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Philosophy of Sciences

2014 year, number 2

1.
The principle of intersubjectivity and the importance of knowledge verification in neo-positivism

M.V. Goncharenko
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Keywords: intersubjectivity, verification, communicative community, understanding, discourse

Abstract >>
The paper considers the problem of correlation between the principle of intersubjectivity and that of verification. We suppose that metaphysics of the subject of knowledge not only determines the well-known binary subject-object opposition, but also is correlated within a certain aspect of vision by a unity of possible relations and consequences. The condition of concordance as following the rule and one of ontological and epistemological principles of subject metaphysics actually determines the possibility of emergentness.
																								



2.
Formal ontology and nominalistic semantics in B. Russels philosophy of mathematics

V.V. Tzelishchev
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Substitutional theory, ontology, formal system, set-theoretical paradoxes, Principia Mathematica, Russell, elimination, propositional function, nominalism, semantics

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to formal ontology in the systems proposed by . Russell between his Principles of Mathematics (1903) and Principia Mathematica (with A. N. Whitehead-1911-1913). Based on manuscripts published in the 1970 's from the archive B. Russell, it is described the unknown system Substitutional theory proposed by Russell for resolution of the set-theoretic paradoxes, along with the well-known Zigzag theory and the Theory of limited size. It is shown that Substitutional theory is a version of elimination ontology of propositional functions, according to strategy of nominalistic elimination of ontology classes within No-Class theory. It is demonstrated a possibility of emulating with Substitutional theory of Simple theory of types. Explained the reason for abandoning Substitutional theory in favor of Ramified theory of Types in Principia Mathematica, due to the opening of the paradox of propositional functions. It is demonstrated the benefits of Substitutional theory and possibility of remedy its weaknesses as foundations of mathematics.
																								



3.
On the concept of qualia in epistemological context

A.Yu. Moisseyeva
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: qualia, epistemology, reduction, subjective knowledge, evolution

Abstract >>
The paper deals with a search for such a way of epistemological reduction of the concept of qualia which would have no lacks of traditional physicalist and functionalist schemes. The author shows advantages of the evolution-epistemology approach to the discussed problem: it makes possible to treat qualia as presentation of knowledge about ecological environment for a system with a certain form of physical structure.
																								



4.
The simplicity principle in physics: methodology, the general and the particular

A.L. Simanov
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: philosophy, methodology, simplicity principle, verification, falsification, observability

Abstract >>
The paper starts to consider the methodological role of the simplicity principle in physics. The ultimate goal of the research is to show that in modern physics due to the evolution of observability in its classical version (immediate observability) into mediated one the content of the simplicity principle changes: its use gets at least a two-stage type. First, initial theses of the verified theory must be simple in the sense of «economy in thinking». Second, mediated results of this theory must be simple in the sense of theoretical, logical and empirical verification.
																								



5.
Generalization of classical physics: special relativity

E.A. Bezlepkin
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: classical physics, special relativity, relativity principle, category of space, generalization, unification

Abstract >>
Einsteins relativity theory generalizes classical mechanics and electromagnetism for the case of relativistic velocities. The paper shows that generalized mathematical structures form a basis which make possible to carry out the unified description of diverse physical phenomena related to preceding theories. Besides, SR and GR not only unite the categories of space and time but also generalize the category of space. Generalization of the category of space is the dominating trend in transition from classical physics to relativistic one.
																								



6.
The genesis of maxwellian electrodynamics: the inter-theoretic context

R.M. Nugayev
Russian cooperation University Kazan, Kazan
Keywords: theory, scientific program, scientific revolution, model, Maxwell, electrodynamics

Abstract >>
The paper considers the genesis of maxwellian electrodynamics in the light of the authors theory-change model which was tested earlier for the cases of Copernican and Einsteinian scientific revolutions. The author shows that in the considered case the new theory arisen at the cross of pre-maxwellian research programs. Continuum mechanics appeared to be a neutral language used for comparing conclusions of theories developed in these programs and revealing relations between them. Maxwells program not just excelled Ampere and Webers program but assimilated some its theses. The ideas of Kantian epistemology are the basis of Maxwells strategy of unifying theories.
																								



7.
The metaphor of mechanism in some evolutionary conceptions

A.A. Pozdnyakov
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: methodology of biology, theoretical biology, evolutionary theory, orthogenesis, metaphor of mechanism

Abstract >>
Those who follow orthogenetic conceptions focus their attention on directivity of evolution and reckon a great number of various views emphasizing this point with orthogenesis. But none of evolutionary conceptions denies directivity of evolution, so their common feature is rather their antagonistic relation to Darwinism. A considerable part of orthogenetic conceptions bases on the metaphor of mechanism, Newtonian picture of the world may serve as an analogue of the latter. Thus, this group of conceptions uses a «force approach to the problem of evolution, i.e. they say that directivity of evolution is determined by a universal cause which has a mechanical nature. Similarly to Newtonian picture of the world, we may mark out three main components in orthogenetic conceptions: the idea of morphophysiological structure of individuals, the idea of a force changing a structure to improve it, and the idea of external conditions deflecting the change of a structure from the way of complication.
																								



8.
Digital sovereignty: political and legal regimes of data filtration

D.V. Vinnik
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Internet, content filtration, censor

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes various state regimes used for censoring Internet and filtrating data in agreement with diverse purposes, viz. to maintain social order and control, to ensure political stability, state and social security, to keep up sovereignty, etc. The author suggests a classification of such regimes.
																								



9.
Correlation of theory and practice in Galens system

D.A. Balalykin, A.P. Shcheglov, N.P. Shok
Keywords: history of medicine, history of science, antique natural science, conclusiveness, logical method, Galen

Abstract >>
Basing on De optima doctrina by Roman physician Galen (the work is introduced to Russian-language scientists for the first time) the authors analyze his anatomic- physiological system which dominated in medicine for more than 1,500 years. Galen reveals a balance between the level of empirical knowledge which is essential to a physician and the importance of theoretical constructions, and it is a unique research in the light of modern history of science. Galens conclusions about the importance of detection of causality, the necessity of theoretic generalization, the use of argument and logical method in diagnostication and therapy make possible to assert that in ancient medicine there arisen an essentially new methodological approach.
																								



10.
Ancient medicine: status questionis and the future projects

E.V. Afonasin1, A.S. Afonasina2
1Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: history of sciences in Antiquity, state of arts in the discipline, medicine, bioethics, natural sciences, Hippocrates, Galen, Alexandrian school of medicine

Abstract >>
The history of ancient medicine should be studied in a number of interrelated aspects. Firstly, one has to analyze relevant narrative sources, above all such an encyclopedic author as Galen, in order to produce a detailed study of the procedures and methods of diagnostics and treating of deceases typical for ancient medical praxis in the period of its flourishing. The works of Galen are not available in Russian, except to the De Usu Partium Corporis Humani and some minor treatises and extracts. One should not also ignore a number of lesser authorities, the physicians and other scientists, who contributed to the development of ancient medicine. Secondly, what is badly needed is a reliable study of ancient technological advances that allowed the physicians to improve their treatment of human body. The hospitals, medical instruments, glass, votive offerings, etc. can now be studied in situ and on the basis of the museums collections (mostly these in Epidaurus, Corinth, Pergamon, Kos and Athens). A national collaborative project, provided it involves a good number of specialists from various field of specialization, could ultimately produce a collective study of the history of ancient medicine in its development, which along with a critical analysis and translations of selected sources, will include a detailed in depth research of ancient theoretical and practical methods and approaches of ancient physicians. Interested researchers are welcome to contribute.