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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2014 year, number 1


I.R. Sokolovskiy
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Siberia, Belarus, communication, Lithuania, population, fi ghting, garrisons, XVII-XVIII century

Abstract >>
Muscovy and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the Polish- Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Grand Duchy owned some Russian and Belarusian lands) were states derived from the same root - the culture of Kievan Rus’. In the course of their historical development their paths significantly diverged which was the reason for both the mutual understanding and mutual misunderstanding between the subjects of both states. In 1632, Russian troops blocked the Smolensk fortress, defended by the Polish garrison and forces of “pospolite ruszenie” assembled by the neighboring gentry. Russian army was commanded by Mikhail Borisovich Shein, who was the commandant of Smolensk in 1607-1611 and defended it from the Poles. Russians intensively shelled the fortress, but could not take the city. Polish army under the command of King Wladislaw IV came to Smolensk in September 1633. Russian troops were trapped. The Russian army surrendered in February 1634. The war ended, but two years of warfare caused the appearance in Siberia of significant group of people from the Belarusian lands. In August 1633 approx. 150 “Lithuanians” arrived at Tomsk. On June 14, 1634 a “ploughing peasant” Timothy Emelyanov Smolyanin accused them of plotting to kill Russian Cossacks and the Governor and then to escape in big number to the West in order to get back to “Lithuania”. Interrogation of suspects gave modest results. The majority said that they heard about the plot for the first time. However, the Governor took decisive action and ordered to hang 12 men, whom he considered the most dangerous. Then he sent to Moscow the investigation materials, which are the only historical source at our disposal. The essential part of these materials is published as an appendix to this article. In Siberia of 1630s prisoners were perceived ambiguous. On the one hand, they were not completely “strangers”, they had meaningful names and spoke in plain language. On the other hand, a large group of prisoners of war was perceived by the local population as a threat, so the locals demanded from the government to take steps in order to remove them from the city.


D.A. Ananyev
Institute of History of SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Russian Empire, Siberia, colonization, modernization, Ukranians, Poles, Belarussians, exile and penal labour

Abstract >>
In the course of several centuries a complex and multi-ethnic society was formed in Siberia. It comprised people of various nationalities, including descendants from Belarussian, Ukranian and Polish lands (before 1917 - Western outskirts of the Russian Empire). Researchers of Siberian history face the task of going into a more profound analysis of interethnic contacts and evaluating of the role played by different ethnic groups in colonization of the region. Along with Russian scholars this topic is actively studied by researchers from Poland, Belarus, Germany, USA and other countries. The author of the present paper aims at revealing main approaches applied by foreign researchers to studying historical links between Siberia and Western outskirts of the Russian Empire and defines prospects for future research. Having analyzed the range of problems studied by foreign researchers the author comes to conclusion that the most topical issues connected with descendants from Poland, Belarus and Ukraine in Siberia are the history of exile and penal labour; mass peasant migrations beyond the Ural; problems of ethnosocial and confessional development. Special attention is paid to the period of XIX - early XX centuries when Siberia experienced a huge influx of migrants from European Russia. During the last several decades the foreign historiography dealing with this topic witnessed a gradual shift from studying universal patterns of history (e.g., within a “modernization” approach) to a more close attention to ethno-cultural aspects of colonization, problems of “national identity”, specifics of “civilizational” development and “building an empire”. At the present stage a more profound analysis of the actual role played by Ukranians, Belarussians and Poles in Siberian colonization is possible on the basis of joint research projects combining efforts of representatives of various schools of scientific thought and trends in historiography.


I.P. Kamenetskiy
Institute of History of SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Belarusians, Siberia, “sovereign” service, economic management, adaptive abilities

Abstract >>
The paper deals with causes and pattern of migration of Belarusians to Siberia, their participation in accession and colonization of the region. It is shown that the main infl ux of Belorusians to Siberia in the XVII century was caused by the wars between Russia and Poland. Russian authorities in order to enlarge the military contingent beyond the Urals used military experts recruited from the prisoners of war and voluntary re-settlers from Belarusian lands. Among those who entered military service and held command positions preference was given to the well-born and belonging to the Orthodox Church. Natives of “Belaya Rus”, with combat experience were appointed by Moscow to command and ordinary assignments and sent to Siberia and other garrisons. It was found out that the service activities of the Belarusian “szlachta” P. Arshinsky, S. Kruglik and their descendants holding high positions in the Siberian “army” involved a wide range of responsibilities and critical assignments. These included participation in military campaigns, expeditions, embassies, various investigative and fiscal actions. Rank and fi le Belarusians were in foot troops and cavalry Cossack service, along with Russian soldiers collected tribute, erected strongholds, defended borders of the new Russian possessions. Along with military service Belarusians were actively involved in agricultural development of the region, had a significant amount of farmland and livestock. In their farms they used waged and bonded labor which products were sold at the local markets. Incorporation of Belarusians into the Siberian society was facilitated by the similarity between the Belarusian and Siberian frontiers as well as by their inhabitants’ cultural, religious and linguistic nearness. It is noted that as opposed to other descendants from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, integration of Belarusians in the Siberian society was more rapid and less painful.


N.S. Gurianova
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Russian Church, Kiev Metropolis, Schism, XVIII Century, Old Belief, manuscripts, printed editions, “Lithuanian” (“Litovskiye”) books, “Pomorian answers” (“Pomorskiye otvety”)

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The opponents of the liturgical reforms imposed by Patriarch Nikon appealed to Russian manuscripts and printed books of the Moscow Printing Yard to prove the illegality of changes in the rites and liturgical practices of the Russian Church. There was gradually formed a system of authoritative books of the Old Belief, made up of books that also were significant for the opponents. This circle includes miscellanies “Kirill’s Book” (“Kirillova kniga”) and “Book about Faith” (“Kniga o vere”), which were printed in Moscow but composed of the writings of Ukrainian and Belarusian Orthodox authors in the late XVI - early XVII centuries. The next generation of the Old Believers also appealed to the original texts, namely, so-called “Lithuanian” (“Litovskiye”) books printed on the territory of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. Old Believers used them to look for ideas and arguments to support their position. In the first quarter of the XVIII century these books were included in the circle of reputable sources. The article describes one of the methods used by Old Believers in order to give importance to “Lithuanian” (“Litovskiye”) books. Thus a large number of arguments in the “Pomorian answers” (“Pomorskiye otvety”) were references to editions printed by Orthodox printing houses of Kiev Metropoly, which were allocated into a special section titled “Belarusian” or “belorossiyskie” books. Vygovtsy used this term obviously guided by 1620 Decree which labeled the Orthodox population of the related Metropoly as “Belorustsy”. Patriarch Filaret called to treat them with great caution, as the living conditions in the heterodox environment contributed to some deviations from the true faith, while for the Old Believers in the early XVIII century the term “belorossiyskie” became synonymous with “Orthodox”, “true”, “right”.


I.G. Fedorov
Krasnoyarsk state pedagogical University named them. V.P. Astafyev, Russia, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Ada Lebedeva str., 89
Keywords: Siberian monasticism, natives of Belarus and Ukraine, the settlers, the history of everyday life

Abstract >>
Based on the documents of monasteries’ management and record keeping from the State Archive of the Krasnoyarsk Krai the article considers development of three Orthodox cloisters in the Yeniseisk diocese (formed in 1861) during the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. It highlights such aspects as sources of monasteries’financing, their contribution in development of public education and charity; analyzes educational level and regional origin of cenobits. The author studies population changes and reasons for which descendants from Western parts of Russian Empire settled in Siberia; shows how they influenced the organization of monastic life. The study is focused on the lives and activities of two outstanding descendants from Western governorates: the celibat priest Zosima who was the founder and first abbot of the Krasnoyarsk Uspensky monastery and Philaret - the founder and fi rst abbot of the Krasnoyarsk Znamensky monastery. In particular it describes how Philaret created the Znamenskiy monastery which became one of the most authoritative religious centers by the beginning of the XX century. In the monastery a school and asylum for disabled veterans of the World War I were established.


Ye.N. Tumanik
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: administration, management, description of Siberia, development of the Amur Region, the national policy of the Russian Empire

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to characteristics of historical sources newly introduced into scientific use and connected with the development of Eastern Siberia and annexation of the Amur river region in the middle of XIX century. The article shows Hector Bildzyukevich’s administrative activities in eastern Russia. He held a middle management position and arrived to Siberia from the territories of modern Belarus. Bildzyukevich came to Siberia voluntarily, as he wanted to be an employee under the leadership of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, Count N.N. Muraviev-Amurskiy and to participate in the development of the Amur region. Besides public service H. Bildzyukevich was actively involved in studying history, ethnography, statistics, geography, population, flora and fauna of the region. He made several drawings - panoramic views of Siberian settlements, natural objects, ethnographic and genre sketches, images of flora and fauna. He wanted to inform his fellow countrymen about the Eastern Siberia. As a result, he compiled “The Picturesque Album” - a systematized collection of essays and illustrative materials. The article details annotated illustrative component of “The Picturesque Album.” H. Bildzyukevich was a police chief (“zemskiy ispravnik”) in Gizhiga in the mid-1860s. The article analyzes his annual report and a memo dated from 1866. These documents relate to the problems of national policy of the Russian Empire in the Far North and the overall geopolitical situation in the eastern frontier of the country. H. Bildzyukevich tells about the economic and strategic significance of the region and opposes the principle of «national borderlands». He puts forward important initiatives for further integration of the Siberian indigenous ethnic groups into the Empire’s space and strengthening the State’s authority. This set of documents has been recently published. It will be useful for specialists in many areas of knowledge.


A. Kukharenka
Belarusian State University, Belarus, 220030, Minsk, Nezavisimosti avenue, 4
Keywords: Peasant Land Bank, archival documents, source study, credit, land management, charity

Abstract >>
The article aims at analysis of the original sources on the history of Belarusian local branches of the Peasant Land Bank, which are stored in the archives of the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania. The archival documents allow revealing distinctive features of the Peasant Land Bank activities aimed at solving a long-simmering agrarian question in Belarusian provinces. It is important to note, that currently there is a need for revision of the long-term approaches to studying the Peasant Land Bank activities, formulated in the Soviet historical science. Specifies of its activities in the territory of Belarus remain understudied in the contemporary scientific literature. This circumstance stipulates for the novelty of research topic. Besides, the theme of the research is not just soundly based on theory, but also has practical value that explains its topicality and the need for profound analysis. Special attention is drawn to the problem of interactions between local branches of the Bank and land surveying commissions. They established cooperation to mobilize land property and to raise farming standards. Besides, the role of the Peasant Land Bank in realization of the Stolypin agrarian reform in the territory of Belarus is shown.


A.M. Litvin
Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus, 220071, Minsk, Akademicheskaia str., 1
Keywords: organizers, leaders, Siberians partisans, partisan and underground struggle in Belarus, history of everyday life

Abstract >>
The article gives brief overview of the data on Siberians - natives and inhabitants of the Siberian region, as well as Belarusian Siberians, who made the significant contribution to the development of partisan movement and underground struggle in Belarus during the Great Patriotic War. Given examples testify that Siberians were involved in organization of partisan movement and the Party and Komsomol underground from the first days of the war. The examples also show the reasons for which Siberians appeared in the occupied territory of BSSR. Some of them lived or worked there during the prewar years, some served in the Western Special Military District armies, some arrived to Belarus after the beginning of the war as a part of detachments of the internal military districts of the Soviet Union. The other appeared in the occupied territory as a part of partisan groups and detachments, organizational and reconnaissance groups and raiding forces formed by the Central Committee of KP(B)B, the Central Committee of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (VLKSM), NKVD-NKGB, General Staff Reconnaissance Directorate of RKKA, Councils of War of fronts and armies. The examples given in the article testify that Siberians held important positions in the Party and Komsomol “underground” structure, were commanders and commissioners, chiefs of staff, commanders of squadrons and platoons of partisan formations (groups and brigades). Many of them fought as ordinary partisans and “underground” soldiers. Many of them were decorated with medals, five Siberians (including two Belarusians) were awarded for participation in partisan movement the ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union (two of them - posthumously). Three partisan groups had the name “Siberian”, one of the partisan brigades was named after its commander A.K.Flegontov. This research allows significantly to enrich our knowledge of the Siberians and Belarusian natives of Siberia contribution to organization and development of the partisan and underground struggle in Belarus (1941-1944).


M.V. Shilovskiy
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Siberian military formations, Byelorussian SSR, Siberian Military District, state decorations, honorifics

Abstract >>
Out of 60 divisions formed in 1939-1943 in the Siberian military district (Altay and Krasnoyarsk Regions, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kemerovo and Tomsk Oblasts) only 20 divisions took part in the combats for liberation of Byelorussia in 19431944. The term “Siberian major units” needs to be specified for the purpose of defining the share of “Sibiryaks” (natives of Siberian region or drafted into the army from there). As a rule in the course of intensive combat operations there was a considerable rotation of the military personnel and it was replaced not only with “Sibiryaks”. Apparently, the term “Siberian divisions” during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 had certain psychological and propagandist connotation as an element of psychological and moral support while handling the enemy. During the period of September, 1943 - February, 1944 the Soviet Army carried out hard fights in a westerly direction which resulted in liberation of the Upper Dnieper. Siberian divisions without the adequate fire support literally “gnawed through” the fortified lines and suffered huge losses. For the outstanding acts of bravery 65 Siberian soldiers were bestowed with the title “Hero of the Soviet Union”. Almost one third of them were decorated with this title posthumously. In the Belorussian strategic offensive operation “Bagration” (June 23 - August 29, 1944) 16 Siberian divisions took part which equaled approximately 10% from all large units employed in the four fronts. For participation in the battles conducted during the summer of 1944 57 Siberian soldiers were bestowed with the title of the “Hero of the Soviet Union”, 19 of them received it posthumously. At the time of accomplishing a feat 41 heroes were younger than 30, while 2 soldiers had just turned 18. 13 out of 16 Siberian divisions that took part in the operation “Bagration” were bestowed with high government decorations. On June 23, 1944 the Belorussian offensive operation began; on July 28 the red banner fl ared up over the ruins of the Brest fortress. Siberian soldiers and divisions formed in Siberian military district contributed signifi cantly to the liberation of the brotherly republic.


N.A. Kupershtokh
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Academician V.A. Koptyug, N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, the Siberian Branch of the USSR / Russian Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Sciences of the USSR / Russian Academy of Sciences

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The paper deals with the activity of Academician Valentin Afanasievich Koptyug (1931-1997) as a scientist in the fi eld of physical, synthetic and applied organic chemistry and also as an organizer of science in general. The author shows his role in organization of fundamental research of organic chemistry and training of scientific cadres and also in creation of new scientific institutions in the Siberian region during the 1980-1990s, his activity connected with maintaining the academic potential of Russia and Siberia in the post-Soviet period. Koptyug, Belarusian by nationality, disciple and follower of academician N.N. Vorozhtsov, realized his creative plans in the Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry. He defended his D. Sc. thesis and made significant contribution to fundamental research of physical, synthetic and applied organic chemistry. He was the founder of the scientific schools in the fi eld of organic chemistry and chemical informatics. For his scientific merits and contribution in the development of science he was elected acting member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (later - Russian Academy of Sciences) and awarded with many prestigious awards. Being the head of the Institute of Organic Chemistry in 1987-1997, the Academician Koptyug determined the Institute’s general strategy, based on the global trends in the development of science. In this period the Institute started to apply new physical methods, mathematical modeling and data bases in chemical research practice and to carry out experiments with advanced equipment. At the same time the Institute became an active participant in international projects in the field of organic chemistry. As Chairman of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences in 1980-1997, the academician V.A. Koptyug contributed to establishment of affiliates located in Tomsk, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Ulan-Ude and Yakutsk as scientifi c centers of the Siberian Branch. Owing to his initiative separate academic institutes in Kemerovo, Omsk and Tyumen were re-organized into research centers of Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In this years institutions with functions of research centers in Barnaul, Chita and Kyzyl were established. In the post-Soviet period the academician V.A. Koptyug developed a system of measures for saving the academic potential of Russia and Siberia, which remains relevant today.


D.G. Lin
Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, Belarus, 246019, Gomel, Sovetskaya str., 104
Keywords: urbanization, historical demography, rural and urban family, household, Republic of Belarus

Abstract >>
The article based on census materials analyzes the quantitative and qualitative changes in Belarusian rural families under the in uence of urbanization. The author proposes to use a typology applied for classication of households for family groups and subgroups. Such an approach extends the family statistics. The family structure was divided into 3 groups of families (simple nuclear, extended nuclear and compound families), which in turn have been divided into 9 subgroups. It was found that by 2009 there was an alignment of rural and urban families (3.0 persons). However, this alignment was not uniform in all components of the family structure. Major changes in family composition signi cantly affected a group of simple nuclear families. Here the number of families originating fr om one married couple with or without children has been decreasing continuously over time. The opposite is the dynamics in incomplete nuclear families (children with one parent) - their number has been steadily growing, but as to the equity level, the number of rural families is continuously lagging behind the number of urban ones. Thus, the research results show that the crisis in family sphere continues because of a growing proportion of single-parent families wh ere the children are brought up without one of their parents. We calculated the average size of families in each of the distinguished family subgroups. We show that in general the size of rural families in subgroups is not lower than in urban ones. So it is concluded that the concordance in the average size of urban and rural families is due to the different equity level of subgroups forming a general family structure. If we standardize the territorial family structures, the average rural family size will be higher. Major “losses” in the actual size of a rural family are brought by a high proportion of simple nuclear families without children (in rural areas the share of such families is more than 10% higher compared to the same share in urban areas). Thus, changes in the structure of rural family in Belarus, based on the convergence of rural and urban patterns of marital behavior, strongly suggests that the urbanization process in the village is still ongoing.


K.S. Razuvanova
Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus, 220071, Minsk, Akademicheskaia str., 1
Keywords: national minorities, Belarusian Diaspora, the Russian Federation, national-cultural societies, national identity, historiography

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the main problems and prospects of studying the status of Belarusian Diaspora in the Russian Federation at the turn of the XX - XXI centuries. The introductory part of the article describes the basic features and possible consequences of the impact of the national question on international relations. It also shows the importance and severity of relations between nations in the modern world. The author characterizes the current status of the Belarusian minority in Russia in contemporary geopolitical processes, their impact on preservation of Belarusians national identity in the Russian Federation. Noting the existence and use of such different concepts as «diaspora», «fraternity», «partnership» etc. in regard to Belarusians and their national-cultural organizations in Russia, the author shows differences in key concepts and terms used by researchers studying this problem. Attention was also paid to historiography on the status of Belarusian national minority and national-cultural organizations of Belarusians existing in Russia nowadays. In particular, it reviews the main subjects of publications and highlights the most important works containing materials about the activities of national-cultural organizations of Belarusians. The author studies the most important periodicals considering them a special type of sources on the history and activities of Belarusian national-cultural communities; notes the journalists’ role and contribution to studying the problem. The main approaches and problems of historiography along with the most important materials and works on the history of the problem are listed. Based on the research results the author offers an optimal model and methodological basis for further study of the current status of Belarusian Diaspora in Russia. In particular, the key trends and issues that should be considered in the future study are outlined. The need for interdisciplinary approach and application of methods and principles of social, ethnic, and political psychology is indicated.


Ye.V. Komleva
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Siberia, Byelorussians, historiography, cross-cultural interaction, migration processes

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The paper presents analysis of contemporary Russian historiography on the history and culture of Byelorussians in Siberia. It is noted that for the last twenty years the history and culture of Byelorussians in Siberia has been studied within several fields of knowledge: folklore studies, ethnography, historical demography, history of settlement and development of Siberia, biographic and local history. The author characterizes key publications of the recent years dealing with different aspects of the Byelorussians’ role in colonization and socioeconomic development of the region. New problems and methodological approaches to the subject in contemporary Russian historiography on the history of Byelorussians in Siberia have been analyzed. Certain complications for researchers have been revealed: the problem of identification of Byelorussians among the whole Siberian population in the XVI-XIX centuries, the lack of methods allowing revealing the Byelorussian folklore sources belonging to the early period. The paper focuses on the integration efforts of various specialists - both from Russia and Byelorussia. Prospects for further investigation are outlined, including such topics as migration links between the populations of Byelorussia and Siberia, economic practices brought by Byelorussians to Siberia, cross-cultural interaction and succession of traditions, as well as development of local history studies dealing with the role of Byelorussians in the history of some Siberian cities and villages.


O.N. Shelegina
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: ethnocultural heritage of Belarusians, Siberian museums, museum collections, museumification of cultural heritage, intergovernmental scientific and museum projects, actualization of heritage in the era of globalization

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Studying the ethno-cultural heritage of Belarusians in Siberia is crucial for its consolidation, introduction into scientific and information environment as well as for its judicious use in communications between Siberian and Belarusian museums and conducting the comparative historical and museological studies. Modern forms of actualization of ethno-cultural heritage of Belarusians in Siberia are revealed based on the analysis of museum collections and scientific and museographic publications. Among these forms are joint Russian and Belarusian works on history and ethnography («Belarusians in Siberia: Preservation and Transformation of Ethnic Culture»); creation and exhibition of museum collections that refl ect Belarusian culture in the second settlement area of the Belarusian people (Altai, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, and Irkutsk regional museums of local lore); cataloging the collections («Culture of Eastern Slavs in the Collections of Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of Omsk State University»); museumification of cultural heritage (project of reconstruction and museumification of Belarusian estate in the Taltsy Museum of Architecture and Ethnography); and publication of memoirs of the descendants of “armoured boyars”, i.e., Belarusians involved in colonization of Siberian territories. Siberian museums preserve everyday objects of the descendants from the Mogilev, Gomel, and Vilna Governorates (the late XIX - early XX century); photographs depicting daily life in rural villages of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940-1950) and cultural and household traditions of Belarusians in Siberia (1960). Creation of an information system “Ethnocultural heritage of Belarusians in Siberia” and an integrated online catalogue of Belarusian collections in Siberian museums, as well as implementation of intergovernmental scientific and museum projects are considered perspective ways of cultural heritage actualization in the era of globalization.


A.I. Razdorskiy
National library of Russia, Russia, 191069, St. Petersburg, Sadovaya str., 18
Keywords: fur trade, fur industry, trade colonization, Siberia, P. N. Pavlov, customs books, economic history

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The paper gives a detailed analysis of monographs by historian P.N. Pavlov (1921-1974) “Fur trade in Siberia in the XVII century” and “Trade colonization of Siberia in the XVII century”, published in Krasnoyarsk in 1972 and 1974. Pavlov’s contribution to studying the development of fur trade in Siberia is noted. Much attention is paid to the historical sources Pavlov used in his research, first of all to the books of Siberian custom houses which were the main primary sources for studying this specific subject. The author describes techniques applied by Pavlov for processing these historical sources; cites the scholar’s conclusions about completeness and reliability of information contained in custom-houses’ books. The statistics received by Pavlov in the course of studying the custom-houses’ books and other sources (on the price of Siberian furs, share of various animals’ fur production in the total output; share of furs in the state budget) are listed. Pavlov’s contribution to research of technological and economic aspects fur trade is considered. Historian’s conclusions about the process of peasant and trade colonization of Siberia, “yasak” policy, state’s attitude to the private fur trade, relationships between the Russian fur traders and local population, practices of using the hunting areas are described. Pavlov’s views on the territorial origins of fur traders, evolution of small commodity production and large business and on the essence of “pokruta” in the Siberian fur trade are presented.


N.Yu. Pivovarov
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Tsentrosoyuz, Zakupsbyt, Moscow union of consumer societies, Siberian cooperatives, consumer cooperatives, cooperative unions, shareholders, federal management, centralized management, Moscow, Siberia

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The article is aimed at studying the history of relations between the two largest Russian cooperative unions - the Moscow Union of Consumer Societies (since 1917 - Tsentrosoyz), that was an All-Russian cooperative association, and the Union of Siberian Cooperative Unions (Zakupsbyt) comprised of the Siberian consumer cooperatives. Based primarily on archival documents and materials from periodicals the author concludes that the Moscow Union of Consumer Societies, founded in 1898, became the first Russian cooperative union with centralized organizational structure consisting of consumer societies and cooperative unions. However criticism of the Moscow Union’s internal structure along with dissatisfaction of local authorities with its trade and distribution policies led to the fact that in 1916 the leaders of Siberian cooperative unions decided to organize their own Siberian center of consumer cooperatives - Zakupsbyt. It was an organization alternative to the Moscow Union as it had a decentralized (“federated”) organizational structure, leaving a large amount of authority for shareholders. However, due to exacerbation of the socioeconomic crisis, management of the Union of Siberian cooperative unions was forced to make transition from a federated to a centralized system of control. In 1916 - 1919 contacts between Zakupsbyt and Tsentrosoyuz encompassed a wide range of activities - from mutually beneficial agreements to direct competition for the markets and procurement of goods. The keynote of relations between the two cooperative unions was competition for consumers, which was hidden behind the official slogans stating the two supposedly alternative ways of the Russian cooperative movement development


Y.V. Kotyk
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Ukraine, 21008, Vinnytsia, Solnechnaia str.,3
Keywords: tax bodies, tax courses, People’s Commissariat of Finance, provincial finance department, People’s Commissariat of Food Supply, professional training, Kiev Institute of National Economy

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The article is devoted to the problem of formation of tax bodies in the USSR during the NEP, which is understudied in the historical science. On the basis of archival materials the activity of Soviet government in Ukraine is disclosed with the purpose of training and improving professional skills of tax officials during the NEP. In 1921-1922 the issue of high-quality staff training of the bodies of People’s Commissariat of Food Supply of the USSR was a priority for the Soviet authorities under conditions of hyperinflation and goods famine. It was resolved owing to the temporary use of experienced “old” experts and training of new personnel even though it was resource- and time-consuming. Being unable to organize a comprehensive and fundamental training of financial personnel by means of re-opening higher educational institutions within the shortest possible time, the government established the tax training courses under support of provincial food supply committees for the specialists in the field of food taxation. Organization of food taxation courses in Ukraine was a rather large scale campaign. Since the beginning of monetary reform in 1922 the Soviet government raised requirements to professional training of tax personnel in the structure of the People’s Commissariat of Finance of Ukraine. The fundamental nature of educational process made the Bolsheviks at first to resort to the “services” of financiers of the “old school”(as it was in the case of the People’s Commissariat of Food). Training of tax staff by the People’s Commissariat of Finance, unlike the People’s Commissariat of Food, actually began only in 1923, but it was more ambitious and enduring. Tax courses were organized at the central, regional and provincial levels and lasted from six to eight months. The courses were attended primarily by the members of the Party and those who came of the workers and peasants’ families. However, in 1923 there appeared negative tendencies in the work of tax bodies in the USSR: purges were initiated, in particular, dismissals of politically unreliable people.


V.A. Kalinin
JSC Gazprom Neft STC, Russia, 190000, St. Petersburg, Galernay str., 5
Keywords: Transpolar Railway, GULAG, theater troupes, Stalin’s purges, cultural work among the masses

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A unique prison camp subculture that can be characterized as compensational-creative mechanism of individual adaptation and self-realization under extreme conditions of imprisonment emerged along with formation and development of the Soviet criminal-executive system, with expansion of the USSR NKVDMVD prison camp and settlement network. Many on-stage performance groups functioned as an element of cultural and educational work in GULAG prison camps. One of the brightest phenomena related to the post-war period of the GULAG’s history in the sphere of ideological and cultural work among the masses was the emergence of theatre and music organizations under the guidance of the Northern Administration of Railroad Construction Prison Camps that built the Trans-Polar Railway Chum (Vorkuta) - Salekhard - Igarka. The Musical-Dramatic Theater of the Northern Administration of Railroad Construction Prison Camps that emerged in 1947 (upon an initiative of the senior managers of the grandiose construction project) at the premises of cultural and educational establishments of Pechora Correctional Labor Camps reached its prime by 1950. The theater was high in demand among prison camp administrators, most notably as a means of entertainment for the constriction managers and civilians. Only a few performances were intended for the prisoner population. Plays and shows were staged at prison camps as a reward for best workers, in order to create a compensational mechanism even if limited in its scale for people working under extreme climatic conditions, as an element of relaxation and cultural activities. The theater was included into the system working under the guidance of Cultural and Educational Department. When the adjusted mechanism of construction became ineffective and the great infrastructure project was localized in areas with minimal industrial production activities, the theater was quickly closed. It was viewed as a rudiment of the past that for some reason had survived after the period of rapid construction development. The theater was closed in 1950, and two years later the construction of Transpolar Railway was completely abandoned.


R.Ye. Romanov
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Siberian rear, defense industry, young workers, monetary incentives, wages

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The paper is devoted to the role of monetary incentives in stimulation of industrial activities of the young workers of Siberian defense enterprises during the Great Patriotic War. The author analyzes dynamics, disproportion in the wage level of young workers as well as their relation to the existed differentiation in wages. Changes in the average amount of salary of factory apprentices and workers (particularly as young as 25) are revealed. The author also shows the use of time-based payment, piece-rate pay and progressive forms of payment as well as correlation of these forms of stimulating wages at the large enterprises of the region. In addition, it shows the differences in wage levels depending on the conditions, type, scope and quality of work of the low-and high-paid categories of young workers - low-skilled workers and highly skilled workers (Stakhanovites). This paper also deals with application of monetary encouraging bonus system of the Stakhanovite labor characterized by high performance. At the same time the living conditions of wartime decreased the role of salaries in sustainment of young workers due to the growth of market prices and fi scal pressure from the state in general. However, normalized distribution of food and manufactured goods grew into a sort of commodity-money exchange, which at the same time rendered complete devaluation of wages impossible from the young workers’ viewpoint. Accordingly, money wages maintained their value and played an important role in survival of the young workers during the war. Nonpayment or delayed payment of wages could trigger their negative reaction and lead to a breach of labor discipline. However, in general the monetary rewards ceased to play a separate role in material stimulation of their work, because the actual employment earnings depended on the system of rationing distribution.


A.A. Dolgolyuk
Institute of History of the SB RAS, Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Siberia, builders, personnel, production personnel, the dynamics of number

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The article characterizes the staffing situation in the building industry of Siberia after the Soviet victory in the World War II; identifies factors which led to increase in number of new workers in the building organizations. The reasons behind this were, in author’s opinion, the growth of investment activities along with low level of mechanization in construction industry. The situation in the labor-market of Siberia and the USSR in general is characterized in connection with losses of population during the Great Patriotic War and large-scale reconstruction of the Soviet economy. During the fourth five-year plan there was an outflow of many retirees and house-wives; young people also left the construction sites in order to continue education. The majority of workers who had been previously mobilized to the construction industry returned to their homes. The author estimates the scale of forced labor in the building organizations; describes problems connected with using the POWs, internees and prisoners as labor force. In this paper dynamics of the number Siberian workers in the postwar decade by certain categories of industrial personnel and economic regions, “krais” and “oblasts” are traced. The author gives examples of formation of several thousand strong collectives in Siberian construction industry. Growth rates of Siberian construction workers during the fourth (1946-1950) and fi fth (1951-1955) five-year plans are calculated. The author describes specifics of sectoral structure of employment in the areas of new industrial development, where the share of builders was particularly high; notes accelerated growth in number of workers as compared with the national average rate; points at concentration of workers in certain production units which increased the share of Siberian workers in the total number of Russian construction workers.


L.G. Shuhay
Cherkasy National University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Ukraine, 18031, Cherkassy, b.Shevchenko, 81
Keywords: agriculture, agrarian reforms, food crisis, cultivation of virgin and fallow lands, indigenous population, grain production

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The article investigates the state of agriculture in the Soviet Union and in particular in Kazakhstan on the eve and at the beginning of realization phase of the Communist Party policy aimed at virgin and fallow lands development in 1953 - 1954. The author analyzes circumstances of management reshuffle in the Republic. The food crisis that struck the Soviet Union after World War II is also considered. The problem of providing the population with bread was very urgent. Soviet Union’s new leadership under N.S. Khrushchev had to take immediate actions. The paper analyzes two possible solutions of the problem: agrarian reform could be conducted with either intensive or extensive methods. The first variant foresaw a profound transformation of relations of production, i.e. transition to the market mechanisms, including private interest that was attainable only after privatization of property, and above all - after establishment of private land ownership. The author emphasizes that the System chose an extensive model of problem’s solution for the purpose of self-preservation. A sharp increase in grain production was planned in order to soften (and then to resolve) the food crisis. In this regard, the government set a course for ploughing the huge land masses in the eastern areas of the country, i.e. “cultivation of virgin lands”. The largest-scale ploughing was to be done in Northern Kazakhstan. The key political figures of that time (among them were H.A. Borkov, Zh. Sh. Shayakhmetov, P.K. Ponomarenko, L.I. Brezhnev) are described in the article on the basis of publications and memoirs written by the prominent statesmen. The author reveals interrelations between Khrushchev’s virgin lands program and state and party leadership change in Kazakhstan.


A.D. Protasov, A.Y. Tokmakova
Tyumen State University, Russia, 625003, Tyumen, Lenin str., 23
Keywords: M.M. Korbut, pre-revolutionary insurance of workers, labor legislation, Police Department, historian’s fate, historiography

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M. Korbut (1899-1937), so called “Red Professor” from Êàzan, significantly contributed to the Russian school of historical science and authored over 120 works. His fields of interest included the Red Revolution, Russian Provisional government and its labor legislation, as well as Kazan University history. The article focuses on the pre-revolutionary Russia labor insurance which was of a particular interest for the historian. The authors tracked down and analyzed over 100 works published by Michael Korbut on the issue, as well as a number of contemporary publications on the researcher’s fate and historical heritage. The study results in evaluating the historian’s contribution to research of the workers’ compensation insurance as well as specifi cs of his discourse under the circumstances of cultural and ideological pressure imposed on science in the 1920s-1930s. M.Korbut’s main accomplishment was first publication of the archives and data on the Police Department’s participation in the insurance policy. The authors of the article reviewed a number of opinions that later led to criticism and oblivion of the researcher by the Soviet historiography. Finally, the researcher was sentenced to death as it was obvious to the official ideologists that he supported the workers’ compensation insurance conducted by the tsarist government. Moreover, he sympathized with victims of the political struggle in the USSR. The paper contributes to research of workers’ insurance history as well as to studying life and scientific heritage of the suppressed scientists.