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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2014 year, number 5

1.
On the Role of A. P. Shennikov in the Development of Quantitative Evaluation of Differentiating Diversity of Plant Communities

B. I. SEMKIN1,2, M. V. GORSHKOV1
1Pacific Institute of Geography FEB RAS, 690041, Vladivostok, Radio str., 7
2Far Eastern Federal University, 690001, Vladivostok, Sukhanova str., 8
Keywords: differentiating diversity, beta-diversity, multiple-site measures of similarity, coefficient of dispersity, coefficient of variegation of addition, index of saturation quotient, diversity index of Whittaker

Abstract >>
The two coefficients for estimation of differentiating diversity of plant communities, proposed by A. P. Shennikov were considered: coefficient of dispersity and coefficient of variegation of addition. These coefficients are given in modern set-theoretic notation. Their connection with multiple-site measures of similarity and difference of communities descriptions, which are used to evaluate the differentiating diversity, was established.
																								



2.
Is there a Density Compensation Effect in Plant Communities of Extreme Habitats?

V. V. AKATOV1, T. V. AKATOVA2, N. B. ESKIN2
1Maikop State Technological University, 385000, Maikop, Pervomaiskaya str., 191
2Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve, 385000, Maikop, Sovetskaya str., 187
Keywords: density compensation effect, communities, species frequency, species richness, extreme habitats, the North Caucasus

Abstract >>
The occurrence of density compensation effect (DCE) was estimated in areas of extreme habitats occupied by communities of vascular plants, mosses and lichens in the high mountain part of the North Caucasus. The density of species was estimated according to their frequency. The nature of the correlation between number and frequency of the species in the areas did not confirm the suggestion that extreme environmental conditions alone can be a reason for DCE, at least on local scale.
																								



3.
Sexual Polymorphism in Dicotyledonous Plants in Siberia

V. N. GODIN
Moscow State Pedagogical University, 129164, Moscow, Kibalchicha str. 6, bild. 5
Keywords: sexual differentiation, Magnoliopsida, Siberia

Abstract >>
The study concerned 24.6 % (844 species and sub-species) of flowering plants of Magnoliopsida in Siberia. Seven forms of sexual differentiation were found among these species: gynomonoecy (268 species, 7.8 %), gynodioecy (219 species, 6.4 %), dioecy (157 species, 4.6 %), monoecy (124 species, 3,6 %), andromonoecy (67 species, 1.9 %), trioecy (5 species, 0.1 %), and androdioecy (4 species, 0.1 %). Fifteen out of ninety-four dicot families only had species with unisexual flowers: Amaranthaceae, Betulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Salicaceae, Urticaceae etc. We found an association between sexual expression among dicot plants and life forms, the types of areas, environmental groups in the degree of hydration and lap-zonal groups. It was shown that the incidence of irregular non-hermaphroditic plants in different ecological and biological groups and floristic provinces of Siberia directly depended on the frequency of occurrence of these species in the endemic areas.
																								



4.
Morphological Adaptation of Species of the Genus Panzerina Sojak (Lamiaceae) to Different Environmental Conditions

V. A. CHERYOMUSHKINA, A. Yu. ASTASHENKOV
Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Panzerin, morphogenesis, ontogenesis polyvariety, morphological adaptation

Abstract >>
The study concerned morphogenesis and structural and morphological polyvariety of monocarpic shoots of Panzerin species, growing in different ecological-phytocoenotic conditions in Siberia. Depending on environmental conditions, the adult plants of P. lanta subsp. argyracea formed three ontobiomorphs; P. canescens - two ontobiomorphs; P. lanta - one ontobiomorph. It was determined that ontomorphogenesis of Panzerin species could follow three main paths of development, including 26 different options.
																								



5.
The Seasonal Characteristics of Thymus extremus Klokov (Lamiaceae) after Introduction

Yu. A. PSHENICHKINA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Thymus extremus, sexual differentiation, climate, introduction

Abstract >>
A three-year study of seasonl development of the introduced Siberian endemic Thymus extremus Klokov (Lamiaceae) was conducted. Special attention was given to the formation of generative sphere of the species. The presence of two types of flowers was detected: bisexual and partly androsterile. The latter were detected for this species for the first time. The possible impact of climatic factors on the formation of flowers of different types on Th. extremus was discussed.
																								



6.
Description of the Cyclic Dynamics of the Number of Specimens in the Population of Wood Grouse (Tetrao Urogallus L.) under Long-Term Monitoring

V. G. TELEPNEV1, L. N. ERDAKOV2,3
1Institute of Game Mangement and Fur Farming RAAS, 630108, Novosibirsk, Parkhomenko str., 26
2Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Novosibirsk, Viluiskaya str., 28
3Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Keywords: wood grouse, number of species, cyclical, period, the spectrum of rhythms, cycles, rhythms, fluctuations

Abstract >>
The study concerned the features of cyclic dynamics of the number of wood grouse. The investigation based on multi-year (1971-2012) data from the annual route records made on the territory of Novosibirsk hunting enterprise of All-Russian Research Institute for Hunting Husbandry and Livestock Breeding in Kyshtovski district and also in 12 populations of Novosibirsk Oblast monitored from 2000 to 2012. The number of species was estimated using annual route records. Chronograms were examined to look for hidden harmonic components. For every study area a spectrum of population dynamics was drawn. The periods and efficiency of harmonic components were also counted for every spectrum. It was determined that the spectrum of rhythms of grouse population comprises 8 well manifested harmonic components. The most efficient of them were 4.5 years old and 14.9 years old. In different areas, the ratio of the size and efficiency of the cycles of grouse population dynamics varied. The general trend was the increase in power of low frequency cycles to the north.
																								



7.
The Population Trend and the Taxonomic Status of the Siberian Roe Deer in the Tyumen Region

S. N. GASHEV
The Tyumen State University, 625043, Tyumen, Pirogova str., 3
Keywords: Capreolus pygargus, population dynamics, climate change, exterior and interior indicators, stability of population, taxonomical status

Abstract >>
Data on population trend of the Siberian roe deer in different natural zones of the Tyumen region, particularly in connection with climate changes in the beginning of the 21st century, was given. Population stability of the roe deer inhabiting the south of the Tyumen region was discussed on the basis of the analysis of exterior and interior indicators. Moreover, phylogenetic relationships with other populations of this species within the habitat were specified.
																								



8.
The Composition and Distribution of Sponges (Porifera) in Continental Waters of Western Siberia

T. A. SHARAPOVA1, V. V. TRYLIS2, S. N. IVANOV1, V. V. ILYUSHINA1
1Institute of Problems development of the North, SB RAS, 625003, Tyumen, p.o.box 2774
2Institute of Hydrobiology, Ukrainian Nationl Academy of Science, 04210, Kyv, Gerov Stalingrada ave., 12
Keywords: sponge, spicules, zooperiphyton, rivers, lakes, West Siberia

Abstract >>
The data on the composition and distribution of freshwater sponges in Western Siberia was presented. Four species were found in present-days lakes and rivers, and one species was found during the palynological and archaeological researches. It was shown that freshwater sponges lived mainly in small rivers and lakes of the forest-steppe and southern taiga zones. One hundred taxons of aquatic invertebrates were registered together with sponges. It was detected that the biomass of sponges in zooperihyton was veraciously decreasing northwards.
																								



9.
Study of the Flora of Bacillariophyta in Water Bodies and Water Courses of the River Messoyakha (Gydansky Peninsula)

S. I. GENKAL1, M. I. YARUSHINA2
1Institute for Biology of Inland Waters of RUS, 152742, Nekouzkiy region, Borok
2Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: Gydansky Peninsula, the Messoyakha River basin, water bodies and water courses, phytoplankton, diatom algae, electron microscopy

Abstract >>
A total of 236 species and intraspecific taxa of Bacillariophyta diatom algae from 55 genera, including 15 new for the flora of Russia, were found during the scanning electron microscope investigation of phytoplankton in Lake Glubokoye and large tributaries (Nizhnyaya Messoyakha, Purparod, Erparod, Paravanga, Nyakhataparod) in the basin of the lower course of the Messoyakha River. The maximum species diversity was recorded in the tributaries Nizhnyaya Messoyakha (117), Nyakhataparod (109), and Lake Glubokoye (97). The following species are the most widespread in the studied waterbodies: Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira subarctica, Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia gracilis, Tabellaria flocculosa.
																								



10.
Influence of High Waters on the Specific Variety and Structure of Algae in Reservoirs of the Alazeya River Basin

L. I. KOPYRINA
Institute for biological problems of cryolithozone SB RAS, 667980, Yakutsk, Lenin ave., 41
Keywords: algae, species composition, abundance, biomass, the Alazeya River basin, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Abstract >>
Algae research of water bodies of the Alazeya river basin from its riverhead to the mouth during high and low water was conducted. Species composition, abundance, biomass, eco-geographical and sanitary-biological description of the water bodies examined was given.
																								



11.
The Study of the Genus Kephyrion Pascher in the Basin of the Sabun River

Yu. V. NAUMENKO1, O. Yu. GIDORA2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
2Nizhnevartovsk State University of Humanities, 628611, Nizhnevartovsk, Dzerzhinskogo str., 11
Keywords: Kephyrion, the Sabun River basin, Sibirskiye Uvaly Nature Park

Abstract >>
Diversity of the genus Kephyrion Pascher in the basin of the Sabun River in the subzone of northern taiga in West Siberia was studied. The study was conducted on the territory of Sibirskiye Uvaly Nature Park. Sixteen representatives of the genus Kephyrion were detected in the basin of the Sabun River and 14 species - in the water bodies of the park. Values of temperature, transparency and active water reaction during their vegetation were given. Five species and one variety of the genus were indicated for the first time for the flora of West Siberia.
																								



12.
Lichen Biota of Khakasia

N. V. SEDELNIKOVA
Central Sibirian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: lichens, lichen biota, Republic of Khakasia, lichen coefficient, lichens-epilithes, lichen synusium, lichen-epiphytes

Abstract >>
Species diversity of lichen biota of Khakasia (situated in the Central Part of the Altai-Sayan mountain region) and patterns of lichen distribution about substrata and vertical belts were studied. As the result of generalization of lichenologic data on this region, lichen composition of 1330 species, 262 genera and 82 families was determined. The main lichen synusiums at high mountain belt, mountain steppe belt and mountain forest belt were noted.
																								



13.
Food Resource Partitioning Among the Large Herbivores of Eastern Mongolia in Summer

S. SHEREMETEV1, S. B. ROZENFELD2, I. A. DMITRIEV2, L. JARGALSAIKHAN3, S. ENKH-AMGALAN4
1Institute Biology and Soil Science FEB RAS, 690022, Vladivostok, 100-letya Vladivostok ave., 159
2. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution RAS, 119071, Moscow, Leninskij ave., 33
3Institute of Botany MAS, 190070, Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Jukov str., 77
4Institute of Geography MAS, 210620, Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Post office box 361
Keywords: herbivores, niche overlap, competition, Mongolian gazelle, steppe, cattle

Abstract >>
The Mongolian gazelle Procapra gutturosa Pallas and five cattle species use steppe plants in a common way. The overgrazing-induced desertification of steppe is closely connected with the functioning principles of the community of large Mongolian herbivores. The data from the matrix plants-herbivores, obtained by cuticular analysis, can help to determine the role of trophic relationships among the large herbivores of Mongolian steppe. Having estimated pasture use patterns, food niche overlap, and competitive advantages of the studied species, we concluded that the present population decline in the Mongolian gazelle was conditioned not only by the overkill and habitat fragmentation, but also by the composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of cattle.
																								



14.
Heavy Metals in the Soil - Earthworms - European Mole Food Chain under Conditions of the Copper Smelter Pollution

D. V. NESTERKOVA1, E. L. VOROBEICHIK1, I. S. REZNICHENKO2
1Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UrB RAS, 620144, Yekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
2Omsk State Pedagogical University, 644099, Omsk, Naberezhnaya Tukhachevskogo, 14
Keywords: mole, Talpa europaea, earthworms, soil, litter, heavy metals, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, copper smelter, industrial pollution, Middle Urals

Abstract >>
Distribution of heavy metals in the “soil – earthworms European mole” food chain was examined within the area of the Middle Ural Copper Smelter (Revda, Sverdlovsk region). Excess of concentrations of physiologically essential elements (Cu, Zn) in contaminated habitats over background territories was less pronounced in earthworms’ tissues than in the soil. On the contrary, concentration of non-essential elements (Pb, Cd) increased more strongly in worms tissues than in the soil. Biomagnification in the food chain was revealed only for Cd: its concentration in worms increased 810 times as compared with soil (3.94.5 times as compared with litter); Cd concentration in moles liver increased 46 times as compared with worms. Zn, Cu and Pb did not accumulate in liver with increase of their concentrations in stomach content, while the increase of Cd concentration in food lead to its disproportionate accumulation in liver. Moles may be considered as a terminal depot of Cd in terrestrial ecosystems, regardless the fact that this species accumulate extremely high amounts of Cd.
																								



15.
Change of Heavy Metals Speciation in Soil-Vegetation Cover After a Forest Fire

B. L. SHCHERBOV, E. V. LAZAREVA, V. V. BUDASHKINA, I. N. MYAGKAIA, I. S. ZHURKOVA
Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Acad. Koptyug ave., 3
Keywords: forest fires, migration, heavy metals, speciation

Abstract >>
Forest fires are the cause of migration of many chemical compounds and elements, among which a separate role, in regard to ecology, belongs to heavy metals. Many of them (Hg, Cd, Pb and others) actively migrate together with smoke plumes. In some cases, atmospheric emissions may reach to 50 % of their initial content in combustible forest materials. The processes of combustion, removal and deposition of chemical elements in new places are accompanied by a rise of bioavailable speciation, which reflects in the change of biochemical indices of soil-vegetation cover after fires.