge. It was established that red and blue areas have the highest radiation intensity in nitrogen at a pressure of 3 atmospheres in the discharge with spark.
																								



13.
On the possibility of using the Kerr effect for remote sounding of thunderstorm cloud electric fields

V.Yu. Venediktov1,2, A.V. Gorelaya1, E.V. Shalymov1
1Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, ul. Professor Popov, 5, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia
2Saint Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: Kerr effect, thunderstorm electric field, air flow

Abstract >>
Today the strength of electric field over the thunderstorm cloud as well as its spatiotemporal structure are measured with the use of either sounding balloons or drones. Such methods are not very efficient and quite expensive. At the same time, the parameters of such electric fields are of a great importance for the geophysics science. The paper considers possible use of the Kerr effect for the remote sounding of electric fields.
																								



14.
Determination of plants irradiance by luminescent radiation of fluorescent films at excitation by solar radiation

A.E. Ivanitskii1, A.S. Minich1, M.L. Kolchev1, E.S. Butsenko1, G.A. Ivlev2, B.D. Belan2
1Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634041, Tomsk, 60, Kievskaya str., Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: polymer films, fluorescent films, agricultural films, optical properties

Abstract >>
A method of determination of total daily irradiance of plants by luminescent radiation of fluorescent films in conditions of protected soil was offered. It was shown that the total energy exposure for films with a typical content of luminophor was from 0.05 J/cm2 for films with inorganic luminophor to 0.134 J/cm2 for films with organic luminophor in May 2003–2005. The results of investigation allowed us to obtain data on the value of plants irradiance by luminescent radiation required for effective influence on the plants growth and development.
																								



15.
About the Symposium HighRus-2015