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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 5

1.
Stability of coherent vortex Bessel beams during propagation in turbulent atmosphere

I.P. Lukin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: Bessel beam, vortex beam, optical radiation, atmospheric turbulence, mean intensity

Abstract >>
The question of stability of the vortex Bessel beams formed in turbulent atmosphere is theoretically considered. In the given research, characteristics of spatial structure of distribution of mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams in an inhomogeneous medium are analyzed in detail. The quantitative criterion of possibility of formation of vortex Bessel beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived. On the basis of the analysis of behavior of several physical parameters of mean intensity of optical radiation it is shown that the stability of the form of a vortex Bessel beam during propagation in turbulent atmosphere increases with an increase of the value of a topological charge of this beam.
																								



2.
Suitability of the approximation criterion for distribution of the harmonic signal probability density in independent samples. 1. Model experiment

N.A. Vostretsov, A.F. Zhukov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: criterion approximation, density of probabilities, dependent and independent samples, harmonic signal

Abstract >>
The probability density fluctuations of the harmonic signal at the change of its frequency and time between elements of samples have been measured in a model experiment. The possibility of the use of the criterion of the first output from the field of comparison for the approximation of the distributions of probability density fluctuations of harmonic signal is studied. Its suitability for measurements in dependent and independent samples is shown.
																								



3.
Fourier-spectroscopy of water vapor in the aerogel nanopores volume. Part 1. Measurements and calculations

A.M. Solodov1, T.M. Petrova1, Yu.N. Ponomarev1, A.A. Solodov1, V.I. Starikov2,3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia 634050
3Yurginskiy Technological Institute (branch) of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 652055, Kemerovo region, Jurga, st. Leningrad, 26
Keywords: water vapor, spectral line broadening, aerogel, nanopores

Abstract >>
Wall-collision broadening and shift of the water vapor absorption lines was measured within 5000-5600 cm–1 with the IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer. It has been shown, that tight confinement of the molecules by the nanopores of silica aerogel leads to the strong lines broadening and shift. The half-widths at half maximum of spectral lines of the water vapor under nano-environment are on the average 23 times larger than those for the free molecules at a pressure of 10 mbar. A model that simulates the absorption profile of H2O molecule, confined in nanopores, is presented. It assumes that half-width Γ of the absorption H2O molecule is a sum of two parts, ΓWall and Γif. The first part, ΓWall, is connected with the wall collisions and it gives the main contribution to the half-width for all absorption lines. The best correlation between experimental and calculated half-widths is obtained when the second rotationally depended part, Γif, is connected with the collisions between (H2O) molecules having (in comparison with free H2O molecules) modified electro-optical parameters due to influence of pore’s surface. The data on the half-widths and center shifts for some strongest H2O lines have been presented. The agreement between calculated and experimental half-width is satisfactory.
																								



4.
Laser diagnostics of equilibrium CO2 : N2 gas mixture

K.I. Arshinov1, O.N. Krapivnaya1, V.V. Nevdakh2
1Institute of Technical Acoustics, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Vitebsk, Belarus, Belarus, 210023, Vitebsk, prosp. Lyudnikova, 13
2Belarusian National Technical University, Belarus, 220013, Minsk, ul. Ya. Kolasa, 13
Keywords: СО2 laser, absorption coefficient, multifrequency probing

Abstract >>
The technique and the results of the determination of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and its temperature in a vibrationally equilibrium gas mixture CO2 : N2 at a pressure that provides for the Lorentz contour of the absorption line and on the basis of the spectral distribution of the unsaturated absorption coefficient at lines of 100-0001 transition of a tunable CO2 laser are presented.
																								



5.
Intercomparison of radiosonde and ground-based remote measurements of temperature profiles in the troposphere

N.A. Zaitsev, Yu.M. Timofeyev, V.S. Kostsov
Saint Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: ground-based microwave remote sensing, tropospheric temperature

Abstract >>
The ground-based experiment on microwave temperature sounding of the troposphere by the RPG-HATPRO instrument performed at the Faculty of Physics, St.Petersburg State University, since June 2012 is described. On the basis of intercomparison of the results with radiosonde data the estimates have been obtained of the temperature retrieval errors for the algorithm which was developed by the manufacturer of the instrument. The errors have been compared with corresponding values for similar instruments functioning abroad. The conclusion has been made about the necessity to develop specialized algorithms and data processing procedures which include adaptation and correction of algorithms accounting for peculiarities of specific instrument and experimental conditions.
																								



6.
The study of possibilities of lidar measurements of the Earth atmosphere temperature from the space

V.N. Marichev1,2, D.A. Bochkovskii1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: space, atmosphere, space apparatus (spacecraft), lidar, vertical distribution of temperature

Abstract >>
In the article, the analysis of lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature in the UV spectral region from the international space station was performed. As a lidar transmitter, a solid Nd:YAG laser with 3 and 4 harmonics radiation (wavelengths of 355 and 266 nm) was taken. Using a lidar operating at 355 nm with the available parameters at the 10% level of measurement error, the altitude range from 20 to 70 km at night (the calculations were not carried out below) can be covered. For a small field of view of a receiving aperture of about 0.1 mrad and narrow-bandwidth filters of about 1 nm, temperature measurements are implementable in the range 20–40 km during the day and 20–70 km at twilight time. Despite the large signals obtained at a wavelength of 266 nm, its use is not possible due to the influence of lidar radiation absorption by ozone. The latter, when calculating the temperature from the measured lidar signals due to the systematic errors, leads to its false deviations from the actual values.
																								



7.
Specificity of formation of the Antarctic and Arctic ozone anomalies

V.V. Zuev, N.E. Zueva, E.S. Saveljeva
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: ozone hole, polar vortex, vertical profiles of temperature, polar stratospheric clouds, hydrogen chloride, Erebus volcano

Abstract >>
The conditions of formation of spring ozone anomalies in the Arctic and Antarctic are compared. It is shown that the distinction between polar ozone anomalies is due to a significant difference in the velocity and stability of the southern and northern polar vortices, as well as to the Antarctica’s Mount Erebus volcano, which is the powerful source of HCl. The paper describes the nature of its volcanogenic activity and the mechanism of the volcanogenic gas emissions transport to the Antarctic stratosphere.
																								



8.
On results of studies of atmospheric aerosol optical depth in Arctic regions

S.M. Sakerin1, S.Yu. Andreev1, D.M. Kabanov1, S.V. Nikolashkin2, A.N. Prakhov3, V.F. Radionov3, Yu.S. Turchinovich1, D.G. Chernov1, B.N. Holben4, A. Smirnov4, M.G. Sorokin4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave
3Federal State Budgetary Institution "Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute", 38 Bering str., St.Petersburg, Russia, 199397
4NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Keywords: Arctic, aerosol optical depth, annual behavior, spatial distribution

Abstract >>
We discuss characteristics of the spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the atmosphere, measured using sun photometers in high-latitude regions (Spitsbergen, Tiksi, Yakutsk). The seasonal variations are characterized by a decrease in AOD from spring to fall by approximately two times in Yakutia and 1.5 times in the region of Spitsbergen. It is shown that the high selectivity of the spectral AOD dependence in warm period (with Angstrom parameters varying from 1.3 to 1.8) was caused by low content of coarse aerosol. Based on long-term that satellite observations systematically overestimate AOD over Arctic seas.
																								



9.
Variability of concentrations of main pollutants in London

A.M. Zvyagintsev1, I.N. Kuznetsova2, O.A. Tarasova3, I.Yu. Shalygina2
1Central Aerological Observatory, 3, Pervomayskaya str., Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700, Russia
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
3World Meteorological Organization, 7bis, avenue de la Paix, Case postale 2300, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland
Keywords: air quality in London, primary and secondary air pollutants, periodic and aperiodic variability, weekend effect, air pollution episodes

Abstract >>
The main features of periodic and long-term variability of concentrations of ozone and other pollutants (nitrogen oxides NOx, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, particulate matters PM10 and PM2.5) in London for 2000–2012 are determined. The level of pollution in London is comparable with that in Moscow. The secondary pollutant (ozone) displays a seasonal variation with a maximum in spring-summer. All primary pollutants (other pollutants) reach the maximum in winter and the minimum in summer. During daytime, diurnal variations of primary and secondary pollutants are opposite, it is seen most clearly in summer. This fact shows the main role of vertical mixing in diurnal and seasonal variability of concentrations of all these pollutants. Weekday-weekend effect is observed for all pollutants. Some statistics of pollution episodes is presented. Concentrations of primary pollutants during 2000–2012 rather decreased, especially for SO2 and CO; ozone concentration sooner slightly increased.
																								



10.
Nephelometric method for measuring mass concentrations of urban aerosols and their respirable fractions

S.A. Lysenko, M.M. Kugeiko
Belarusian State University, 4, Nezavisimosti avenue, 2200301, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: urban aerosol, mass concentration, nephelometric method, multiple regressions

Abstract >>
A method has been proposed for determining the mass concentration of airborne particles with sizes ≤ 1, ≤ 2.5, ≤ 10, and > 10 mm by measuring the light scattering coefficients of the investigated air at wavelengths λ1 ≤ 0.55 and λ2 ≥ 1.0 mm and scattering angles θ1 ≤ 5° and θ2 = 15 ÷ 45°. Mass concentrations of airborne particles are calculated on the basis of their stable statistical relationships with measured coefficients. Analytical expressions, approximating those statistical relationships, have been obtained on the basis of optical-microphysical model of urban aerosol, adopted by World Meteorological Organization, with varying concentrations, size distribution parameters, and complex refractive index of the particles of aerosol components (soot, water–soluble and dust). Statistical relationships obtained in the modeling approach have been compared with independent numerical and experimental data. The errors of the developed method in the overall variability of urban aerosol microphysical parameters have been evaluated.
																								



11.
Change of seawater fluorescence properties when mixing with crude oil

P.A. Saluk1, I.M. Doroshenkov2, O.A. Bukin2,3, E.B. Sokolova2,3, E.N. Baulo4
1V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
2Admiral G.I. Nevelskoy Maritime State University, Vladivostok, Verkhneportovaya street, Building 50a, 690059, Russia
3Institute of Automation and Control Prosesses Far Easten Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 5 Radio Street, Vladivostok, 690041
4Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University, Vladivostok, Russia, 52B, ul. Lugovaja, 690087, Primorsky Territory, Vladivostok
Keywords: crude oil, fluorescence, seawater

Abstract >>
The fluorescence features of seawater with dissolved crude oil components during continuous 13-days mixing of water and oil are considered. Four specific fluorescence peaks are identified. Two of them are connected with content of poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and other two peaks, with high molecular organic compounds. It is shown that the fluorescence spectrum of dissolved components of crude oil is not constant. Spectral features which are good for identification of dissolved crude oil in seawater are selected.
																								



12.
Determination of optoelectronic precipitation gauge calibration characteristics

A.A. Azbukin, V.V. Kalchikhin, A.A. Kobzev, V.A. Korolkov, A.A. Tikhomirov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: optical precipitation gauge, calibration, drop size

Abstract >>
The main characteristics of the optoelectronic dual-channel precipitation gauge optical channels are presented, as well as the results of laboratory experiments and preliminary field tests. The procedure for determining the calibration characteristics using 5 mm steel balls is proposed, it allows minimizing the error due to imperfections in the device optical system. The results of fluid volume measurements show that the precipitation measurement error in the laboratory does not exceed 5%. Preliminary results of field measurements are presented in the form of precipitation particle size distributions, intensity changes, and calculated precipitation sums.
																								



13.
Convective water cell as a model of long optical path

V.A. Kulikov, A.V. Shmakov, O.V. Fedorova
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: optical paths, turbulence, dispersion of intensity fluctuations

Abstract >>
We learned statistics of intensity fluctuations after laser radiation propagation through a convective water cell. We demonstrated the similarity of water cell fluctuations and fluctuations of atmospheric long path by using normalized dispersion and Rytov index. Numerical simulations of both long and short paths have been performed with taking into account the probability density function. We showed that a water cell can served a laboratory physical model of long atmospherical optical paths.
																								



14.
To Vasily Grigoryevich Fesenkov's 125 anniversary