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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 10

1.
Influence of molecular absorption of the ground atmospheric path on characteristics of the filamentation range of high-power CO2-laser radiation

Yu.E. Geynts, A.A. Zemlyanov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: ultra-short laser radiation, self-focusing, filamentation, ionization, laser plasma

Abstract >>
The theoretical aspects of self-focusing and filamentation of high-power pulsed CO2-laser radiation with the carrier wavelength 10.6 mm in air are considered. The frequency-differential molecular absorption of atmospheric air is included in the theoretical model. It is shown that in the conditions of pulse self-phase modulation, the super-broad pulse spectrum is strongly affected by atmospheric absorption that destabilizes the filamentation process and leads to the considerable reducing of the plasma channel length formed in the beam wake.
																								



2.
Behavior of the position of 694.380 nm water vapor absorption line in dependence on the hydrogen pressure

B.A. Tikhomirov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: broadening and shift of absorption line, water vapor, photoacoustic laser spectrometer

Abstract >>
In present experiment, in contrast to the data contained in the literature, classical linear dependence of shift of 694.380 nm water vapor absorption line broadened by hydrogen is found.
																								



3.
Results of determination of the middle atmosphere aerosol characteristics by means of two wavelengths lidar sensing and comparison with meteor radio echo measurements

V.A. Korshunov1, D.S. Zubachev1, E.G. Merzlyakov1, Ch. Jacobi2
1Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association «Typhoon, 4, Pobeda str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 Russia
2Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Stephan str. 3, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Keywords: middle atmosphere, lidar, meteoritic dust, meteor smoke, meteor radio echo

Abstract >>
Aerosol lidar sensing of the middle atmosphere (30-65 km) was fulfilled in Obninsk within a year. Two wavelengths sensing at 355 and 532 nm enabled the separation of Rayleigh and aerosol scattering inputs to lidar signals. An increased aerosol content is found within 60-65 km range. Monthly average data of lidar sensing are compared with measurements of the meteor radio echo number in Obninsk and Kollm (Germany). The correspondence of time dependences between two kinds of data is revealed, that indicates the meteor origin of aerosol. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the appearance of the aerosol layer observed are discussed.
																								



4.
Estimation of errors and verification of the fluid location of atmosphere method

V.A. Poddubny, E.S. Nagovitsyna
Institute of Industrial Ecology Ural branch of RAS, 20a, str. Sof'i Kovalevskoj, GSP-594, 620219, Ekaterinburg
Keywords: verification, back trajectories, atmospheric aerosol

Abstract >>
The paper presents a technique for errors estimation of an average effective concentration field calculated by quasi-two-dimensional approach of the fluid location of atmosphere (FLA) method. Three ways of verification of the FLA method are presented. In spite of the fact that quasi-two-dimensional approach has a number of restrictions, all considered ways of verification indicate that the FLA method is usable one assessment of average fine aerosol concentration fields.
																								



5.
Vibrations of a charged water drop in the conditions of strong deformations in approach of the ellipsoidal form of the surface

A.A. Zemlyanov, A.D. Bulygin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: charged drop, Rleigh instability

Abstract >>
Work is devoted to study of physics of deformation of a charged water drop with application of numerical methods, in approach of its ellipsoidal form. The criterion of instability of a drop versus the size of its initial deformation is investigated. It is shown that at small initial disturbances, the time of development of instability considerably exceeds the period of vibrations of a non-disturbed uncharged drop. The time of instability exponentially decreases with an increase in initial deformations. This indicates an important role of external factors of deformations of charged drops leading to acceleration of their instability.
																								



6.
Structure functions of wind velocity components over inhomogeneous underlying surface

V.A. Gladkikh, I.V. Nevzorova, S.L. Odintsov, V.A. Fedorov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, wind, surface layer, structure functions

Abstract >>
In the paper, we consider the results of analysis of structure functions of wind velocity components in the surface air layer over inhomogeneous underlying surface. Based on processing of experimental data, we singled out three basic types of structure functions and suggested analytical models for their approximation in the range of shifts, referring to inertial turbulence interval. The frequency of occurrence of the identified types of structure functions at different observation sites is estimated, and the statistics of the parameters of approximating functions is considered.
																								



7.
Study of NDVI variations at tundra and taiga areas of Eastern Siberia (Yakutia)

E.V. Varlamova, V.S. Solovyev
Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave
Keywords: vegetation index, remote sensing, Eastern Siberia, Yakutia

Abstract >>
Research of seasonal and annual NDVI variations at tundra and taiga areas of Yakutia by remote sensing data (Spot Vegetation, 1998-2012) is made. The correlation analysis between NDVI and air temperature values, along with trend analysis for studied sites are made.
																								



8.
Climatic zoning of the Siberia territory according to the total and lower cloudiness conditions as a basis for construction of local cloud atmosphere models. Part 1. Methodical bases

V.S. Komarov, D.P. Nakhtigalova, S.N. Ilin, A.V. Lavrinenko, N.Ya. Lomakina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: technique, objective classification, total and lower cloudiness conditions, climatic zoning

Abstract >>
The original methodology of objective classification of the meteorological objects and applied climatic zoning of the Siberian region according to the total and lower cloudiness conditions was considered. This methodology is based on the method of cluster analysis with the use of the average annual values of total and lower cloudiness amount and frequencies for five gradations 0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 10 balls as the informative signs, as well as characteristics of their correlation and specific similarity criteria as a measure of homogeneity signs.
																								



9.
Climatic zoning of the Siberia territory according to the total and lower cloudiness conditions as a basis for construction of local cloud atmosphere models. Part 2. The results of climatic zoning

V.S. Komarov, D.P. Nakhtigalova, S.N. Ilin, A.V. Lavrinenko, N.Ya. Lomakina
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: applied climatic zoning, total and lower cloudiness conditions, local cloud atmosphere models, Siberian region, four calendar seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn)

Abstract >>
The applied climatic zoning of the Siberian region was carried out on the basis of the original methodology of an objective classification of the meteorological objects according to the total and lower cloudiness conditions (using their average seasonal values and frequencies for five gradations (0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 10 balls) as well as the special similarity criteria). 18 homogeneous cloud regions for winter, 17 for spring, 13 for summer and 14 for autumn were revealed in the result of this zoning. Local cloud atmosphere models were built for each identified homogeneous cloud region. The models include the pattern average seasonal values of total and lower cloudiness amount as well as their frequencies for five gradations.
																								



10.
Heavy metals in dust aerosols on the northwest industrial area of Blagoveshchensk (Amur region)

D.V. Yusupov1, V.I. Radomskaya2, L.M. Pavlova2, N.V. Trutneva3, S.S. Ilenok1
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Amur Integrated Research Institute, 1 Relochny Lane, Blagoveschensk, 675000
3Amur State University, 675027, Amur Region, Blagoveshchensk City, Ignatyevskoe sh. 21
Keywords: dust-aerosols, heavy metals, snow survey, mineral modes of elements occurrence, Blagoveshchensk city, atomic-emission analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis, scanning electron microscopy

Abstract >>
In 2012, as a result of snow survey, investigations of dust aerosols in Blagoveshchensk were carried out. Contrast geocomical anomalies of a number of heavy metals were revealed in snow cover on the northwest industrial area. For the first time, the sulfate and sulfide mineral modes of heavy metals in dust aerosols composition were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The atmospheric air polluting sources in Blagoveshchensk were determined.
																								



11.
Joint radiosonde and Doppler lidar measurements of wind in the atmospheric boundary layer

V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, A.V. Falits, B.D. Belan, M.Yu. Arshinov, P.N. Antokhin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, wind, coherent Doppler lidar, radiosonde

Abstract >>
The results of joint measurements of height profiles of speed and direction of the wind by a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar Stream Line and radiosonde RS92-SGP in Tomsk from 23 to 27 September 2013 are presented. It has been found out that from the lidar data, measured at elevation angle of 45 deg, the wind profiles are retrieved up to heights from 400 m to 1100 m, depending on aerosol concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer. It is shown that the correlation coefficient for velocity and direction of the wind measured by lidar and radisonde equals 0.97. Mathematical expectation and standard deviation of differences of wind velocity and direction estimates from data of the radiosonde and Doppler lidar are, respectively, 0.1 m/s and 0.7 m/s for velocity and 0.8 deg and 4 deg for direction of the wind.
																								



12.
Lift dynamics of a cloud of combustion products at fire utilization of charges of solid-fuel power plants at an open test bench. Processes and their identification

V.P. Lushev1, A.V. Litvinov1, N.Yu. Demidov1, S.N. Kozlov2, V.V. Reyno3
1Joint Stock Company Federal Research & Production Center Altai, ul. Sotsialisticheskaya, 1, Biysk, 659322, Altai Krai
2Biysk technological institute, ul. Trofimova, 27 Biysk, 659305, Altai Krai
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: solid-fuel charge, open test bench, cloud of combustion products, in situ observations, infrared image, ecological safety

Abstract >>
Experimental studies of formation and lift of combustion product clouds at burning of two identical solid-fuel charges of large-sized power plants are conducted at an open test bench for evaluating the effectiveness of the technical environmental activities in ecological protection of environment. Water irrigation of the plume of combustion products by high-pressure ring collector of water ecological protection system for deposition of polluting components of the mixture in the test bench buffer zone was used in one experiment. Results of measurements of the cloud temperature in the lift dynamics using thermal infrared image registration and video recording are presented. The characteristic features of the processes starting from formation to the maximum lifting altitude are determined. The system of parameters determined by in situ observations, applicable as input data for mathematical modeling of distribution of combustion products in the atmosphere is suggested.
																								



13.
Numerical simulation of the algorithm to compute the voltage control for the flexible mirror depending on the representation of information on the wavefront

V.V. Lavrinov1, L.N. Lavrinova1, M.V. Tuev2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: flexible mirror control, response function, wavefront sensor

Abstract >>
Shack-Hartmann sensor represents a wavefront as centroids of the focal spots. Wavefront information can be presented as the difference of the coordinate data on centers of sub-apertures or the local wavefront tilts, or coefficients of the basis functions in the decomposition of the measured wavefront, or the values of the basis functions in its two-dimensional distribution. Voltages calculated from the sensor measurements, that control for the flexible mirror will change depending on the form of information on the wavefront. The paper presents the numerical results giving an assessment of the effectiveness of the algorithm for calculating the mirror control voltages depending on the presentation of the wavefront. The studies performed are based on the analysis of experimental data on an atmospheric path.
																								



14.
Reconstruction of the wavefront phase with the use of a complex neural network

S.V. Artyshchenko1, P.A. Golovinski1,2, R.A. Chernov1
1Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 394006, Voronezh, ul. 20-letija Oktjabrja, 84
2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, per. Institutskiy, 9, Moscow Region, Dolgoprudnyiy, 141700, Russia
Keywords: Shack-Hartmann sensor, wavefront reconstruction, turbulent atmosphere, complex neural network, genetic algorithm

Abstract >>
We considered the process of wavefront reconstruction, which is based on the use of Shack-Hartmann sensor and complex-valued artificial neural network. The pixel positions are mapped on a complex plane. The process of phase reconstruction has been tested with the help of the distorted wavefront, which was obtained in the framework of a statistical model for a turbulent atmosphere. The learning of the network is based on a genetic algorithm. The process has the fast convergence, resistance to the local errors, and dynamic adaptability.