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"Philosophy of Education"

2014 year, number 2

The dependence of the problematics of pedagogy as a science on social and cultural realia of contemporary Russia

T. A. Artashkina
Far Eastern Federal University, building F (26), FEFU campus, 10, Ajax, Russky Island, Vladivostok, Russia
Keywords: pedagogy, crisis of pedagogy, pedagogy as a science, object of pedagogy, subject matter of pedagogy, education, phenomenon of education, concept, differentiation and integration of scientific knowledge, integrative science of education

Abstract >>
The unity of traditions and renovations is a universal feature of any culture. However, rapid changes in the Russian culture and economy of the early 1990s disrupted communications between the social layers and strata. As a conservative element of education, the system of education ensured communications between various social layers and strata as well as between the existing and the new cultural areas. Dramatic political changes and rapid transition to the market economy had a deteriorating effect upon the system of education and pedagogical sciences. As a result, the traditional organum of pedagogical sciences fell into a state of decay. Without any doubt, the educators were well aware of the crisis in the Russian educational system and pedagogics. Recent years have brought many changes into the theory of pedagogics and experimental pedagogics. However, the problem of defining the subject field of pedagogics as a science has yet to be solved. The article is devoted to the comprehensive analysis of this question. The author adheres to the opinion that finding a solution of this problem is based on two major approaches: either reducing the suggested definitions and explications to the definition of pedagogics or unlimitedly expanding the object and subject of the modern pedagogics. Recent years have also generated a tradition of explicating the meanings of education. However, this approach makes it impossible to reveal the operation of abstraction; instead, the research analysis is aimed at revealing the meaning of the education phenomenon («the meaning of objects╗). Based on the logical analysis the author concludes that a concept is a logical status of the notion of education. The logical status of a concept itself carries integrative qualities. Thus, the sciences, traditionally considered as belonging to different fields and areas, have been integrated into an interdisciplinary cluster by the concept of education. Assigning the term pedagogics to this interdisciplinary cluster is not legitimate since this historically developed term fails to cover all subject-object fields of this interdisciplinary cluster. The author considers that the emerging science of education has a far more sophisticated structure than just its disciplinary composition while the object of integrative science of education remains the one: the phenomenon of education. However, the logical status of the concept for education requires additional explication of this object and hence its differentiation and more precise definition while referring to every specific branch of the pedagogical knowledge.

Higher education in the context of the main contradiction of modern Russia

A. S. Frolov
Academy of Economics and law, 656038 Barnaul, Pr-t Komsomolsky, 82, Russia
Keywords: modern Russia, contradiction, higher education, educational strategy, value-upbringing side of education, liberalism

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the main problems of liberal reforming of the system of higher education in modern Russia. The starting point of the analysis is the position that the basic reference point of this reform is the experience of Western countries. The author considers the peculiarities of the Russian state educational strategy, identifies its socio-economic basis and makes an emphasis on how the positive and problematic aspects of higher education development of West European countries are reflected in this strategy. The following features of the educational «strategy╗ of the modern Russian state can be distinguished: pushy introduction into the Russian higher education system of the unpromising, deadlock Western general educational models and particular characteristics; ignoring those aspects of Western European higher education systems which have obvious advantages, or borrowing some of them but without providing the appropriate conditions which results in the «good intentions╗ turning into caricature and vulgarity; reduction of the educational process to «technologies╗ with factual «deconstruction╗ of its value-educational component, which in the context of rapidly propagating in the modern Western countries openly vile and corrosive moral deviance and pathology, rapid transformation of the «clinical╗ into progressive creative norm (LGBT movement, pedophilia, etc.) generates a fundamental threat of spiritual degeneration, «high-tech╗ transformation of the person into a bestial condition. With reference to Russian experts on the problems of education, the article argues that one of the significant consequences of such educational strategy is the reduction of the number of specialties in the system of higher education of Russia. In the conditions when in the field of scientific knowledge, along with the integration processes, there also acts the trend of specialization, the direct borrowing of the principles of «Bologna Declaration╗ have a serious negative impact on the preparation of the personnel of higher qualification in our country. The author compares the process of transformation in many modern countries of higher education in the general with the development trends of Russian system of higher education, demonstrating the need for adjusting the state educational policy. The author also examines the possible consequences for the Russian system of higher education of the recently initiated process of reforming the main subject of the development of domestic science, the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the article there is substantiated the idea that, in the conditions of transformation in the Western countries of moral pathologies into norms, there is needed to fundamentally strengthen the value-upbringing aspect of the domestic higher education. In conclusion, the author refers to the model of capitalism, established in modern Russia, and makes conclusions about the relationship between its content and the deformations, existing in the system of domestic higher education.

The topological problems of education and the phenomenon of social exclusion

S. A. Martynova
A. I. Gertsen Russian State Pedagogical University, 191186, Saint-Petersburg, Moika river embankment, 48, Russia
Keywords: education, social exclusion, subjectivity, ideality, the limiting experience, social rehabilitation

Abstract >>
The specificities of contemporary philosophical reflection are connected with turning to the topographical and topological strategies of the sense genesis. Because of this, certain possibilities arise through addressing the topological point of view on education. The major attention is given to problematic comparison of various positions of sense in the situation of Ĺhere-and-nowĺ. So it becomes possible for us to make an actual view to the event of education in the topos. It is important for individual socializing and education to keep memory about the space of birth and growing up; nevertheless, it is also important for the individual development to look for existential living space via coming into open social space in the processes of communication and emotional contacts. Taking into account these conditions of individual development, the author analyses the specificity of subjective growth in such situation as social exclusion. Topological strategies of reflection help us to demonstrate that the phenomenon of social exclusion marks the impossibility of using some social education strategies. The author discusses some subjective aspects of social exclusion as the most comprehensive factor for realizing education strategies. Special attention is paid to the experience of acute lack of existential foundations; this creates obstacles for optimal social communication. To discuss this problem, the author determines three major phenomena: autistic subjectivity, the phenomenon of Ĺwild childrenĺ and anesthetic subjectivity after social deprivation. In studying this phenomenon of social exclusion, the major attention is paid to exploring subjective experience of confrontation between the place of presence and the uncertainty of imagined world. Detailed exploration of this confrontation demonstrates us that this restriction of ideality in social space is one of the problems of hindered communication: the impossibility to understand the mental state of another communicating person. Thus, the topologically oriented education, in addressing the phenomenon of keeping the social isolation, encounters the problem of the imagination realization in the individual experience. The difficulties in the application of the educational models oriented to the personal interaction are explained exactly by that they are «crossed-out╗ by the subjective rootedness in the social alienation and the personal desire to restrict imagination. In solving these problems, there are considered some possible strategies of education and rehabilitation. A hypothesis is made that the situations presented above should be considered as a realization of a limiting state arising in the aspiration to free from uncertainty (avoiding the experience of perception of the excessive, which genetically goes up to the experience of the sublime). This aspiration manifests itself through continuation of this pressure in the implicit form. Some strategies of rehabilitation and topologically built education are developed, taking into account the subjective component of the social isolation phenomenon. These strategies presuppose a complex approach: understanding of the significance of stability in the individual experience, development of some programs of individual adaption to the existence in the uncertainty situation, increasing the significance of trust in the strategies of socialization and education, teaching the strategies of understanding and accepting the different - restoration of the internal openness to the variety and unpredictability of life impressions.

Integration of the higher education in western europe: the bologna process and its positive factors

S. A. Zubareva1,2
1Krasnoyarsk State Agricultural University, Zheleznogorsk, 662972, Russia
2Siberian Fire and Rescue Academy, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Keywords: West European integration, the Bologna process, higher education, internationalization of education, positive factors of higher educational integration in Western Europe

Abstract >>
The article discusses the problem of integration of Russian higher professional education into the Western European educational space; and it provides an overview of scholarly works devoted the Bologna process. The article analyzes the factors that contribute to the successful integration of higher education in Western Europe. The essence of the problem is reduced to the difficulties of transformation of Russian education, connected with entering the integration processes taking place in the education system in the framework of the Bologna process. The paper consists of three parts; it begins with an introduction, in which the essence of the Bologna process at the present stage of the integration is revealed. Then there are considered the positive factors contributing to the successful integration of higher education; the article ends by conclusions having basically an objective character, closely related to the processes of globalization and the European integration. In the main part of the paper provides arguments in favor of the Bologna process: firstly, the organizers of the Bologna process understand that convergence of educational systems, harmonization of the principles of learning, training programs is a systemic, goal-oriented process. Secondly, there is an idea of identifying all the best in all of education and climbing to a new level; and thirdly, higher professional education will be one of the best in the world in the educational market. Fourth, higher education is seen as a public good. Fifthly, the desire is to ensure closer links of higher education and research institutions. Sixthly, mobility is as a necessary condition of formation of the European Higher Education not only academically and culturally, but also in terms of politics, economy and social life. Seventh, students are active participants in the educational process and they should influence the organization and content of education at universities and other educational institutions. Eighth, it is the studentsĺ opportunity to enter the academic world at any stage of their career and with different levels of training. Ninth, it gives autonomy to universities, having in mind their high responsibility. Tenth, it gives legislative support for the implementation of the Bologna process, because in all countries the necessary legislative reforms have been implemented, wide support is offered to the organizations representing business and social partners. In conclusion, the author argues that the Bologna process is the modern form of the integration process of the Western European educational space, a deep reform of higher education in the countries that are the initiators of this process. The main value of the article is to analyze the normative documents of the Bologna process, the views of some experts in the field of education, which revealed several positive factors that contribute to the successful integration of states and their citizens in the European educational space.

Russian society modernization: a comprehensive approach to education reform

V. V. Petrov
Novosibirsk State University, str. Pirogova, 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: knowledge society, education system, upgrading, training, decision-making, education policy

Abstract >>
The reforms that took place in the Russian society at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries, had the strongest influence on the system of domestic education. As a result of breaking up the old traditions, the system of domestic education, which used to be a system-forming institute, forming the country's citizens, into an ordinary service.Significant budget cuts led to the fact that higher education institutions found themselves on the brink of survival and were forced to increase the number of «pay students╗. This policy has led to a decrease in the level of quality training and overproduction of the graduates. The number of places for students in higher education institutions has exceeded the number of high school graduates, which led to the lack of competitive selection for various professions in some universities. Accordingly, the lack of competition among applicants has led to a decrease in quality training of the high school graduates. To solve the problems, there is needed a comprehensive approach to education reform, which takes into account not only the interests of the middle and high schools, but also Russian society as a whole. It is necessary to conduct a thorough expert evaluation of universities and calculate the risks by engaging highly trained specialists from among the representatives of the Russian scientific and educational community. One of the main criteria for assessing the success of higher education should be the level of demand for the graduate in the labor market. The results of the balanced, serious, careful analysis of the effectiveness, conducted by leading experts, will optimize the system of higher education by reducing the number of ineffective institutions. In turn, the reduction in the number of universities and admission criteria revision of entrance examinations may, on one hand, lead to increased competition among applicants and will raise the level of training of graduates of secondary schools; and, on the other hand, universities will be able to select potential students really aimed at further training, not only to receive the diploma. Besides, the budget, released as a result of cuts, can be directed to the revival of the network of specialized secondary and vocational education, which will allow raising the general (basic) literacy of the society. Such measures may have a positive impact on improving the level of training of highly qualified personnel in Russia, which is a prerequisite for effective modernization in the formation of the knowledge-based economy.

About ontology and epistemology of the foresights ┬źEducation 2030╗ and ┬źCompetences 2030╗

D. V. Evzrezov, B. O. Mayer
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: foresight, planning the future, education, futurology, globalization, epistemology, competence

Abstract >>
The foresight «Competences 2030╗ amends and extends the foresight «Education 2030╗, since it connects the educational system, labor markets and innovative economy. The central idea of the developers of the foresight «Competences 2030╗ is the launch of development of new economy by training new formation of specialists, primarily engineers-managers. Modern foresight is a complex method of analysis, examination, assessment, design and implementation of the social future, as well as reflexive support of such projects. Foresight is specially designed for prediction and control in the conditions of globalization. The logic of foresight inevitably leads to the need to develop an «applied ontology╗ as a mechanism for transformation of the picture of the world and the world outlook towards the constructed foresight-future. Moreover, the «applied ontology╗ is not the ontology of the surrounding world but only an artificially constructed ontology of the primary ideal objects in a certain subject area, in our case, in the field of computer and communication technology in education. According to one of the developers of the foresight «Education 2030╗, «foresight is neither a prediction of events, nor an action plan. It is a map of quite likely events that may occur in the foreseeable future and which are important for the decision making in the present╗. This statement highlights the significant difference between the foresight approach and the strategic planning. One feature of the foresight approach in contrast to strategic planning is that in the context of foresight one must explicitly analyze the foundations of ontology of the predicted (designed) future, because in the framework of such constructs the ontological picture is not simply transformed but is transformed consciously and, perhaps, purposefully. The foresight projects «Education 2030╗ and «Competence 2030╗ seek to formulate a quasi-undisputed thesis about the current need to change the existing education at all levels. However, the authors of the project do not differentiate between administrative and economic causes of changes and the internal problematic content of education. The resolving of the issue of reforming the modern Russian education requires continuous taking into account the relation between rationality in its forms of dialectical and metaphysical approaches to the development of scientific thinking. Moreover, the ontological properties of rationality (such as competences) depend on the types of society.

The conceptual foundation of philosophy of education

V. A. Mukin
I. N. Ulyanov Chuvash State University, Moskovskiy pr.,15, Cheboksary, 428015, Russia
Keywords: socialization, culture, the concept of self-organizing social institutions, pedagogical methodology, educational picture of the world, pedagogical interaction

Abstract >>
The author substantiates the need to study the philosophy of education as a separate discipline, a sphere of knowledge and a thought-creation process with its own object and subject of study. On the basis of the formulated socio-philosophical approach to education, the use of its cultural content, it is shown that the philosophical aspects of the considered problems is at the intersection of the educational picture of the world and the education system, aimed at the formation of the personal qualities. A principle is defined of formation of the self-organizing social institutions. The object of our research interest is the philosophy of education, and the subject of study, its conceptual foundations, reflecting the social processes of becoming and formation of human qualities, in particular, thinking and purposeful activity. The purpose of the study is to identify the conceptual bases of the philosophy of education, which are necessary to understand the personal qualities of the education subjects in the social-cultural space of Russia. Realization of this goal requires solving the following problems: identifying the ontological essence of the philosophy of education; epistemological consistency of philosophy of education; axiological expedience of philosophy of education. Philosophy of education is one of the major mental algorithms of justification and explanation of the essential features of the integral human being. It serves as a kind of thinking «tool╗ for the scientific-philosophical analysis, social designing and solving problems related to this sphere of human activity. Moreover, the modern philosophy of education, expanding the range of topics and renewing its own essence, sets forth new reference points for reorganization of the education system, articulates new value ideals and the bases of new projects of educational systems and the new directions of educational thought. The essence of the philosophy of education is largely revealed in the course of assessing the dynamics of the system of education. In relation to man, education is considered as a process, as a state and a potential for implementation. It is obvious that education as a process is conditioned by the fact that it has a "timebase sweep" of the interaction of its systemic elements with the ideas that reflect the mechanisms and algorithms of its development. It is indisputable that the state of education and attitudes on the part of the representatives of society uniquely reflect the socio-cultural position in it. As far as the capacity for implementation is concerned, education increasingly assumes the character of one of those areas of life activity of the society which provide a qualitative change and determine its future structure. Consequently, the socio-cultural potential is the basis for simulation of the processes of forecasting the development of society using an appropriate understanding of personality and its culture according to «three points╗: past - present - future. A systematic assessment of the dynamics of education is possible in the context of the general philosophy of functional analysis in relation to education. It is the functions of philosophy that reflects a possibility of philosophy of education under the indispensable development of the educational content and the structural changes in the direction of its social effectiveness.

Potential of upbringing as a social-philosophical category

A. N. Teslenko, E. A. Dmitrienko
Sh. Valikhanov Kokshetau State University, Abai st., 76, Kokshetau, 020000, Kazakhstan
Keywords: potential, education, social potential, culture, value potential, spiritual potential, upbringing potential

Abstract >>
Currently, the acuteness of the problems of upbringing (especially of the new, young generation) is conditioned by a number of reasons, including, for example, the lack of control over the flows of information in the conditions of globalization of social processes. Today we are often confronted with open propaganda of the libertinism of morals, the cult of violence, individualism and pragmatism. The urgency of the upbringing problems in this context is associated with the fact that into the educational process there are sometimes thoughtlessly and unnecessarily introduced foreign models of education and, therefore, upbringing. Thus, instead of intercultural dialogue aimed at developing modern outlook and taking into account national culture and mentality, there takes place imposition of the Euro-American system of values and life orientations. In the present article, the notion of ôupbringing potentialö is considered as a social and philosophical category. The definition of the scientific status of this category is connected with the dialectic movement of analyzing the concept from the general through the specific to the particular: potential - social potential - culture - spiritual potential - upbringing potential. Thus, the authors substantiate the essence and the specifics of the upbringing potential, which is commensurate only with the positive culture-forming energy (capacity), while the social potential can characterize also the negative properties of social phenomena bearing the charges of aggression, violence and other negative properties. The upbringing potential can be characterized as the optimal variety of the upbringing possibilities of manifestations, establishment, functioning and development of social-pedagogical organizations and the society as a whole, providing, to a greater or lesser degree, the social well-being of its own members as well as environment, partners and the object of relations. It is the social well-being of each and every social subject, object in the area of life of the system or having connection to it, is the main criterion for its social potential and social values. Into the foundation of the concept of «new╗ upbringing as the goal-oriented development of personality, there are laid the principles of socialization (the meaning of which is the formation of citizen, a member of the society); the principle of pragmatism (as the basis of upbringing) and the principle of modernization, that is, radical changes taking into account the fundamentally new needs of the society (firstly, the industrial and, then, the post-industrial one).

Professional education in social work as an object of social-philosophical analysis

V. N. Turchenko, D. V. Chernov
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya street, 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: social-philosophical analysis, professional education, paradigmatic analysis, philosophy of education, social work

Abstract >>
The authors analyze the content and meaning of modern development of the Russian professional social education, reveal its philosophical foundations. In the context of current scientific approaches of philosophy of education, there is discussed the specifics of the educational system and the training of social workers. The article reflects the historical context of the development of social and philosophical knowledge, in general, and the philosophy of education, in particular. The role of Russian scientists is emphasized in the development of problems of professional social knowledge; a special attention is paid to the studies of the Barnaul scientific school of sociology and social work under the supervision of Professors S. Grigoryev and L. G. Guslyakova; their basic scientific works are analyzed. The paper presents an analysis of professional education in social work from the standpoint of philosophy of education. In the ontological aspect, philosophy of education is a coherent doctrine concerning the vocation, place, role, content, forms and methods of education. In the epistemological aspect, it is the most general system of knowledge and methodological views in education. In addition, the authors propose a methodology of paradigmatic analysis of professional education in social work as an object of social-philosophical studies. There are substantiated the necessity and possibility, as well as mechanisms of social-philosophical studies (the paradigmatic analysis) of the formation and functioning of professional education in social work in contemporary Russia. There are two main areas of theoretical-methodological development of the «Social Work╗ profession. The first assumes that the responsibility of social workers is to care for people in need, providing them with the necessary assistance. Such an approach we call narrowly pragmatic or technocratic, but that it is exactly this approach that is objectively necessary and possible in the society of militant individualism subordinated by the goal of maximizing the profit. The second trend suggests that, in addition to providing the necessary needy of social services, the main tasks of social workers will be activation and development of their spiritual and physical strength with the intention that these people would not feel disadvantaged; social workers will be encouraged in every way to help them determine their place in the full-scale social life and realize their creative potential. It may be noted as a positive fact the recently increased attentionfrom the state and Russian public to the persons with disabilities, as well as the practice of special sporting events, competitions, etc.

The problem of the ┬źoverlord╗ for humanity in a ┬źpast-present-future╗ context

V. N. Chudomekh
The Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University, Lane Training 8, Simferopol, 95015, Krym
Keywords: ideas, future, Humanity, the vector of development, ontological orientation of people, self-identification of people

Abstract >>
The objects of research in the article are: 1) the ability of Humanity to objectively select a path into the Future; 2) the existing foundations, which allow Humanity to make an objective decision about the further path into the future; 3) the ability of Humanity to self-organization for following into the future in the «objectively correct╗ direction. The purpose of article is to disclose the panorama of the proposed ideas of the possible Humanityĺs paths into the future, and the acuity of the necessity of the balanced approach toward them. In the article there are analyzed the proposed ideas of Humanity's paths into the future, and there are revealed the factors that predetermine the necessity of the balanced approach to the proposed ideas of Humanity's paths into the future. There are identified three options for the future path of humanity: 1) the humanistic one, which is often called «noospheric╗ and which leads to the formation of the future integral whole, highly spiritual and responsible for the cosmos humanity; 2) the manipulative one, involving the transfer of the control for the future destiny of mankind to «privileged countries╗; 3) the path of a radical change of peopleĺs corporality by its «cyborgization╗ and «transgenization╗, which essentially means the deprivation of the possible future people of the possessing of natural body and the ned of being, the «crown╗ of two billion years evolution of the Living Earth. The analysis revealed the specificity of ontological orientation of people when choosing a path into the future and the existing foundations for choosing an «objectively correct╗ path of humanity into the future. As the «attractors╗ and the «lord-guides╗ of the planetary life of people, the author derived «and justified the «foundations╗ of self-organization and the «traditions╗ of the societies, the «self-identification settings╗ of people, the ideas of social development of «passionate╗ character and the ideas of «great goals╗ of human existence. As a general basis for choosing the «objectively correct╗ path of Humanity into the future, the author proposed the vector of axial development of «prehistory╗ and «history╗ of the people of the Earth, which indicates the potential ability of Humanity to implement a cosmogonic mission: the giver of reason and spirituality to the Universe and its co-creators. According to the author, the knowledge of people about this «great potency╗ and about the «potentially great place╗ of Humanity in the Universe can become the «overlord╗, which will guide the people of the Earth along the «objectively correct╗ path into the future. The scientific and practical significance of the article is in revealing the «problems of overlord╗ for Humanity and in presenting an original approach to the explanation of its key aspects and possible way of its solution.

Construction of the human being as an important problem of ecological education

T. N. Ketova
First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Petersburg, Leţ Tolstoy st., 6/8, St. Petersburg, 197022, Russia
Keywords: ecological education, anthropological transformation, identity, transhumanism, post-human, bioethics

Abstract >>
The problem of transformations of the human being in relation to real possibilities of changes in the human biological nature is studied in the article. In the XX-XXI centuries the human being becomes an object of technological, biochemical and genetic design and faces the danger of losing identity. The aim of ecological education and upbringing is to form a value-based attitude to human being as a biosocial unity. Human needs have a tendency to dynamical development and thatĺs why the problem of boundaries of existence becomes especially topical. In the XX-XXI centuries the idea of transformation of the human being moves to the sphere of practical implementation, which leads to development of various anthropological-technical strategies. In the second half of XX century, the tendency of medicalization of Western society has become obvious, which gave birth to another tendency - weakening of natural human health. The human becomes an object of medical policy. Ethical values are being reconsidered and there is an emerging necessity of different positioning of these values in the process of biomedical development. The emergence of bioethics could be considered as an answer to challenges of technogenic civilization. The necessity of understanding the achievements in scientific-technical progress in biomedical sphere and extensions of human rights movement are reasons of dynamical development of bioethics. The basic principles of bioethics reveal its ecological content. In the age of anthropological transformations there are different attitudes to materiality. Firstly, this is an abandonment of substational paradigm and acceptance of the functional one instead, which is most clearly expressed in the position of transhumanism. The state of post-human is characterized by artificial intelligence, constant pursuit of modifications and immortality. Another tendency is expressed in understanding life as a gift, which should be cared for and developed, avoiding destructions, as a result of which the humans can lose control over the flow of radical transformations. The pursuit of spiritual and material unity of the human being does not exclude, in the ecological perspective, a need to preserve physical and mental health by using scientific achievements and technics. The goal of bioethics is not only in the rational analysis of moral problems in biomedicine, but also in stimulating broad discussion of all value-related aspects of existence of living nature. The bioethics acquires the status of a social institute in modern society, which determines the importance of not only its teaching in medical universities, but also the inclusion of its elements into the system of higher humanitarian education.

The municipal order for additional vocational training as the organizational-economic mechanism of development of the human capital

G. D. Biliktueva
Buryat Republican Institute of Educational Policy, Sovetskaya str. 30, Ulan-Ude, 670000, Russia
Keywords: municipal management, municipal order, human capital, social and economic development, organizational-economic mechanism, investment, municipal union, goal-oriented municipal management, economy, need

Abstract >>
This article discusses the possibilities of management of the process of human capital development at the municipal level. The main objective of the research is to develop the directions and ways of improving the municipal order for additional professional education as an organizational-economic mechanism of development of human capital. Achieving this goal requires the ability to address the issues of human capital development of municipal education through the municipal order on the example of the Republic of Buryatia. Municipal Administration now requires major changes. Improving the municipal reform, which fosters the creation of conditions for the development of human potential and increasing living standards of the municipal education, the development of the socio-economic foundation based on the maximum use of local resources is becoming more and more topical. At the municipal level, the role of human resources is acknowledged but their development has been neglected. The task of transforming the existing human potential into a resource of municipal governance, into the human capital is one of the most important tasks of local government. To develop the human potential, there are necessary systemic changes of two types: the ones directed at increasing the competitive ability of the cadres, labor force and social sectors; and the others which improve the quality of the social environment and living conditions of people. The development of human capital covers medium and long term objectives, priorities and main directions of demographic policy, the policy of modernization of health and education, development of pensions and social benefits, the development of culture, the development of effective labor and housing markets. Municipal economic development can be considered as a process of change in the local economy, aiming at improving the quality of life. Municipal management is a relatively new phenomenon in modern Russia. As a special kind of management, an academic discipline and a field of practical activity, municipal management appeared only in the 1990s in connection with the revival of local government. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, local authorities are not included in the system of government; thus municipal government has certain features that distinguish it from the government. The system of local government has a special place in the country because of its public-state nature. From this perspective, it performs two major functions: connecting the state and population and connecting the state and small owners. The complexity of the management activity of local government is that it acts both as a subject of economic activity and as a subject endowed by law with the right to regulate this activity in its territory. In this regard, there arise some difficulties in defining «municipal government╗ because it has a dual nature like the concept of «municipal services╗.

On the changing role of the family in the personality formation

T. S. Kosenko
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: upbringing, traditions, family, society, personality, development, dialogue

Abstract >>
Family, as we all know, is a unit of society. It has always been so. There is a law: if the cell of the society is not healthy, then the society is in crisis. The Russian word «semĺya╗ («family╗) comes from the word «semya╗ («seed╗). Family is a union of blood relatives. Family is a micro-society. Family does not exist by itself, it lives in a particular city, country, is influenced by the changes in politics, economy, values etc. Many scientists studying the problems of the family are talking about a crisis of the modern family. This problem is global. Today, not all is well in the micro- and macro-societies. There are some reasons for that. In order to answer the question «what should be done to strengthen the modern family?╗, one must answer the question «what is wrong with the modern family?╗. Family is the foundation of upbringing the person. The author tries to identify the main institution of the personality upbringing by analyzing the role of family in various periods of development of the Russian society. An attempt is made to determine the role of family in the personality upbringing, to describe interaction between of family and social institutions, the measures that are taken to revive the «lost╗ family values and its functioning as a unit of society. Some recommendations are made on the development and improvement of the upbringing functions of the family.

Education of the person: derivative and/or demiurge

F. Sh. Teregulov
M. Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University, 3a, Oktyabrskoi revolytsii str., Ufa, 450000, Russia
Keywords: brain and consciousness, instinct and intelligence, sensory activity, activity and performance, external and internal plans, biological individuum, the subject of activity and social personality

Abstract >>
This work presents an idea of formation during life of an integrative perception organ for each human being. On the basis of the generalization of biosocial development of human population, the author discloses consequent complication of external-internal inheritance where peoplesĺ primary sensomovements is extended by means of individual movements, hereinafter referred to as corporate and develops to «body movements╗ of the whole society. Human being is a multi-level, hierarchically organized, built-in and built-over structure, representing an individual, subject and personality. The totality of these levels turns the human being into a sort of all-embracing integrity. As a starting point for identifying the true content and purpose of education in the fate of man, we have chosen the problem of the biological and the social. The thing is that for millions of years and tens of thousands of years, correspondingly, the biological and social development of the Homo sapiens species has been aimed, on one hand, on the development of sensory organs and adaptation mechanisms and, on the other, on weakening the instincts and eliminating hereditary fixation and transferring the expertise and abilities. In other words, in the socio-historical development of the human being the biological heredity ceased to spread its direct effect on the achievements in the field of mental, social and community development. The socio-historical experience of humanity began to be collected and fixed in the external, social, exoteric form. As a result, we note a dual nature of man and as a biological and a social being. This fundamental duality accompanies the person throughout his/her life. Based on movements social circulation channels of information, varied modal coding, construction and instrumental application of mainly external means compose the essence of the content and technification of education. These movements represent structural and functional parts of the developing human activity and allow showing the significance of activity category applied to new fundamentals of pedagogical science and practice. The methodology of the modern theory (if you like, philosophy) of education, being developed, offers a way out of the crisis, compensates the exhaustion of the main pedagogical paradigm. In our construction there are considered the ultimate foundations (of the main subject, processes and mechanisms), the place and the meaning of certain types of education in the cultural universe of life, and man's understanding of the ideal of education, meaning and features of educational activities, etc.

Interaction of form and content in the compositional space

L. G. Medvedev
Omsk State Pedagogical University, Tukhachevskiy emb., 14, Omsk, Russia
Keywords: composition, form and content, design, construction, creative process, harmony

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In the article, to identify the essence of compositional component in the graphic process, there are analyzed the basic foundations of the artwork, namely, the interaction of content and form in the process of composition formation, there are revealed the principles of their interaction in the art space of composition, there are considered the main compositional indicators in the art image. Comprehending the composition as a sequential process of realization of the content plan (meaning) into a concrete pictorial form, the artist cognizes it gradually, consistently moving to higher levels of cognition. In this continuous process, he/she acquires understanding of aesthetic values and professional knowledge related to the features of implementation of design in a specific compositional form (construction), which includes the necessary levels of artistic knowledge and skills. This requires from the artist the creative understanding of the world and continuous development of professional skills associated with the improvement of the content design and the graphic form of its realization. Modern philosophical researches of the problems of existence of artwork confirm that, in the visual arts, the content and form exist inseparably in a single creative process. Conditionality of the form by the content can be traced along the entire way of composition formation: from the formation of a meaningful idea to its material embodiment. The form exists for the expression of individual content, its figurative meanings and values; a relative independence of the form consists in that an adequate pictorial form always enriches the figurative meaning of the content. The semantic content of the work, expressed in an artistic-image system, carries a form as a way of reflection and understanding of reality. On the other hand, the form is always determined by the specificities of the content and is realized through the concrete compositional structure, which is one of the most important indicators of the artwork. The main components of the composite construction are the primary principles: commensuration and proportionality, integrity and organic form; balance and rhythm, unity and analogy, contrast and nuance, scale and flexibility, symmetry and asymmetry. Obviously, the described compositional components may be considered also in a different order; however, this does not change their functional significance in the artwork. It is important to remember that the interaction of form and content in the artistic work is impossible without the creative understanding of the basic principles of compositional construction.

Dynamics of language in the age of globalization: a social-philosophical analysis

A. I. Lager
Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Leningrad Prospect, 49, Moscow, 125993, Russia
Keywords: language, globalization, language and Internet, culture, language function, language dynamics, cultural and integrating role of language, socio-philosophical analysis of language

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The authorĺs aim is a socio-philosophical analysis of language dynamics as a basic element of culture in the era of globalization. The objective of the author is to unfold the specific character of language transformation in the modern anthropogenic civilization, to bring out the integrating role of language in the processes of globalization and to show its peculiarities in the Internet environment. The processes of globalization taking place in the modern civilization have a strong impact on all the spheres of social life. Language is a means of information accumulation and exchange. Through language the cultural heritage of the past is transmitted from generation to generation. Language is an intermediary between man and surrounding environment both of social and natural character. On this basis the subject of the article is philosophical aspects of language, as a cultural artifact, its functions, dynamics and role in the era of globalization. The period of globalization is characterized by a large number of new factors such as the unprecedented boom of technology advancement and mainly computer technologies. Due to the expansion and growth of the global Internet there has emerged a new language phenomenon - «Internet language╗. The modern globalized society distinguishes the English language as the main tool of the world intercultural communication. The vast expansion of the English language is unprecedented. The spread of the language spurs the information technologies and Internet development. The globalization of English fosters the spread of values of those countries where it is the official language. The growing processes of globalization promote the formation of «bilingual╗ language picture of the world and have a dual influence on language and culture. In the era of globalization it becomes complicated to predict the languageĺs future since its vitality is stipulated by controversial tendencies relevant to global processes. When it comes to the English language it becomes obvious that to ensure mutual understanding it is crucial to preserve language standards while the expansion of this language as a second one entails its fragmentation and emergence of its variations. The modern processes of cultural and informational exchange should primarily lead to the formation of common communication environment on the basis of relative language community and in view of preservation of the worldĺs cultural diversity.

A methodology of studying the educational-didactic units on the competence basis

A. Zh. Zhafyarov
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Novosibirsk, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Russia
Keywords: educational process on the basis of the competence-based approach, competence, a model of the competence formation for the educational-didactic unit

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There are developed the principles and an algorithm of studying EDU, an educational-didactic unit (topic, subject matter, etc.), which represent altogether a methodology of introducing the competence-based approach into the educational process. On its basis, there are constructed a model of formation of the basic competence in the given EDU. An alternative definition of «competence╗ is presented.The reasons are indicated that substantiate the necessity of transition to an education system built on the basis of the competence approach. 1. The state considers the competence approach as the methodology of modernization of the entire education system. 2. The standards of the third generation for the Bachelorĺs Degree and the Masterĺs Degree students require implementation of the competence approach into the educational process. 3. The postgraduates and the doctoral degree students of the psychological and pedagogical directions also need to conduct their research on the competence basis. 4. The education system, built on the competence basis, is more humane than the one based on the KS (knowledge-skills) basis. Indeed, in the KS system, such parameters as knowledge and skills are evaluated positively. However, the «KS-person╗ is the one who has «stopped╗, no longer continues to improve and upgrade their education. There are several reasons for the increase of the number of such people.The first, subjective, is a consequence of the KS system. This education system does not form: personality, striving for innovation and creativity, continuous self-education and self-improvement. The second reason (objective, independent of the particular individual) is connected with the increase of the rate of doubling of the scientific results of mankind. This period T during which the R & D results are doubled is variable. This period T was large when the said rate was negligible. At the end of the XX century this period was approximately 10 years. The XXI century is called «mad╗ for the reason that this period has become very small. For example, the period of doubling of the results in Informatics is 1,5 years; in Nanotechnology, 3-4 years, etc. The decrease of the period doubling of the research results generates an increase in the number of fundamentally new HT, high technologies. The consequences of HY are unique.

Methodological principles of studying the nutrition culture

M. V. Gavrilenko
Novosibirsk Military Institute of Interior Troops, Str. Key Kamyshenskoe plateau, 6/2, Novosibirsk, 630114, Russia
Keywords: food culture, local variants, ethnographic group, traditional food, model of nutrition

Abstract >>
The article considers the methodological principles of studying the nutrition culture as a set of local variants in the dynamics of transformations associated with the changes in social and domestic life and ethno-cultural interactions. The scientific discussions affecting various aspects of the nutrition culture are the result of a growing public interest in the subject. Various ethnic culturesshould be considered in the historical dynamics. Talking about food culture of specific ethnographic groups, we should raise the issues of adaptation and the main components of traditional nutrition systems. The traditional systems of nutrition gradually disappear. However, the environmental behavior of the ethnic group is still largely due to its food traditions and is determined by its economic and cultural activity. Thus, food and food culture are studied from different perspectives: historical, sociological, psychoanalytic, and ethnographic ones. Food is a part of the culture of life support. It is simultaneously an element of nature and a product of social activity. The specificities of nutrition affect the biological specificity of the person. The development of the techniques of obtaining, storing, preparing and eating food is a process that occurs in the field of material culture, but the structure and nature of the meal cannot be understood outside the context of the world-view and spiritual culture as a whole. The nutrition culture is understood by us as the use of food products (obtaining, preparation) in accordance with regulations, restrictions and norms, which are determined by the specifics of life activity of the ethnos. A regional approach allows selectingthe local communities of culture (local variants) and cultural complexes. In studying the food culture, there are also usedthe methods of field ethnography: the method of direct observation; comparative linguistic method, allowing revealing the characteristic features of the lexical group «food╗ in certain ethnic groups. Linguistic data enable to confirm the stability or volatility of food culture of local groups in connection with various kinds of cultural influences and innovations. The comparative-historical method is also important;it allows tracing the transformation of local food options, identifyingthe common and the specific in the nutrition of ethnic groups. The studying of traditional food as one of the most conservative elements of culture allows reconstructing and reviving some food traditions, makes it possible to carry out broad historical comparisons and come to certain conclusions about the general and specific elements in the system of peopleĺs nutrition.

Competence approach in modern education: a social-philosophical analysis

K. R. Stasyuk
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Vilyuiskaya str., 28, Novosibirsk, 630126, Russia
Keywords: competence approach, competence, education, fundamentalization, the content of education, the education system, modernization, continuity of education, Federal state educational standard

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The article emphasizes that the formation of competencies is done by the means of the content of education. The student develops the ability and opportunity to solve real problems in everyday life: from the everyday ones to the industrial and social. The competence approach corresponds to such modern requirements as providing continuous education. The author finds that the education system is built on the competitive basis; this is a new approach in education involving the creation of new teaching techniques and new methods of testing the effectiveness of training. The competence-based approach as a basis for renewal of the education system combines intelligent and skill components of education. These components are often unrelated, when knowledge is communicated in isolation from their use in practical situations. Into the concept of competence there is put a new ideology of interpretation of the content of education formed on the basis of result. The meaning of the application of the competence approach in education is that in the course of training there is developed the ability to solve problems in different spheres and types of activities based on the use of social experience, the element of which is the own experience of the students. In Russia, the requirement of readiness for change is specified in the requirements preparation for life, in the situation of transition to the civil society with market economy. The competence-based approach focuses on the construction of educational process according to the results of education: the curriculum initially includes the parameters and descriptions of what the learner will know and be able to do after graduation. While the traditional qualification meant the functional correspondence between the requirements of the employer and the objectives of education, whereas the training was reduced to assimilation by the students of the more or less standard set of knowledge, skills − the competence involves the development in man's ability to orientate in the variety of complex and unpredictable work situations, to have ideas about the consequences of own actions and be responsible for them, which is based on receiving fundamental scientific knowledge during training. Today the level of education is not determined by the volume of knowledge and their encyclopedic character. From the positions of the competence approach, the level of education is determined by the ability to solve problems of various complexities on the basis of knowledge. This approach does not deny the value of knowledge, but it focuses on the ability to use this knowledge.

Transcript of Webinar "Modern educational standards: opinions, ideas, suggestions"

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