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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 3

Retrieving of atmospheric aerosol characteristics from data of a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer

M.A. Sviridenkov1, K.S. Verichev1, S.S. Vlasenko2, A.S. Emilenko1, E.F. Mikhailov2, E.Yu. Nebosko2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Physical faculty Saint Petersburg State University (SPSU), Ulianovskaya Street, 1, Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: aerosol, scattering, integrating nephelometer, inverse problem

Abstract >>
Possibilities of retrieving a true value of the volume scattering coefficient and particle size distribution from data of a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer are analyzed. Two approaches to evaluation of the ratio of the true scattering coefficient to the measured one are suggested. The results of comparison of the aerosol microstructure from data of simultaneous measurements by means of integrating nephelometer and nephelometer-polarimeter PhAN are presented. The PhAN data were compared with measurements by a differential mobility analyzer.

The use of the linear estimation method in determination of integral parameters of atmospheric aerosol from spectral measurements of its optical depth

A.S. Suvorina, I.A. Veselovskii, M.Yu. Korenskii, A.V. Kolgotin
Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow, Vavilov Str., 38
Keywords: atmospheric aerosol (aerosols in atmosphere), retrieve of atmospheric aerosol parameters, linear estimation method

Abstract >>
Linear estimation method is used to determine the integral parameters of atmospheric aerosol, such as volume density and effective radius from the spectra of aerosol optical depth measured by a sun photometer. For approbation of the method, three-month series of optical depth at seven wavelengths for four cites of AERONET network characterized by different aerosol types: urban, biomass burning, desert dust, and marine, were chosen. Comparison of the results with retrievals from standard AERONET algorithm shows a good agreement between two methods. However, linear estimation technique allows retrieving time series of particle parameters from direct sun measurements with a high temporal resolution of about several minutes. This method can be used in the instruments that do not provide angular scanning of sky radiance, e.g., the PFR/GAW sun photometers network.

Relationship between aerosol parameters in Central Russia with air masses

A.A. Isakov, A.V. Tikhonov
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: near surface aerosol, mass concentration, condensation activity, back trajectories

Abstract >>
According to the results of long-term measurements in the Moscow region, relationships between the parameters of the near-surface aerosol and directions of air masses arrival were analyzed. he results of 2004, 2006, 2007, 2010, and 2011 were taken into consideration. The data were obtained by means of the spectropolarimeter, and three-days back trajectories were calculated using a standard NOAA HYSPLIT program. All the possible directions of air masses coming were divided into eight sectors, and belonging of the trajectory to the sector was determined by its initial point and trajectory shapes. The basic characteristics of aerosol (mass concentration M and Hanel parameter) were averaged over sectors. A narrow maximum at the Baltic and the North Atlantics sectors was revealed in the frequency distributions of the trajectories. The mass concentration had a maximum in the Ukraine - Mediterranean sector. Average values of the Hanel parameter do not depend on the direction of air mass transport to the observational site. The averaged temporal distribution of trajectories displays the existence of periodic peaks with a period of about 11-12 weeks for the Baltic - Russian Atlantic and Western Arctic - Polar Urals sectors. In other sectors, the distributions on their time-based realizations were relatively homogeneous.

Retrieval of complex refractive index from lidar measurements: possibilities and limitations

S.V. Samoilova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: aerosol, lidar, particle size distribution, complex refractive index

Abstract >>
Studies of indeterminacy of the complex refractive index m = mR + imI estimation and simulation results with respect to the analysis of the retrieval error of aerosol microphysical properties from multiwavelength lidar data (355 and 532 nm for extinction and 355, 532, and 1064 nm for backscatter) are presented. It is shown that m is not found unambiguously in the error-presence conditions, because a flat valley on (mR, mI ) plane corresponds to a set of optical coefficients values. Accuracy of estimation of aerosol microphysical properties for bimodal size distribution function U(r) depends on the value of the contribution of small particles into the volume concentration. Mean errors are ΔmR ~ 3.5%, ΔmI ~ 80% for joint reconstruction of m and U(r) and 10% input noise. Lidar ratio information allows the error of reconstructing the single-scattering albedo to be at least halved.

Dynamics of the distribution of heavy metals and radioactive isotopes in soil and dust aerosol samples from south of Tajikistan

S.F. Abdullaev, V.A. Maslov, B.I. Nazarov, U. Madvaliev, A.A. Juraev, T. Davlatshoev
S. U. Umarov Physical-Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Rebublic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Tajikistan, 734063, Dushanbe, Akademgorodok, ul. Ajni, 299/1
Keywords: heavy metals, dust haze, dust storm, soil, X-ray fluorescence analysis of soil, elemental composition, isotopes, clarke

Abstract >>
The paper considers the distribution of heavy metals, the most dangerous contaminants of soil. In the composition of dust aerosol samples, an increased content of Ca, Zn, and Sr is shown in comparison with soil from zone of dust haze spread. In the soil of the zone of dusty haze in 2008-2010, concentration of Cr, Rb, Eu, Cs, and Co was reduced, and of Mn, Ba, Ce, La, Yb, and Th was increased; concentrations of other elements were maximal in 2009. The dynamics of the content of isotopes in the samples of dust haze, collected in 2007-2010, was studied. Distribution of isotopes in the soil from the south to the north of Tajikistan has been uneven, with a maximum in Dushanbe.

The role of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in formation of seasonal temperature anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere estimated by model calculations

V.A. Semenov1,2,3, E.A. Shelekhova4,3, I.I. Mokhov1, V.V. Zuev4, K.P. Koltermann3
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2GEOMAR, Kil, Germany
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Lenin Hills, 1, Russia
4Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, anomalous climatic regimes, climate models

Abstract >>
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is associated with variations of oceanic heat transport in the North Atlantic and the Atlantic Sectors of the Arctic. It has a significant impact on the climate of the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Since 1970s to the early 2000s there has been a positive AMO trend that coincided with the global warming trend. In order to estimate the AMO contribution to the seasonal temperature changes we employ the atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5) coupled to a thermodynamics mixed layer ocean model by using anomalous ocean heat convergence fluxes associated with the AMO. Relative contributions of the anomalous heat fluxes in the Atlantic and the Arctic sectors have been estimated. The results show that AMO can explain up to 40% of the observed winter and summer temperature changes over the last three decades. Vertical structure of the AMO-related temperature changes has also much in common with empirical estimates. In particular, the model reproduces the Arctic amplification with maximum temperature trends at the surface in the high NH latitudes. AMO in the model leads to increased probabilities of extreme cold temperatures in February in some regions in Russia. This happens despite increase of the mean temperature. The probabilities increase for hot temperature extremes in July was also found in the European part of Russia. It is shown that the anomalous heat fluxes in the Arctic contribute a major part to the seasonal temperature changes related to the AMO. These fluxes are usually not taken into account when modeling the effect of North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The results obtained in the study indicate an important role of AMO in formation of weather and climate anomalies.

Method of allocation of structures as means of increasing connectivity of regional and global temperature fields

V.A. Krutikov1, S.G. Kataev2, V.A. Tartakovsky1, A.I. Kuskov1, E.V. Ivanova1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
2Tomsk State Pedagogical University, pr. Komsomolsky, 75, Tomsk, 63404, Russia
Keywords: temperature field, the decomposition into components, structure, connectivity

Abstract >>
In this paper to investigate the structure and dynamics of temperature fields of the different spatial and temporal scale, the structure selection methods was applied. For the study, the monthly mean air temperature of 249 stations in northern Eurasia during the period 1955-2010 were involved. The fields of the average monthly temperature for each calendar month were classified. The average temperature in the annual behaviour have been built. The study revealed that structures with large areas are allocated, within which formed pockets of air masses of different origin are formed. Centers of origin of air masses, uniform temperature field and contrasting transitional zone between them are refined.

Large-scale studies of gaseous and aerosol composition of air over Siberia

P.N. Antokhin1, V.G. Arshinova1, M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.D. Belan1, S.B. Belan1, D.K. Davydov1, G.A. Ivlev1, A.V. Kozlov1, Ph. Nedelec2, J.-D. Paris3, T.M. Rasskazchikova1, D.E. Savkin1, D.V. Simonenkov1, T.K. Sklyadneva1, G.N. Tolmachev1, A.V. Fofonov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institut Aéronautique et Spatial, 14, Avenue E. Belin, 31400, Toulouse, France
3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de lEnvironment, Unite mixte CEA-CNRS, Bat709, CEL Orme des Merisiers 91191 GIF SUR YVETTE, Paris, France
Keywords: Arctic, atmosphere, aerosol, air, vertical distribution, gases, continental, large-scale, spatial

Abstract >>
In the work, a new technology of aircraft sounding of the atmosphere is described. In combination with modern software, it allows investigation of large-scale features of spatial distribution of air composition. By means of this technology large-scale spatial distributions of aerosol, CO, CO2, and O3 over the Arctic coast and the continental areas of Siberia are investigated. Cardinal distinctions in distribution of aerosol, CO, and CO2 over the continent and the coast are revealed. This is caused by distinction in the power of sources and sink of impurity in the areas considered.

Integration of CO2 spectral line parameters from the CDSD databanks into the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC)

R.V. Kochanov, V.I. Perevalov, S.A. Tashkun
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: molecular spectroscopy, databases, databanks, carbon dioxide, CO2, CDSD, VAMDC, HITRAN

Abstract >>
The spectroscopic databanks CDSD-296, CDSD-1000 and CDSD-4000 are presented in the context of integration into the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) in order to extend the number of their users. A brief review of the VAMDC system is given concerning the purpose of this project, its infrastructure, and the data representation format. The relational structure of CDSD databases, adapted to VAMDC needs, is presented. Some of the technical problems connected with the huge volumes of stored information are considered.

Regularities of alteration of fluorine concentrations in atmospheric precipitations in the vicinity of Bratsk town

N.I. Yanchenko1, O.L. Yaskina2, S.A. Yanyushkin3
1National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Lermantova st., 83, Irkutsk, 664074, Russia
2Bratsk Center for Hydrometeorology and Environment Monitoring, 74, Naberezhnaya street, 664002, Bratsk, Irkutsk oblast
3Bratsk State Universit, 40, Makarenko street, 665709, Bratsk, Irkutsk oblast
Keywords: fluorine, emissions, atmospheric precipitations, temperature, precipitation intensity

Abstract >>
Data on concentration of fluorine in an atmospheric precipitation of a rain and snow around emissions of aluminum plant are obtained. The dynamics of the concentration change of fluorine in the precipitation within a year, the regularity of change depending on temperature of a ground layer of air and intensity of the precipitation is established.

Technical equipment of ground-based stations for total ozone measurements in Russia and prospects of modernization

V.M. Dorokhov1, G.A. Ivlev2, V.I. Privalov3, A.M. Shalamyansky4
1Central Aerological Observator, 3, Pervomayskaya, Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow oblast
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, 7, Karbyshev street, 194021, St Petersburg
4The Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory
Keywords: atmosphere, total ozone, spectrophotometer, spectrometer

Abstract >>
The changes of total ozone in the Earth's atmosphere affect both the observed atmospheric changes and the climate of our planet. For ground-based observations of total ozone in the Russian Federation (RF), the Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers, SAOZ spectrometers are in use. Filter M-124 ozonometers measure the total ozone for use in the Russian ozone network. In the near future, we will start the installation and trial operation of modern automated UVOS spectrometers for observations of total ozone and ultraviolet radiation. The paper presents the main specifications of equipment for ground-based observations of total ozone in the RF. The problems of modernization of the national network for the total ozone and ultraviolet solar radiation are presented and discussed.

Spectral and temporal characteristics of hydrogen radiation at femtosecond optical breakdown on the water surface

S.S. Golik1, A.A. Ilyin1, D.V. Apeksimov2, M.Yu. Babii3, A.V. Kolesnikov3, V.V. Lisitsa3, O.A. Bukin1
1Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia, Russia, 690041, Vladivostok, Radio st., 5
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690950, Russia
Keywords: femtosecond laser induced spectroscopy, water, element composition, detection limit

Abstract >>
Spectral and time characteristics of the hydrogen HI 656 nm emission line radiation are experimentally investigated at the optical breakdown generated by pulses of the main harmonic of a femtosecond Ti:Sa laser on the water surface. The electronic density of the generated plasma is estimated.

Remotely controllable complex for study of biooptical parameters of the see water

E.N. Baulo1, I.O. Bukin1, I.M. Doroshenko1, A.Yu. Mayor1, P.A. Salyuk2
1Admiral GI Nevelskoy Maritime State University, 50a, Verkhneportovaya street, Vladivostok
2V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
Keywords: remotely operated vehicles, laser-induced fluorescence of dissolved organic matter and mineral oil in sea water

Abstract >>
The results of development and testing of remotely operated vehicles and laser spectrometer for researching of the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of seawater are presented, as well as the results of laboratory researching of three-dimensional LIF spectra of the oil, dissolved in sea water, which can allocate the fluorescence oil spectrum against the background of the LIF spectrum of dissolved organic matter.

Statistics of envelopes of tonal acoustic signals in the surface atmospheric layer

V.P. Mamyshev1, S.L. Odintsov1, V.G. Astafurov1,2, S.M. Pastukhova2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40, Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia, 634050
Keywords: atmosphere, sound, propagation, envelope, statistics, turbulence

Abstract >>
In this paper, we analyze statistical characteristics of envelopes of acoustic signals propagating along short near-surface paths. Experimental data are processed to study the density of probability distribution of envelopes for carrier frequencies of 500 and 5 000 Hz. The repetition of the considered distributions is determined, and their correlation with turbulence is estimated.

To Vitaly Alekseevich Pogodayev's 70 anniversary


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