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Journal of Mining Sciences

2013 year, number 6

1.
Modeling Induced Dislocation in Host Rocks around Underground Excavations

I. V. MILETENKO, N. A. MILETENKO, V. N. ODINTSEV
Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: rock mass, contact jointing, induced dislocation, underground excavations, stress state, theory of percolation filtration, permeability

Abstract >>
The authors offer a new approach to modeling a mining-induced dislocation, based on the calculation of nonuniform stress state of rocks, probabilistic assessment of rock mass strength and the laws of the theory of percolation filtration.



2.
Pressure Distribution in a Hydrocarbon-Bearing Formation under Mining by Motions of the Daylight Surface atop Enclosing Rock Mass

L. A. NAZAROV1,2, L. A. NAZAROVA1,2, A. L. KARCHEVSKY3,2, N. A. MIROSHNICHENKO1
1N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3S.L. Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 4, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Keywords: rock mass, producing formation, pressure, inverse problem, geodesy data, motion, objective function

Abstract >>
The article describes the procedure of estimating spatial distribution of pressure in a producing formation under mining by the ground surface geodesy survey data. The numerical experiments show that one-valued solvability of the inverse problem requires the ground surface motion to be measured both in vertical and in horizontal directions.



3.
Natural and Induced Seismic Activity in Kuzbass

D. V. YAKOVLEV, T. I. LAZAREVICH, S. V. TSIREL
Mining Geomechanics and Surveying Research InstitutionJoint Scientific Center VNIMI, 22-ya liniya 3, Build. 3 B, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: seismic events, earthquakes, open pit mines, mining operations, curves of time of occurrence, deep faults, seismic station network, P-waves and S-waves, geodynamic monitoring

Abstract >>
Based on the plotted times of occurrence of seismic events, their timing within a work week and location of epicenters, it is illustrated that since the 1960s the seismicity in the Kuzbass territory is a complicated natural and mining-induced phenomenon. Since the late 1980s, the natural and mining-induced seismicity has entered the second evolution stage, with clustering of low-energy seismic events and high-power shallow earthquakes in the areas under heavy mining and, in the first instance, at deep open pit mines. The representative event of this kind is the magnitude 5.2 earthquake at the Bachatsky Open Pit Coal Mine on June 19, 2013. It has been found that the natural and mining-induced seismic activity is associated with deep faults that weakly show themselves in the upper layer of the earth crust and the local relief, which is an evidence of their live emergence onto the daylight surface due to the mining effect. The article proposes the comprehensive research program for the natural and mining-induced seismic activity in the Kuzbass area and the development of early identification of seismically active zones.



4.
Modeling Trigger Effects in Faulting Zones in Rocks

A. P. BOBRYAKOV
N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: shear, trigger effects, soft loading, faults, friction, slipping

Abstract >>
The laboratory modeling of unsteady deformation at interface of a faulting zone, aimed at studying motions over rigid surfaces with an in-between interlayer of pre-stressed granular medium now exposed to trigger destressing, has shown that relationship of the force drop and displacement of rigid boundaries under the trigger destressing is linear. The slope of straight lines characterizes the resultant rigidity of the system and depends on the set of the input parameters: the spring simulating elasticity of fault surfaces; the granular medium simulating the faulting contact friction; the short-term friction drop trigger. It is found that soft loading takes much energy and results in lower force drop but higher displacements under destressing. The author illustrates that the destressing of the granular medium pre-set in the limit state is accompanied with displacement discontinuities at the rigid boundaries and partial drop of the shearing force.



5.
Horizontal Stress Coefficient of Random Discrete Element Packing

S. V. KLISHIN, O. A. MIKENINA
N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: stress state, horizontal stress, continuum model, rock, continuum, granular material, numerical analysis, discrete element method

Abstract >>
The authors study numerically the stressstrain state of a discrete material under biaxial loading in the three-dimensional case. It is shown that the DruckerPrager continuum relation is valid for the two-dimensional case at the early yielding stage.



6.
Calculation Procedure for Permissible Load on Coal Production Face by Gas Factor

S. V. SLASTUNOV1, G. G. KARKASHADZE1, K. S. KOLIKOV1, G. P. ERMAK2
1Moscow State Mining University, Lenisnkii pr. 6, Moscow, 119991 Russia
2Department for Supervision in Coal Industry Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russia (ROSTEKHNADZOR), ul. A. Lukyanova 4, Build. 1, Moscow, 105066 Russia
Keywords: coal, methane, methane content, pressure, absorption, mass transfer, permissible load

Abstract >>
The offered calculation procedure of the permissible load on a production face by gas factor is based on the equation of methane emission in the production face area from coal and roof and floor rocks. The model includes permeability and absorption of coal, porosity and thickness of coal seam, production face length, methane pressure and the operational safety-permitted methane concentration in the return ventilation air. The model implementation will help in validation of scheduled loading on production faces in coal mines.



7.
Development of Classification Procedure for Gas-Dynamic Events in Coal Mines

A. F. BULAT1, S. P. MINEEV1, A. M. BRYUKHANOV2, A. V. NIKIFOROV2
1Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. Semfiropolskaya 2a, Dnepropetrovsk, 49005, Ukraine
2State Makeevka Science and Research Institute on Mining Industry Safety (MakNII), ul. Likhacheva 60, Makeevka, 86108 Ukraine
Keywords: gas-dynamic events, mining operations, coal mine, classification, event conditions, warning signs, characteristic

Abstract >>
The authors review the published material on gas-dynamic events in coal mines. The existing classifications of gas-dynamic events are analyzed and generalized, and principles of the classification procedure for gas-dynamic events are considered. The article presents the advisable classification to be used in Donbass coal mines to investigate accidents and the related events.



8.
Shallow Geophysical Exploration of the Upper Kama Potash Salt Deposit

I. A. SANFRIOV, YU. I. STEPANOV, K. B. FATKIN, I. YU. GERASIMOVA, A. I. NIKIFOROVA
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: elastic waves, electrical resistance, dissolving, replacement, dilution, monitoring

Abstract >>
The mining safety circuit based on geophysical research is described in the article in terms of the Upper Kama Potash Deposit, with exemplification of different stages of the geophysical survey design. The authors discuss options of integrated interpretation of seismic and electric exploration data aiming to locate and monitor hazardous natural and mining-induced processes in potassium-enclosing strata.



9.
Parameters of Methane Condition during Phase Transition at the Outburst-Hazardous Coal Seam Edges

V. V. DYRDIN, V. G. SMIRNOV, S. A. SHEPELEVA
T.F. Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo, 650026 Russia
Keywords: underground mining, coal seams, gas-dynamic events, gas release, dissociation, phase transitions, gas hydrates

Abstract >>
The authors analyze phase equilibrium of gaseous methane and crystalline hydrate particles in coal pores, considering absorbed heat during phase transition. It is shown that the crystallohydrategaseous methane phase equilibrium in small pores can be nonsteady; i.e., on deviation from the phase equilibrium curve, the methane condition parameters change and, as a consequence, increase the deviation. Instantaneous dissociation of crystallohydrates results in coal methane pressure rise, which intensifies outburst hazard and affects the outburst gas balance.



10.
Monitoring of Rock Mass Transformation under Induced Movement

S. V. USANOV, V. V. MELNIK, A. L. ZAMYATIN
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
Keywords: rock strata movement, earth surface damage, geodynamic events, monitoring, deformations, geophysical methods, rock mass structure

Abstract >>
The article reports the underground mining-induced movement monitoring using a combination of geodesy survey and geophysical exploration methods in Vysokogorsky Iron Ore Mine where a geodynamic movement has occurred. The geodesy survey methods are the conventional observation of the daylight surface deformation and the spectral seismic profiling of changes in the undermined rock mass structure. The monitoring objective was to find spatial parameters of disintegrated rock zone, make recommendations on continuing mining operations in the displacement trough zone where protected objects are situated, and identify causes of the enclosing rock instability.



11.
Temperature Dependence of Microdamage Accumulation in Granite under Impact Fracture

I. P. SHCHERBAKOV, V. S. KUKSENKO, A. E. CHMEL
A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Politekhnicheskaya 26, Saint-Petersburg, 194021 Russia
Keywords: dynamic fracture, granite, acoustic emission, temperature dependence

Abstract >>
It has been not once noticed that origination and accumulation of fractures in rocks in the full scale and in laboratory specimens have much in common. The lab test data on rock specimen deformation and fracture are often used to interpret natural seismic events. Usually the laboratory tests are carried out at room temperature, whereas the temperature of rocks at the depth of origination of rock bursts and earthquakes can reach a few hundred degrees by Celsius. To assess the weight of this difference, the authors have obtained time series of acoustic emission impulses during origination of microcracks in granite specimens subjected to impact fracture at varied temperatures. The kinetics of damage accumulation and the cooperative effects differ greatly in the test temperature range from 20 to 600 .



12.
Shock Blasting of Processing Ore Stockpile by Low-Density Explosive Charges

A. B. BEGALINOV, E. T. SERDALIEV, E. E. ISKAKOV, D. B. AMANZHOLOV
K.I. Satpaev Kazakhstan State Technical University, ul. K. Satpaeva 22a, Almaty, 050013 Kazakhstan
Keywords: heap leaching, low-density explosives, foamed polystyrene, shaking, permeability, colmatage

Abstract >>
The authors offer a new approach to the actual scientific and technical problem on enhanced efficiency of heap leaching of rebellious oxidized and complex gold-containing ore. The optimization of the leaching technology can be reached through the application of regular shaking and shattering of ore stockpiles by low-density explosive charges.



13.
Electrical Tomography Exploration of Rock Slide-Hazardous Pitwalls

S. V. KLISHIN1, V. I. KLISHIN2, G. YU. OPRUK2
1N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Institute of Coal, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leningradskii pr. 10, Kemerovo, 650065 Russia
Keywords: underground coal mining, technology, discharge, powered support, gravity flow, physical model, laboratory experiment, numerical model, discrete element method

Abstract >>
The physical and analytical modeling of coal discharge in thick coal mining by sublevel caving involves the method when coal is discharged under grvaity on the powered support units and is proportioned-fed to a face conveyor placed between the support units. Based on the physical modeling, the authors put forward a mathematical model to study the gravity flow of granular material in three dimensional formulation using discrete elements.



14.
Modeling and Optimization of the First Mining and Stoping Parameters in a Coal Mine Panel

A. A. ORDIN, A. M. NIKOLSKY, A. A. METELKOV
N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: optimization, longwall length, capacity, fully-mechanized production face, mine, panel, pillar, first mining and stoping operations

Abstract >>
The problem on optimization of the first mining and stoping process variables based on the maximum net discount profit for the period of panel mining in a coal mine has been formualted and numerically solved. The optimized data are presented for the fully-mechanized production face in coal seam no. 19 in Kostromovskaya Mine. The authors also offer a production face preparation scheme and illustrate its efficiency in terms of the Kostromovskaya Mine



15.
Multimodel Analysis-Based Location of the Main Mine Shaft

M. HUDEJ1, S. VUJIC2, M. RADOSAVLEVIC2
1The Velenje Coal Mine, Republic of Slovenia
2University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg. 1, Belgrade, 1808-2012, Republic Serbia
Keywords: main mine shaft, mine shaft location, multimodel analysis, Velenje Coal Mine

Abstract >>
In terms of the Velenje Mine shaft location, the authors describe the approach based not on the selection of the most suitable method of the solution validation but on application of the multimodel method including a few multicriteria technqies. In case when the techniqes do not yeild the same sequences of alternatives, it is advised to generate the final sequence using the method of ponderation (weighing and balancing).



16.
Studies into the Process of Mine Waste Dump Filling Up by Vegetation by the Remote Sensing Data

V. N. OPARIN1, V. P. POTAPOV2, O. L. GINIYATULLINA2, E. L. SHCHASTLIVTSEV2
1N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
Keywords: mine waste dumps, remote sensing, vegetation indexes, self-filling up by vegetation, land reclamation

Abstract >>
The authors discuss the practice of assessment of mine waste dump surface condition by the remote sensing data. The biomass is defined based on the soil-adjusted vegetation index SAVI. The article presents details of determining zones of soil generation and filling up by vegetation in terms of the operating mine waste dump in Kuzbass.



17.
Problems of Conversion and Multipurpose Utilization of Siberian Coal

V. I. CHESKIDOV, G. D. ZAITSEV
N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: coal deposits in Siberia, coal conversion and multipurpose utilization

Abstract >>
The article focuses on the issues of higher efficiency and competitiveness of the coal mining industry benefiting from advanced processing of coal. The Siberian reserves of coal ranked in a wide range allow heat energy and electric power generation, and the ample stock of coal products at a high added value.



18.
Enhanced Nonferrous and Noble Metal Extraction in Scheelite-Sulfide Ore Flotation with Aeroflot Reagents

L. A. SAMATOVA1, V. I. RYABOY2, E. D. SHEPETA1
1Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
2Mekhanobr-Orgsintez-Reagent Company, 21-ya liniya 6a, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: sheelitesulfide ore, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, gold, silver, flotation, selective collecting agents, xanthate, Aeroflot reagents

Abstract >>
The flotation properties of new dialkyldithiophosphates (NTF-163, BTF-175) are compared with the standard basic Aeroflot reagent IMA-I413 and butyl xanthate during flotation of sheelitesulfide ore. The selectivity of the test Aeroflot reagents in separation of chalcopyrite, magnetic pyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite is illustrated in the article together with the option of enhanced extraction of copper and noble metals with reduced arsenic content of the copper concentrate. The best results are obtained with BTF-163 that is recommended to industrial testing.



19.
Prospects of Advanced Processing of Synnyrite Minerals

G. I. KHANTURGAEVA1, V. G. SHIRETOROVA1
Buryat State University, ul. Sakhyanovoi 6, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia
Keywords: synnyrite mineral, potassic feldspar, kalsilite, nephelite, argil, aluminum potassium sulphate, agglomeration, acid leaching

Abstract >>
The article presents aluminum silicate potassium mineralsynnyrite, named after the Synnyr Mine, and composition and properties of the mineral. It is shown that synnyrite has a complex composition, with the rock-forming mineral of potassic feldspar and kalsilite. The authors have developed advanced processing flowsheet for synnyrite minerals.



20.
Effect of Accelerated Electrons on Zeolite-Containing Rocks in the East Transbaikalia

A. N. KHATKOVA1, V. I. ROSTOVTSEV2, K. K. RAZMAKHNIN1, V. N. EMELYANOV1
1Transbaikalia State University, ul. Aleksandro-Zavodskaya 30, Chita, 672039 Russia
2N.A. Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: mineral raw material, East Transbaikalia zeolites, accelerated electron treatment, mineral unlocking, process efficiency

Abstract >>
It has been found that accelerated electrons have great influence on strength properties of zeolite-containing rocks, and on their post-grinding grain-size composition and the degree of unlocking, which intensifies further processing. The authors show the possibility of reducing the content of ferruginous admixture in zeolite products: from 3.14 to 0.36% for zeolite-containing rocks from Shivyrtui deposit and from 11.2 to 0.12% for chabasite-containing basaltic andesite from Talan-Gozagorsky deposit.



21.
Dearsenation of Gold-Bearing Arsenopyrite Ore in Superheated Water Steam Atmosphere

P. L. PALEEV, A. N. GULYASHINOV, I. G. ANTROPOVA
Baikal Institute of Natural Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakhyanovoi 6, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia
Keywords: gold-bearing arsenopyrite, pyrite, bakeout, superheated water steam, thermodynamic modeling, kinetics

Abstract >>
The Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental tests of dearsenation of gold-bearing arsenopyrite or in water steam atmosphere, the author show that during bakeout of arsenopyrite with pyrite in the superheated water steam atmosphere, it is possible to remove arsenic in the form of sulfides from original material and unlock noble metals.