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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 4

1.
XI International conference of pulsed lasers

A.V. Klimkin1, V.F. Tarasenko2,3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Keywords: conference, AMPL, lasers, laser physics, optoelectronics, laser application

Abstract >>
Last year, September 16-20, the XI International Conference Atomic and Molecular Pulsed Lasers - AMPL-2013 has been held in Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IAO SB RAS), Tomsk, Russia. The XI AMPL Conference was traditionally devoted to physical processes in laser active media, new active media and pumping methods, new laser development technologies, fundamental issues of laser physics, non-coherent UV and VUV-radiation sources.
																								



2.
Detection of nanoclasters in plasma of oxygen HF discharge by the method of Cu laser pulse heating

S.Kh. Alikhadhziev1,2, M.A. Kazaryan3, E.A. Morozova4, P.S. Plyaka5
1Chechen state university, 32, Sheripova, Grozny, 364907
2Research institute of physics of Southern Federal University, 344090, Rostov-on-Don, Stachki ave.,194
3P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Russia, 119991, Moscow, Leninskii pr., 53
4A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 119991, Moscow, Vavilova st., 38
5Southern Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, Russia, 344006, Rostov-on-Don, Chekhova, 41
Keywords: nanoclasters, laser heating of particles, gas discharge, optical radiation, spectrum, signal processing

Abstract >>
Cupper vapor laser beam was focused on plasma region, where nanoclasters are admittedly formed under ceramic target sputtering in oxygen environment. In normal to beam direction, optical signal are recorded and handled with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution; hardware and software means are described. Low power emission of laser heated particles has been found in infrared region near dielectric substrate.
																								



3.
Remote determination of concentration of organic solvents in binary mixtures using Raman spectroscopy

S.V. Patsaeva, T.A. Dolenko, S.A. Burikov, V.I. Yuzhakov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, 1/2 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
Keywords: Raman scattering, - and -groups, aqueous solutions, organic solvents, determination of concentration

Abstract >>
Binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, and acetic acid with water in various proportions have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. Upon variations in organic solvent concentration in water changes in intensities ratio for bands of - and -group stretching vibrations within a spectral range 2600-3800 cm-1 were observed. For quantitative characterization of partial concentrations of solvents mixed with water, we have chosen an integral intensity ICH of CH-stretching band, normalized to the sum (ICH + IOH) of both - and -group stretching bands taken within the 2600-3800 cm-1 wavenumber interval. Using this type of intensity normalization, we get the value ICH/( ICH + IOH) which depends linearly on the volume fraction of an organic solvent in aqueous solution throughout the whole studied range of its concentration. Raman spectroscopy with normalization to sum of both CH- and -group stretching bands gives possibility of non-contact detection and quantification of flammable or toxic liquid mixed with water. Relative accuracy of concentration determination for ethanol, methanol, and acetic acid in water was achieved as good as 0.5, 1.1, and 1.5%, respectively.
																								



4.
Electrode material splashing during the high-voltage nanosecond discharge in deuterium, hydrogen, helium, and argon at low pressure

D.A. Sorokin1, M.I. Lomaev1,2, V.F. Tarasenko1, B.A. Nechaev3, V.N. Padalko3, E.N. Shuvalov3
1Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 40
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Keywords: material splashing, high-voltage nanosecond discharge, deuterated target, track

Abstract >>
During the high-voltage nanosecond discharge in a gap filled with deuterium, hydrogen, helium, and argon at a pressure of 1-60 torr, using a cylinder with lateral surface made of thin tungsten wires split at the end as a potential electrode and a flat deuterated zirconium target as a material splashing of electrodes was observed. Mainly, there is material splashing on the potential electrode for both positive and negative polarities of the pulser. As the gas pressure increases the reduction of the track lengths of fluttering from electrode hot glowing drops was observed.
																								



5.
Stimulated Raman scattering of XeF* lasers in samarium and europium vapors

V.G. Sokovikov, A.V. Klimkin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: optical excitation of metal vapors, induced Raman scattering at electronic transitions, radiation frequency transformation

Abstract >>
In this article the authors show the results of optical inflation of samarium and europium vapors by radiation of eximer XeCl*, XeF, and KrF* lasers. The authors got electronic stimulated Raman scattering radiation of XeF* laser. In samarium, vapor radiation was got at wavelength λ = 589.1 and 608.2 nm. During irradiation of europium vapor by radiation of KrF*, laser electronic stimulated Raman scattering was observed in this vapor. This radiation was observed at wavelength λ = 2501 and 2414 nm.
																								



6.
The kinetic equation for filament density, formed during propagation of femtosecond laser radiation, in the approximation of self-consistent field

A.D. Bulygin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: nonlinear diffusion equation, high-power femtosecond laser pulse, filamentation

Abstract >>
A general form of the kinetic equation (nonlinear diffusion equation) for filament number density considering the effects of their generation and decay is stated. It consists of the phenomenological parameters, which have been determined from the direct numerical simulation of propagation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse (HPFLP) based on the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NSE) for a series of the threshold particular cases.
																								



7.
Corona discharge in atmospheric pressure air when using modulated voltage pulses

D.V. Rybka1, M.V. Trigub2,3, D.A. Sorokin1, G.S. Yevtushenko2, V.F. Tarasenko1,2
1Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: corona discharge in atmospheric pressure air, formation and decay of "channels", optical radiation

Abstract >>
This paper presents the formation and decay of diffuse channels of a corona discharge in atmospheric pressure air using modulated voltage pulses. Photomutipliers, a high-speed camera, and a copper bromide vapor laser monitor are used to register the radiation from the corona discharge. It is shown that the radiation of corona discharge diffuse channels is modulated in time and the pulse repetition frequency is twice as high as the voltage pulse modulation frequency (~ 290 kHz). It is also demonstrated that at a corona discharge channel curves the breakdowns can occur over a short distance, which reduces the blurring of the channel.
																								



8.
Effect of nitrogen pressure on characteristics of X-ray during the transition from diffuse discharge to corna one

D.V. Rybka1, A.G. Burachenko1, V.Yu. Kozhevnikov2, A.V. Kozyrev1,2, V.F. Tarasenko1,2
1Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge, diffuse discharge, corona discharge, X-ray radiation, runaway electrons

Abstract >>
Data on the parameters of X-ray pulse at the repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in the nitrogen were obtained. It was shown that during the transition from diffuse to corona discharge the X-ray pulse duration increased. A theoretical modeling of the nonstationary process of corona discharge development at atmospheric pressure when nanosecond voltage pulse applied across the gap was performed. Spatial and temporal distribution of concentration of charged particles and the electric potential in the discharge gap were calculated. It was shown that when the nanosecond voltage pulse came to the end non-monotonic potential distribution formed in the gap. It should be said that at the same time the electric field is concentrated in a narrow region of the front of the ionization wave.
																								



9.
The initial stage of the breakdown of discharge gap “point-plane” filled with nitrogen and SF6 at elevated pressure

D.V. Beloplotov1,2, M.I. Lomaev1, D.A. Sorokin1, V.F. Tarasenko1,2
1Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: sulfur hexafluoride, nitrogen, non-uniform electric field, elevated pressure, ionization wave

Abstract >>
The initial stage of the breakdown of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen in the non-uniform electric field at high pressures was investigated. High voltage pulses with amplitude of up to 350 kV were applied across the discharge gap with "point-plane" geometry of the electrodes. The experimental results on the dynamics of the light emission from the different zones of the discharge gap can be explained by formation of the ionization wave started from the potential electrode with a small radius of curvature. It was found that the speed of ionization wave front in nitrogen and SF6 is higher in the second half of the discharge gap as compared to the first one. At increasing SF6 and nitrogen pressure the speed of ionization wave front was shown to decrease. At negative polarity of high voltage pulse the average speed of ionization wave front was shown to be of ~ 2 cm/ns in SF6 at a pressure of 0.25 MPa and ~ 3.6 cm/ns in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.3 MPa.
																								



10.
MnBr vapor active medium with the inner reactor at 100 kHz PRF

M.V. Trigub1,2, D.V. Shiyanov1,2, V.B. Sukhanov1, G.S. Evtushenko2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Keywords: Mn halide vapor lasers, inner reactor, high-frequency brightness amplifiers, laser monitor

Abstract >>
In this paper, the frequency and energy characteristics of a MnBr vapor laser with the inner reactor, i.e., with gas vapors being produced within a gas discharge tube, and the dependence of the average output power on different parameters are studied. The values of the GDT wall temperature and buffer gas pressure required for obtaining the maximum output power are determined. It is shown that the active elements of this kind are as good as the elements with a conventional way of gas vapor production. For a medium on transitions of Mn atoms, the PRF of 100 kHz is obtained for the first time. The results of using the active element as a brightness amplifier in active optical systems are also presented, and the research of amplifying characteristics is carried out.
																								



11.
The influence of gas mixture composition on dissipation of pumping energy in XeF(CA) amplifier of hybrid femtosecond laser system THL100

N.G. Ivanov1, V.F. Losev1,2, Yu.N. Panchenko1, A.G. Jastremskii1
1Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30
Keywords: numerical simulation, amplification of picosecond laser pulses, the hybrid laser system THL-100

Abstract >>
By numerical simulations was investigated the effect of the mixture of gases in the XeF(C-A) amplifier hybrid laser system THL-100 on the main channels of energy loss. It is shown that an increase in the buffer gas pressure N2 from 100 to 760 Torr leads to an increase in the fraction of absorbed energy transmitted to the upper laser level XeF(C, ν = 0). Increasing the partial pressure of XeF2 causes an increase of energy loss in the process of quenching XeF(B , C) and reduce the energy transferred to the XeF(C, ν = 0) state.
																								



12.
Aberration-free broadband stretcher-compressor system for femtosecond petawatt level laser system based on parametric amplification

V.E. Leshchenko, V.I. Trunov, E.V. Pestryakov, S.A. Frolov
Institute of Laser Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 13/3, Ac. Lavrentieva ave
Keywords: compressor, stretcher, optical parametric amplification, femtosecond pulses, ultrarelativistic intensity

Abstract >>
The optimal stretcher-compressor scheme is designed for the use in facilities with chirped pulse optical parametric amplification under picosecond (~ 100 ps) pumping. It enables one to achieve petawatt peak power in less than 10 fs pulses with high contrast and low aberrations. The stretcher design is based on an Öffner telescope with spherical mirrors and two diffraction gratings, one being placed in the center of spherical mirrors. It is shown to be the only possible aberration-free stretcher design with spherical mirrors. Performed analysis shows that the compressor consisting of four transmission diffraction gratings with 112 × 125 mm aperture, 3 mm thickness and chirped mirrors adding -4500 fs2 dispersion with 100 mm aperture allows amplified pulse compression with up to 1 PW peak power and less that 10 fs pulse duration, with total B -integral being less than 1. The designed stretcher-compressor system is planned to be implemented in the high power femtosecond laser facility developed at ILP SB RAS.
																								



13.
Spectral parameters of non-chain HF(DF) laser radiation pumped by volume discharge

M.I. Lomaev, A.N. Panchenko, N.A. Panchenko
Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE) of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3, Akademichesky Avenue, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
Keywords: non-chain chemical lasers, homogeneous volume discharge, radiation spectra

Abstract >>
Spectral parameters of non-chain chemical laser on mixtures of hydrogen and deuterium with SF6 pumped by a discharge with UV illumination from generator with inductive energy storage and by a diffuse discharge formed in a non-uniform electric field due to preionization by run-away electrons (REP DD) are compared. It is shown that high uniformity of volume discharges formed in the active laser medium allows the increase in the number of laser lines. Therewith intense cascade transitions appear in the laser spectra and lasing efficiency on HF (λ = 2.8 ÷ 3.2 mm) and DF molecules (3.8 ÷ 4.2 mm) reaches its ultimate value. It is shown that the volume discharge initiated by run-away electrons (REP DD) in gas mixtures with SF6 is an efficient pumping method of lasers on HF(DF) molecules.
																								



14.
Pump channel of parametric amplifier of terawatt femtosecond Yb laser system

V.V. Petrov1, E.V. Pestryakov1, A.V. Laptev1, V.A. Petrov1,2, G.V. Kuptsov1,2
1Institute of Laser Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 13/3, Ac. Lavrentieva ave
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092, Novosibirsk, 20, Prospekt K. Marksa
Keywords: femtosecond pulses, cryogenic temperature, laser diode pumping, multipass amplifier, stretcher-compressor

Abstract >>
In this paper, we have presented some components of a designed terawatt femtosecond laser system with the repetition rate 1 kHz. The system consists of pump and amplification channels which are optically synchronized. The amplification and pump channels are based on parametric amplification in LBO crystal and diode-pumped Yb3+-doped laser media at 77 K, respectively. In the pump channel pulses of picoseconds duration are generated. These pulses pump the non-linear crystal of the parametric amplifier. The system is based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. For the pump channel, parameters and alignments of the holographic gratings-based stretcher compressor system are determined. The Yb:Y2O3 ceramics multipass amplifier operating at 77 °K diode-pumped by 1 kW was developed. The data can be used in the development of cryogenic multistage femtosecond laser systems working with high a repetition rate in the kilohertz regime.
																								



15.
Non-linear interaction of atoms with the environment as one of the causes of local thermodynamical equilibrium disturbance in gas-discharge plasma

I.V. Ivanov, V.N. Ivanov
Omsk State Technical University, 644050, Omsk, 11, Prospekt Mira
Keywords: the stochastic perturbation, nonlinear interaction with the environment

Abstract >>
Theoretically, by an example of a hydrogen-like atom one of the possible causes of the disturbance of local thermodynamic equilibrium is examined. Using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is constructed for quantum systems interacting with the environment, population of atomic energy levels is numerically simulated. It was assumed that atoms have a permanent stochastic perturbation. It was found that at high temperatures the probability of population distribution is almost the same as the Boltzmann distribution. However, at relatively low temperatures, there is a noticeable deviation of populations from this distribution. This gives grounds to believe that the nonlinear interaction of atoms with the environment leads to disturbance of local thermodynamic equilibrium.
																								



16.
Couplings between a resonant current source power supply and a DBD excilamp

H. Piquet1, D. Florez2, X. Bonnin1, A. Belinger3, R. Diez2
1Institution Toulouse University. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2 rue Camichel-31071 Toulouse cedex, France
2Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7, N 40-62 Faculdad de Ingenieria-110231 Bogotá, Colombia
3Toulouse University. Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne-31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France
Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge, excimer lamps, power supply, optimization, resonant inverter, UV

Abstract >>
This paper presents a study of couplings which take place in systems where dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excimer lamps are supplied with current source electrical power generators. Causal analysis, using the fundamental properties of the DBD, is used for the design of such current sources. A two steps approach is developed here: in order to control the lamp power, with the best efficiency concerning the UV emission, a current shape controlled current generator is set-up to investigate the possible degrees of freedom of the current waveforms: frequency, peak current, pulse duration. On this basis, optimized supplying conditions are selected, and a second power generator with high electrical efficiency is designed: its operating mode combines discontinuous current mode and soft-commutation (ZCS), obtaining as well low electromagnetic emissions and reduced switching losses. A classical electrical equivalent model of the lamp is used to achieve the state plane analysis and to calculate all the electric variables involved in the design of the converter and consequently to select its components. The mathematical relationships obtained from this process, especially those concerning the control of the injected power by means of the available degrees of freedom, are validated with simulations and experimental results. Experimental UV emission performances are presented as well.