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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 8

1.
Atmospheric bistatic communication channels with scattering. Part 2. Field experiments of 2013

V.V. Belov1,2, M.V. Tarasenkov1,2, V.N. Abramochkin3, V.V. Ivanov3, A.V. Fedosov3, Yu.V. Gridnev3, V.O. Troitskii3, V.A. Dimaki3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: bistatic opto-electronic communication systems, field experiments, optical and meteorological state of the atmosphere

Abstract >>
Results of field experiments on the influence of atmospheric conditions and some instrumental characteristics on the quality of information transfer in a bistatic opto-electronic communication system (OECS) operating in the visible range of wavelengths are considered. The length of the atmospheric channel reaches 17 km. Radiation of a copper bromide vapor laser with a wavelength of 510.6 nm is used as a signal source. It is demonstrated that bistatic or over-the-horizon OECSs can operate under conditions of both cloudy and cloudless atmosphere. Average values and standard deviations of communication errors are estimated under various atmospheric-optical conditions considering variations of some characteristics of individual system units.
																								



2.
Role of water vapor continual absorption in the atmospheric longwave radiative processes of the surface layer in the Lower Volga region

K.M. Firsov1, T.Yu. Chesnokova2, E.V. Bobrov1
1Volgograd State University, 100, Universitetskij avenue, 400062, Volgograd, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: continual absorption, transfer of radiation, radiative forcing

Abstract >>
Analytical formulae to estimate a sensitivity of downward longwave radiative fluxes to the atmospheric total water vapor content in the absorption bands and the atmospheric transparency windows are obtained. A regression dependence of the CO2 radiative forcing on total water vapor content for the Lower Volga region is calculated. The role of Н2О continual absorption is investigated and it is shown that the CO2 radiative forcing depends strongly on the continuum value. The atmospheric conditions are defined, when the contribution of the H2O foreign continuum to the downward radiative fluxes is maximal.
																								



3.
One-parameter seasonal models of aerosol extinction in the wavelength range 0.44–11.5 mm for the near-ground layer of the atmosphere in arid zone

N.N. Shchelkanov, Yu.A. Pkhalagov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: one-parameter models, aerosol extinction coefficient, arid zone

Abstract >>
One-parameter models of spring, summer, and autumn hazes are proposed for calculation of the aerosol extinction coefficients in the wavelength range 0.44–11.5 mm in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere in arid zone. Input parameter of the models is the aerosol extinction coefficient at one wavelength in visible or IR spectral range.
																								



4.
Manifestation of the aero-optic effects in the turbulent atmosphere for the case of supersonic motion of a conical body

V.A. Banakh, A.A. Sukharev, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: shock wave, mean intensity, turbulence, variance of intensity fluctuations

Abstract >>
The results of analysis of the mean intensity, intensity fluctuations, and regular and random wandering of the optical beams, crossing a shock wave, arising in the vicinity of a conical body moving with supersonic speeds in a turbulent atmosphere are present. It is shown that with increase of the optical turbulence strength the aero-optic effects, caused by the shock wave, are suppressed. Quantitative data, illustrating manifestation of the aero-optiс effects on paths of different geometry and length depending on the turbulent conditions of propagation of light, are presented and discussed in the paper.
																								



5.
Experimental estimates of components of turbulence anisotropy tensor in the atmospheric surface layer

V.A. Gladkikh, I.V. Nevzorova, S.L. Odintsov, V.A. Fedorov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, turbulence, surface layer, anisotropy tensor

Abstract >>
Experimental data obtained in the surface atmospheric layer with different structures of the underlying surface have been used to calculate components of the turbulence anisotropy tensor. Mean values and standard deviations of these components have been determined for various measurement conditions. The influence of modes of experimental data processing on statistics of anisotropy tensor components has been considered. A high stability of mean values of the tensor components under various conditions is noted.
																								



6.
Temperature and ozone anomalies as indicators of volcanic soot in the stratosphere

V.V. Zuev, N.E. Zueva, E.S. Saveljeva
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: vertical temperature profiles, vertical profiles of ozone, eruption of Mount Pinatubo, stratospheric volcanogenic aerosol, soot

Abstract >>
The role of volcanogenic aerosols in the formation of ozone and temperature anomalies in the tropical stratosphere registered after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 is analyzed in the paper by the 30-year period of balloon measurements at Hilo station in Hawaii. Positive temperature deviations and negative ozone deviations in vertical profiles of greater than or equal to 2σ from perennial average are considered as anomalies. The stratospheric anomalies observed in the second half of 1991 agree well with the presence of volcanic ash, remained in the stratosphere for about six months. However, temperature anomalies and stratospheric ozone depression, observed subsequently during 2-3 years, cannot be explained by long-lived sulfuric acid aerosol. The formation mechanism in the stratosphere of long-lived volcanic soot formed by thermal decomposition of methane in the eruption column, intensively absorbing solar radiation and destroying ozone on its surface is suggested in the article. The largest ozone anomaly observed in the lower stratosphere during the second half of 1992 is explained by the calculated deposition rate of soot subject to high efficiency of ozone depletion on its surface.
																								



7.
Limits of applicability of geometrical optics approximation for light backscattering on a quasihorizontally oriented hexagonal ice plate

A.V. Konoshonkin1,2, N.V. Kustova1, A.G. Borovoi1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: geometrical optics, physical optics, light scattering, ice crystals

Abstract >>
At present, quasihorizontally oriented ice crystals of cirrus clouds are the object of active research. Experimental observations are made by multiwavelength and polarization lidar for interpreting their signals based on solutions obtained in the approximation of physical or geometrical optics. The article compares these approximations for the solution of the inverse scattering of light by quasihorizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates. Special attention is paid to the limits of applicability of geometrical optics method for solving such problems.
																								



8.
Numerical analysis of aerosol substance fallout from a high-altitude source

V.F. Raputa1, V.A. Shlychkov2, A.A. Lezhenin1, A.N. Romanov2, T.V. Yaroslavtseva1
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str. IWEP SB RAS
Keywords: substance, pollution snow cover, aerosol, benzoperin, numerical modeling, reconstruction, atmospheric boundary layer

Abstract >>
A model based on a substance transport equation for the reconstruction of polydisperse substance fallout from a continuous high-altitude source is proposed. The model is put to an evaluation test with field and laboratory data on benzoperin pollution of snow cover in the vicinity of Power Station-3 in the city of Barnaul. The effects of wind direction changes in the atmospheric boundary layer on the formation of long-term aerosol substance fallout are estimated.
																								



9.
Analysis of the factors affecting the occurrence of stratospheric warming

O.S. Kochetkova, V.I. Mordvinov, M.A. Rudneva
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: weather, atmosphere, troposphere-stratosphere interaction

Abstract >>
We study sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) which is important element in the dynamics of climate system and impacts weather anomalies in the troposphere. We compared the temperature in the stratosphere with the characteristics of circulation in the troposphere and stratosphere in the winters of 2008/09 and 2012/13. We found that SSW is associated with increased stationary orographic waves. Blocking anticyclones in the troposphere are destroyed for 15–20 days before the onset of SSW. Distribution of torsional oscillations in the stratosphere from the low-latitude area contributed to the development of the SSW.
																								



10.
Investigations of total water vapor content using various techniques. Comparison of water vapor and aerosol profiles

I.E. Penner1, Yu.S. Balin1, M.V. Makarova2, M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.A. Voronin1, B.D. Belan1, S.S. Vasil’chenko1, L.N. Sinitsa1, V.I. Serdyukov1, E.R. Polovtseva1, D.M. Kabanov1, G.P. Kokhanenko1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Sankt-Petersburg State Universitet, Russia, Petergof, av. Ulianovskaya, 1, Sankt-Petersburg, 198504
Keywords: lidar, complex experiment, Fourier spectrometer, vertical distribution of water vapor

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of the water vapor total column measurements in the frame of combined experiment on May 22-23 at V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS). The comparison is carried out for H2O total columns derived from simultaneously performed ground-based Fourier-spectrometer (FTIR) and sun photometer measurements, satellite and aircraft measurements, and also lidar and radiosondes measurements. Lidar and radiosondes experiments were carried out at night and the others in the afternoon. FTIR measurements of the highly-resolved solar absorption spectra were made by the Fourier spectrometer IFS-125M (Bruker) in the range 400–1250 nm. The SFIT2 v3.92 software is used to retrieve water vapor total column from the fit to experimental spectra. Vertical profiles of atmospheric pressure and temperature required for retrieval of H2O total columns were taken from the site of upper air soundings Kolpashevo (WMO N 29231) and Tomsk. Apriory gas profiles were created using WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). The measurements of the water vapor total column and the aerosol optical thickness in the atmosphere were carried out at IAO SB RAS by automated sun photometers (SP series). A comparison with the experimental results reveals that the difference between FTIR and sun photometer H2O total column measurements is about 0.8%. The water vapor total column in a layer of 0.4-7 km, obtained by ground based FTIR technique (1.30 g/cm2) up to 2% is consistent with results of aircraft measurements (1.32 g/cm2) for the same atmospheric layer. A good agreement was found between the lidar and radiosondes measurements and a correlation between the mixing ratio of water vapor and aerosol over layers are revealed.
																								



11.
Method of classification of oil pollution on ground surface based on fluorescence radiation recording within five narrow spectral bands

Yu.V. Fedotov, O.A. Matrosova, M.L. Belov, V.A. Gorodnichev
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya str., 5, 105005, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: laser, fluorescence spectra, oil pollution, earth's surface, classification

Abstract >>
The problem of classification of oil pollution on ground surface is considered. It is shown that the use of laser method based on fluorescence radiation recording within five narrow spectral bands allows one to classify oil pollution on ground surface with probability of correct classification close to unity.
																								



12.
Scaling of image received from AVHRR device of NOAA satellite

K.T. Protasov, K.K. Protasov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: PSF (Point Spread Function), satellite images scaling, quality evaluation

Abstract >>
Considering that AVHRR device from NOAA satellite has a low spatial resolution, we propose a new approach to increase spatial resolution of satellite, and evaluate recovered images by the entropic criteria. In our method, we conduct image scaling by using cubic spline and correction of image diffusion after that. Examples are given bellow.
																								



13.
Promises of application of free-electron terahertz laser to remote sensing of the atmosphere

E.G. Kablukova1, A.A. Lisenko2,3, G.G. Matvienko2,3, S.V. Babchenko2, E.N. Chesnokov4
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
4V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: THz radiation, free-electron laser, remote sensing

Abstract >>
The possibility of using the Novosibirsk free-electron laser as a source of terahertz radiation for remote sensing of the near-surface atmosphere is considered. The problem of selection of spectral ranges for sensing is solved in the range 40–250 cm–1. Numerical experiment on simulation of a signal of terahertz lidar based on the Novosibirsk free-electron laser after signal reflection from the cloud base has been performed for particular initial and boundary optical-geometric conditions and the degree of signal extinction at the sensing path. The sensing range for the cloud base in selected atmospheric transparency windows has been estimated as a function of the specific content of settled water at the sensing path.
																								



14.
The complex approach to environmental state analysis

T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: complex approach, radioactive pollution, radioecological monitoring, dendrochronoindication, principal component method, geoinformation systems

Abstract >>
An approach to the acquisition of retrospective information on the radioactive pollution of the territories in order to organize the radioecological monitoring of environment has been proposed. The approach is based on the application of the method of dendrochronoindication, allowing one to obtain the retrospective information on the delivery and accumulation of radioactive and other materials in the wood rings of the trees. Statistical processing of the massives of the multidimensional retrospective data was carried out using the geoinformation approach based on the combination of the principal components method and spatial analysis using the means of geoinformation systems. It has been shown that the approach proposed allows one to reveal the emergency emissions that took place in the past at the enterprises of nuclear industry and make a well-grounded selection of the sites for the radioecological monitoring in zones of nuclear industry impact.
																								



15.
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