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# Home – Home – Jornals – Journal of Mining Sciences 2014 number 3

## Journal of Mining Sciences

### 2014 year, number 3

#### 1.Estimation of Depth and Dimension of Underground Void in Soil by Subsidence Trough Configuration Based on Inverse Problem Solution

L. A. NAZAROV1,2, L. A. NAZAROVA1,2, G. N. KHAN1, M. VANDAMM3
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, 6-8 Av. B. Pascal, Champs-sur-Marne, 77420 France
Keywords: soil, irreversible deformation, subsidence trough, discrete element method, inverse problem, cost function, approximation

Abstract >>
The authors offer an approach to estimating parameters of underground voids formed in soil under natural or induced effect. Irreversible deformation of soil is modeled using discrete element method. The formulated inverse problem on geometry and occurrence depth of an underground void by the data on configuration of the subsidence trough has a single-valued solution.

#### 2.3D Discrete Element Approach to Janssen’s Problem

S. V. KLISHIN, A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: pressures, stress state, granular material, numerical analysis, discrete element method, Janssen’s problem

Abstract >>
The 3D discrete element approach is used for the computational investigation of the problem on pressure exerted by granular material on the bottom and walls of a cylindrical container. Dry friction between the granular material particles and friction on the container walls are taken into account. The particles have spherical shape with the assigned radial distribution. The authors analyze the effect of filling method on stress state of granular medium. Accuracy of Janssen’s hypotheses is estimated in engineering problem formulation.

#### 3.Assessment of Elastoplastic Strains around Cylindrical Excavation by Displacements of the Excavation Boundary

A. I. CHANYSHEV, I. M. ABDULIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: stresses, strains, elasticity, plasticity, elastic-plastic boundary, overspecified problem, Cauchy problem

Abstract >>
It is suggested to assess plastic state of rocks around an unsupported cylindrical excavation by measured displacements of its walls. The problem (overspecified in the viewpoint of classical formulation) has a unique solution that allows calculation of stresses, strains and displacements in the plastic deformation domain, including the elastic-plastic boundary, without addressing the elastoplastic problem.

#### 4.Accounting for Linear Alteration of Stresses Depthward Intact Rock Mass in Geomechanical Problems

V. E. MIRENKOV, A. A. KRASNOVSKY
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: boundary conditions, excavation, displacements, stresses, intact rock mass, rocks, horizontal pressure

Abstract >>
The authors discuss formulation of boundary conditions in problems on stress-strain state of rocks around an excavation. The classical formulations neglect the presupposition on linearity of stress field in an intact rock mass with depth and disregard the discrepancy of the calculated and actual behavior of rocks. The presented study is based on the linearity of initial stresses and the computational domain boundary conditions that assume stress linearity and unaltered boundary conditions during drivage. The problem on stress-strain state is divided into two problems due to option of formulating accurately boundary conditions for the horizontal boundary and the absence of such option for the vertical boundary.

#### 5.Rock Failure Criteria Based on a New System of Stress Tensor Invariants

A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: rock, stress tensor, strains, invariants, strength, criteria

Abstract >>
Stress tensor invariants are determined as average stresses at all possible sites of a volume element. Integration of stresses is performed in the plane of Mohr’s chart. The obtained invariants can be used in formulating criteria of limit stress (failure) in geomaterials.

#### 6.Analysis of Statistical Parameters of Geoacoustic Monitoring Data for the Antei Uranium Deposit

V. L. GILIYAROV1, E. E. DAMASKINSKAYA1, A. G. KADOMTSEV1, I. YU. RASSKAZOV2
1Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Politekhnicheskaya 26, Saint-Petersburg, 194021 Russia
2Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, blv. Ussuriiskii 5, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: Antei deposit, rockburst hazard, induced seismicity, failure, acoustic emission, wavelet coefficient dispersion, correlation integral, energy distribution

Abstract >>
The authors analyze geoacoustic monitoring data obtained in the rockburst-hazardous Antei deposit and propose an approach to the data processing and interpretation based on the following statistical parameters: wavelet coefficient dispersion, correlation fractal dimension and signal energy distribution. Collated, the calculated parameters and the induced seismicity in the Gluboky Mine have exhibited adequate correlation, which allows considering the parameters as potential indications of accidents.

#### 7.Physical Kinetics of Coal-Methane System: Mass Transfer, Pre-Outburst Events

E. P. FEL’DMAN, T. A. VASILENKO, N. A. KALUGINA
Institute of Physics of Mining Processes, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. Rozy Lyuksemburg 72, Donetsk, 83114 Ukraine
Keywords: thermodynamic potential, filtration diffusion, gas-filled fracture, Griffiths criterion, bearing pressure, coal bed

Abstract >>
The article gives the review of the present-day development in the physical kinetics of coal-methane system. The Gibbs thermodynamic potential is derived for this system as the function of methane density (persisting order parameter) and coal jointing (non-persisting order parameter). The authors put forward diffusion-filtration mechanism of gas mass transfer in porous material on two time scales and substantiate the concept of “quick” and “slow” methane. Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential, kinetic equations are derived for gas pressure and jointing in coal (bed). The first equation solution explains the physical effect of temporal gas pressure growth at the maximum of the external rock (bearing) pressure, the second equation enables generalization of the Griffiths failure criterion for a set of gas-filled fractures. Mechanism of pre-outburst spalling of gas-saturated coal is analyzed.

#### 8.Determination of Conditions for Compressed Air-Assisted Removal of Plastic Soil in Horizontal Pipeline in Drilling

B. B. DANILOV, B. N. SMOLYANITSKY, E. N. SHER
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: drilling, drill hole, pipeline, transportation, soil batch, pressure differential

Abstract >>
Under discussion is plastic soil removal in horizontal rotating pipeline by air flow. It is experimentally proved possible to remove soil by batches generated during rotation of the pipeline. The found relationship between soil conveying in the pipeline, the pipeline diameter and air forward pressure is made the basis of determining parameters of the main transporting line in a drilling installation.

#### 9.Influence of Energy Parameters of Shock Pulse Generator on the Pulse Amplitude and Pipe Penetration Rate in Soil

I. V. TISHCHENKO, V. V. CHERVOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: air hammer, vibro-percussion puncture, shock pulse amplitude, impact speed, blow energy, penetration intensity and depth

Abstract >>
In the context of the problem of increase in efficiency of vibro-percussion driving of steel pipes in soil, a pilot model of shock generator with step speed adjustment for the bit and anvil impact is described. The authors report experimental modeling of pipe penetration depending on load of stalk. The influence of the stalk load parameters on the amplitude of generated shock pulses and the pipe penetration rate in elastoplastic soil is defined.

#### 10.Effective Range of Internal Dumping in Opencast Mining in Steep Mineral Deposits

G. G. SAKANTSEV1, V. I. CHESKIDOV2
1Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: deep open pit mine, mined-out void, internal dump, access roadways

Abstract >>
Under discussion are the issues of driving secondary access roadways without pushing ultimate pitwall limits in steep deposits with internal dumping. The calculation scheme and correlation analysis of key elements of the resource-saving technology are presented. Regressional relationships are obtained for length of an open pit mine bottom, specific weight of internal dumping and the open pit mine parameters. The article specifies the effective range of the developed technology.

#### 11.Optimized Open Pit Mine Design, Pushbacks and the Gap Problem-A Review

C. MEAGHER1, R. DIMITRAKOPOULOS1, D. AVIS2
1COSMO - McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T5, Canada
2McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2A7, Canada
Keywords: pushback design, open pit optimization, cardinality constrained graph closure

Abstract >>
Existing methods of pushback (phase) design are reviewed in the context of “gap” problems, a term used to describe inconsistent sizes between successive pushbacks. Such gap problems lead to suboptimal open pit mining designs in terms of maximizing net present value. Methods such as the Lerchs-Grossman algorithm, network flow techniques, the fundamental tree algorithm, and Seymour’s parameterized pit algorithm are examined to see how they can be used to produce pushback designs and how they address gap issues. Areas of current and future research on producing pushbacks with a constrainedsize to help eliminate gap problems are discussed. A framework for incorporatingdiscounting at the time of pushback design is proposed, which can lead to minedesigns with increased NPV.

#### 12.Concept of Mineral and Raw Material Reserves Base Development in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

S. V. SHAKLEIN, M. V. PISARENKO
Institute of Coal, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leningradskii pr. 10, Kemerovo 650065 Russia
Keywords: coal reserves and resources, coal mining, geological and mining conditions, subsoil use

Abstract >>
The audit of minerals and raw material reserves in the producing, prepared for production and new areas in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin shows that the use of the available package of coal geotechnologies meant for a relatively narrow range of geological and mining conditions results in depletion of the explored high-processable reserves. It is thought that the Kuzbass development strategy should sidetrack the search of new mining areas with the assigned geological and mining conditions and aim at hunting and elaborating mining and processing technologies that enable extraction of previously proved & undeveloped reserves. Such progression and expansion of the mineral and raw material reserves base of Kuzbass will promote advance in the mining science and engineering and favor to more comprehensive utilization of the available industrial potential, infrastructure and human resources.

#### 13.Evaluation of Dust Pollution of Air in Kuzbass Coal-Mining Areas in Winter by Data of Remote Earth Sounding

V. N. OPARIN1, V. P. POTAPOV2, O. L. GINIYATULLINA2, N. V. ANDREEVA2, E. L. SCHASTLIVTSEV2, A. A. BYKOV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
Keywords: coal mining, remote sounding data, satellite images, geoecological monitoring, air pollution, fallout, snow cover, spectral reflectance analysis

Abstract >>
The article deals with estimation of snow cover condition and air pollution in areas of fast-paced coal mining. It is suggested to use data of remote earth sounding in winter, and snow cover in this case acts as a survey sheet-indicator of underlying ground contamination. The article exemplifies evaluation of data for a Kuzbass mining area of 100 km2 by snow quality.

#### 14.Assessment of Eco-Hazard of Copper-Nickel Ore Mining and Processing Waste Storages

V. A. MASLOBOEV1, S. G. SELEZNEV2, D. V. MAKAROV1, A. V. SVETLOV1
1Institute of Problems of Industrial Ecology of the North, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 14a, Apatity, 184209 Russia
2Monolit Mining Company, pr. Gvardeiskii 61/1, Nikel’, 184420 Russia
Keywords: overburden dumps, copper-nickel ore concentration tailings, ecological hazard, sulphide oxidation

Abstract >>
The authors examine oxidation of sulphide minerals in mining waste storages and the associated ecological problems. The highest environmental hazard is produced by fine-dispersed mill tailings, especially where sulphide content is comparable with nonmetal content of low-chemical activity. In terms of some industrial waste storages in Murmansk Region, it is shown that the eco-hazard source can be not only fine but also coarse particle waste (Allarechensky deposit waste) and ore concentration waste with low sulphide content but highly chemically active nonmetals (Pechenga ore field).

#### 15.Surface Activation and Induced Change of Physicochemical and Process Properties of Galena by Nanosecond Electromagnetic Pulses

V. A. CHANTURIA, I. ZH. BUNIN, M. V. RYAZANTSEVA, I. A. KHABAROVA, E. V. KOPORULINA, N. E. ANASHKINA
Institute of Problems of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: galena, calcite, powerful nanosecond electromagnetic pulses, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, analytical electron microscopy, surface, sorption, flotation

Abstract >>
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the change of the surface layers and chemical state of atoms on galena surface after treatment by high-voltage nanosecond electromagnetic pulses. By XPS the induced structural changes of galena surface layer are associated with alteration of chemical state of sulfur atoms, which conditions the change of electrochemical and flotation properties of the semiconductor sulphide mineral: growth of electrode potential creates favorable conditions for adsorption of anion collector and promotes increased floatability of galena.

#### 16.Coal Dust Wettability Test

V. A. ARKHIPOV1,2, D. YU. PALEEV3, YU. F. PATRAKOV3, A. S. USANINA3,4
1Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Build. 10, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
2Institute for Problems of Chemical and Energetic Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sotsialisticheskaya 1, Biysk, 659322 Russia
3Institute of Coal, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Leningradskii 10, Kemerovo, 650065 Russia
4Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Keywords: coal, coal dust, wettability, air and dust mixture, spectral transmittance, capture coefficient

Abstract >>
The authors present a new method of testing wettability of fine coal particles settled on water drops. Ratio of wetted particles is calculated by measured optical density of air and dust mixture. The offered method enables measurements to be taken immediately in the air and dust mixture, without mechanical treatment of coal dust particles, which improves accuracy of particle wettability testing

#### 17.Justification and Elaboration of Electrochemical Recovery of Saponite from Recycled Water

V. G. MINENKO
Institute of Problems of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: electrochemical separator, saponite extraction, slime removal, thickened product, clarified discharge, processing plant, electrophoretic effect, electroosmosis

Abstract >>
The effective electrochemical method of saponite and slime removal from recycled water of Severalmaz JSC plants is scientifically and experimentally justified based on the analysis of electric properties of saponite surface. The method consists in utilizing electrophoretic attachment of negative-charge fine saponite particles to anode and electroosmosis and clarified water exudation on cathode. The developed method will allow higher efficiency and regulation of diamond extraction and ecology problem resolution due to closed water rotation and aborted water discharge to the tundra.

#### 18.Multichannel Acoustic Control of Pneumatic Impact Machine Movement in Soil and Measurement Information Processing Algorithm

V. N. OPARIN, E. V. DENISOVA, A. P. KHMELININ, YA. Z. BADMAEVA, N. S. POLOTNYANKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: acoustic method, spatial coordinates, control system, acceleration indicator, acoustic signal propagation velocity, soil, pneumatic impact machine

Abstract >>
The acoustic data measurement system and processing algorithm are developed to position a pneumatic impact machine in soil. The method is based on recording lag time of entry of acoustic signal generated on interaction between the pneumatic impact machine and soil in the receiver of multichannel measurement system relative to reference signal of the machine. The measurement system and the algorithm have been trialed in full-scale conditions.