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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2013 year, number 5

1.
Relation of the Flora of the Verkhoyansky Ridge (Yakutia)to Water Schedule

E. G. NIKOLIN
Institute of Biological Problems of Cryolitozone, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 677890, Yakutsk, Lenin ave., 4
Keywords: ecomorphs, wetting factor, hydrophytes, mesophytes, xerophytes, the Verkhoyansk Ridge, altitudinal belts, regional flora

Abstract >>
Information about the effect of wetting regime on the composition of the flora of the Verkhoyansk Ridge (Yakutia) is presented. The regularities of changes in ecomorph structure in connection with latitudinal zoning and vertical belt sequence of the mountain system under consideration are analyzed.



2.
Postfire Dynamics of Humid Subtaiga in the Low Mountains of the Eastern Sayan

M. E. KONOVALOVA, O. V. DROBUSHEVSKAYA
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, Build. 28
Keywords: subtaiga, type of burn patch recovery, natural territorial complexes

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of postfire succession dynamics in light-coniferous small-leaved forests in the Prienisey part of the Eastern Sayan on the landscape-ecological basis are presented. A generalizing scheme of the directions and rates of succession interchanges taking into account the pyrogenic factor was built and analyzed.



3.
Effect of Fires on the Ecosystems of Subtaiga Forest-Steppe Pine Forests in the South-Western Pribaikalia

Yu. N. KRASNOSHCHEKOV, M. D. EVDOKIMENKO, Yu. S. CHEREDNIKOVA
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
Keywords: subtaiga forest-steppe pine forests, surface fire of forest floor humus type, pyrogenic successions of vegetation, soil morphology, organogenic pyrogenic saoil horizons, ash chemical composition of forest floor, physicochemical properties of soil

Abstract >>
Data of the experimental investigation of postfire digression of the subtaiga forest-steppe pine forests in the South-Western Pribaikalia are analyzed. It was established that the surface fire of forest floor humus type are the major destructive factor in the dynamics of pine forests. The action of the surface fire is accompanied by tree dryout, while the vitality of the trees that survived in fire depends on the severity of fire damage. Characterization of the lower plant storeys and its dynamics under the effect of middle-intensity fire events are presented. A negative effect of surface fire on the changes of the stand, qualitative fractional composition of organogenic soil horizons and their chemical composition was demonstrated.



4.
About the Effect of Gmelin Larch Trees on Postfire Succession of the Forest Phytocenosis in the Cryolitozone of Middle Siberia

S. G. PROKUSHKIN, O. A. ZYRYANOVA
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, build. 28
Keywords: larch, vital state, phytogenous field, succession, sprouting, self-seeding, young growth

Abstract >>
The phytocenotic role of separate Gmelin larch trees that survived on burns after fire was shown for the conditions of cryolitozone of Middle Siberia. Depending on the vital state of the trees, the boundaries of their effect on the recovery of species composition of the lower storeys of phytocenoses and the formation of a new generation of tree stand were determined.



5.
Ecological Structure of Flora in Burns and the Stages of their Growth in the Llowland Pine Forests of the Altai Territiry

A. MALINOVSKY1, A. N. KUPRIYANOV2
1Altai State Agrarian University, 656049, Barnaul, Krasnoarmeyskiy ave., 98341
2Institute of Human Ecology of the SB RAS, 650025, Kemerovo, Leningradskiy ave., 10
kupr-42@yandex.ru
Keywords: line pine forest, middle-Ob pinery, upper-Ob pinery, pyrogenic successions, burnt wood, ecological structure

Abstract >>
Ecological structure of flora burnt depends on climatic conditions and geographic location. The secondary post-fire succession in lowland pine forests occurs rather rapidly, and after ten years the burns are at the stage of the formation of communities of patient plants. Pyrophyte plants become important in the formation of vegetation in burns. Formation of zonal vegetation types does not occur in ten years. A reduction of periods between fires leads to the fact that plant communities in flat pine forests are under constant influence of the pyrogenic factor.



6.
Pyrogenic Change of the Microelement Content in Soil and Plants in the Pine Forests of Western Transbaikalia

S. B. SOSOROVA, M. G. MERKUSHEVA, L. L. UBUGUNOV
Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Sakhyanova str., 6
Keywords: microelements, surface fire, plants, soil

Abstract >>
Pyrogenic changes of microelement content in soil and plants of the pine forests of West Transbaikalia (Republic of Buryatia) were studied. It was established that surface fires under the studied conditions cause changes of soil properties, insignificant increase in the concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb in the upper layers of soil (040 cm) and Mn, Zn, Pb in plants. It was revealed that the ratio Fe : Mn in soil gets narrower. Investigations show that the pyrogenic change of vegetation and soil properties, in particular elemental composition, is observed during several years after the fire.



7.
Soil-Geobotanic Profiling for Study of the Plant Communities Forming under the Conditions of the Steppe Extrazonality of the Barguzin Basin (North-Western Pribaikalia)

A. P. SIZYKH1, V. I. VORONIN1, I. A. BELOZERSEVA2
1Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 132
2V. B. Sochava Institute of Geography, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Ulanbatorskaya str., 1
Keywords: soil-geobotanical profiling, extrazonal steppe, Barguzin basin

Abstract >>
The data on the variability of the structure of plant communities formed under the conditions of the steppe extrazonality of the Barguzin basin (North-Western Pribaikalye) are represented. Geobotanic and soil profiles for one of the most significant study areas were made. The structure of contact communities of the light-coniferous taiga and extrazonal steppe was revealed. The edaphic conditions and location of plant communities reflected the direction of vegetation cover developing in this part of Pribaikalia.



8.
Soil organic matter dynamics after C3–C4 vegetation change of red soil in Southern, China: Evidence from natural 13C abundance

Q. M. LIU1, Y. L. CAO1, Y. F. HUANG1,2, Y. P. ZHANG1, J. Q. LIN1, J. M. LIN1, L. S. XU1,2
1Institute of Environmental Engineering, Biotechnology Engineering College Jimei University, 361021, Xiamen, Chin
2Institute of Urban Environment Chinese Academy of Sciences
Keywords: red soil, carbon dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM), δ13C values

Abstract >>
Soil samples from natural forests and adjacent farmland were analyzed to investigate the dynamics of soil organic matter of red soil in Southern, China. Based on the δ13C values and the content of soil organic matter, the data indicated that the turnover of soil organic matter under the virgin forest was slower than that under cultivation. Soil organic matter is fresh in coarse sand and oldest in fine silt and clay. Also, the soil light fraction contained the younger organic matter than soil heavy fraction and bulk soil. Deforestation has accelerated the decomposition rate of soil organic matter and reduced the proportion of active components in SOM and thus soil fertility.



9.
Recent advances in soil seed bank research

WANG YONGCUI1,2, JIANG DEMING1, TOSHIO OSHIDA3, ZHOU QUANLAI1
1Institute of Applied Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016, Chin, Shenyang
jiangdm.iae@gmail.com
2Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100039, Chin, Beijing
3Azabu University, 252-5201, Japan, Sagamihara
Keywords: soil seed bank, disturbance, geographic factor, vegetation, seed size

Abstract >>
Soil seed bank is an important component of ecosystem resilience and represents a stock of regeneration potential in many plant assemblages. Soil seed banks can be used to predict the composition of new plant recruitment. Species overcome periods of unfavorable weather conditions by building up a large seed bank. With this strategy, the species diversity is preserved and information on their dynamics and structure is retained. The research on soil seed bank has received wide interest because of its important role in plantation renovation and restoration, biological diversity preservation, vegetation succession and diffusion processes and other aspects. This paper reviews the relationship between soil seed bank and disturbance, geographic factor, vegetation and seed size and is aimed at providing some useful reference for future research.



10.
Hygroscopic Properties of Forest Floor in Coniferous and Deciduous Plantations in Middle Siberia

S. R. LOSKUTOV, O. A. SHAPCHENKOVA, E. F. VEDROVA, A. A. ANISKINA, L. V. MUKHORTOVA
V. N. Sukachev Institute of forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: forest floor, water vapor sorption, store of hygroscopic water

Abstract >>
The hygroscopic properties of forest floor in coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb., Pinus sylvestris L.) and deciduous (Populus tremula L., Betula fruticosa Pall.) plantations were studied using the isotherms of water vapor sorption and methods of thermal analysis (TG, DSC). Sub-horizons OL and OF in larch and pine plantations had the larger monolayer adsorption capacity. The forest floor in larch plantation was characterized by the highest hydrophilicity. Results of DSC indicated that hygroscopic water had higher binding with the substance of sub-horizon OL in coniferous and sub-horizon OH in deciduous plantations. The forest floor in coniferous plantations was characterized by higher store of hygroscopic water than in deciduous ones.



11.
Enzymatic Activity of Soil of the Islands near the Right Bank of the Selenga Delta (the Baikal Region)

E. O. MAKUSHKIN1, N. D. SOROKIN2
1Institute of the General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, Sakhyanova str., 6
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodog
Keywords: delta, the Selenga, Baikal, soil, temperature, humidity, pH of water extract, humus, macroelements, enzymatic activity, 2 emission, water-soluble NH3+ and NO3-

Abstract >>
Investigation of the enzymatic activity of modern and lower gorizont of soils of the islands and the near-bench floodplain of the Lobanovskaya branch at the right bank of the Selenga delta is described. Ecological conditions determining its differences at the regions under study are conditions. Evaluation of the activity of enzymes in the soils of the right bank part of the delta in comparison with the regions of the left-bank part differing in the landscape ecological parameters is presented.



12.
valuation of the Efficiency of Methods of Bioremediation of the Waste Product of Oil-Producing Complex

S. Yu. SELIVANOVSKAYA, R. Kh. GUMEROVA, P. Yu. GALITSKAYA
Kazan Federal University, 420008, Tatarstan Republic, Kazan, Kremlevskaya str., 18
Keywords: waste products of oil-producing complex, bioremediation, bioaugmentation, landfarming, phytotoxicity

Abstract >>
Results of laboratory modeling of the remediation of waste product containing oil products (652 g/kg) and natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th 40K) by means of landfarming, biostimulation and bioaugmentation are presented. It is established that landfarming and biostimulation provide a decrease in oil product content and in the phytotoxicity of the waste product; landfarming is a more rapid process.



13.
Phytomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution in the Baikal Region

T. A. MIKHAILOVA, O. V. KALUGINA, O. V. SHERGINA
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 132
Keywords: the Baikal region, phytomonitoring, scotch pine, inorganic pollutants

Abstract >>
Phytomonitoring of atmospheric pollution was performed using Scotch pine as a highly sensitive bioindicator. Pine needle samples were collected in reference sites along the 320 km Sayansk-Irkutsk-Listvyanka transect passing through the major industrial centers of Baikal region and stretching to the shores of Lake Baikal. The concentrations of inorganic pollutants such as sulfur, fluorides, heavy metals etc. in needles were determined. The highest level of atmospheric pollution was detected at the territories of the Angarskiy, Irkutskiy, Usolskiy, Shelekhovskiy industrial centers, lower pollution is observed within the Sayan and Cheremkhovo industrial centers. The data show that the majority of pollutants reach the Baikal shore.



14.
The Variability of the Anatomical Structure of Pine Needles of Picea obovata Ledeb. under the Effect of Emissions from the Industrial Zone of Kemerovo

O. M. LEGOSHCHINA1, O. A. NEVEROVA1, A. A. BYKOV2
1Institute of Human Ecology, SB RAS, 650065, Kemerovo, Leningradskiy ave., 10
2The Kemerovo branch of the Institute of computational technologies, SB RAS, 650025, Kemerovo, Rukavishnikov str., 21
Keywords: industrial zone, the complex index of atmospheric pollution, pine needles, anatomical features, adaptive changes

Abstract >>
The anatomic-morphological indicators of the needles of Picea obovata Ledeb. under the effect of emissions from the industrial zone of Kemerovo were investigated. Some changes of the negative nature were detected: a reduction of length, area and the surface of pine needles, the thickness of the inner lining and epidermis, an increase in the asymmetry of the central conducting beam, a reduction of the number of pitch channels. Some changes of the adaptive nature were also detected: an increase in the thickness of epidermis and endodermis, an increase in the area of pitch channels and the central cylinder. The significant correlation of the complex index of atmospheric pollution with the anatomic-morphological characteristics of pine needles was revealed. This confirms the fact of the substantive effect of emissions from the industrial zone of Kemerovo on the anatomical structure of pine needles of Picea obovata Ledeb.



15.
Chemical and Biological Evaluation of the State of Urban Soil

V. A. EFREMOVA1, E. V. DABAKH2, L. V. KONDAKOVA1
1Vyatka State Humanitarian University, 610007, Kirov, Lenin str., 198
2Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, 610017, Kirov, Oktyabrskiy ave., 133
Keywords: urban soil, ecological evaluation, total and mobile forms of heavy metals, biotesting, toxicity

Abstract >>
Evaluation of urban soil for Kirov as example was carried out by means of chemical analysis and biotesting. Total content and the concentrations of mobile forms of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Fe, Pb), pH of water and salt extracts, humus content were determined in different regions of the Kirov city. On the basis of the total index of tecnogenic pollution (Zc), urban soil is characterized by the low level of pollution. Test objects of different trophic groups were used for biotesting: Daphnia magna Straus , Paramecium caudatum, Escherichia coli. Results of the comparative analysis of the sensitivity of different biotesting methods are presented.



16.
About Comparability of Litter Morphogenetic Peculiarities and Litter Humus State in the Bog Birch Forest

T. T. EFREMOVA, A. F. AVROVA, S. P. EFREMOV
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50, building 28
Keywords: bog birch forest, forest litter, morphogenetic types, organic matter, humification

Abstract >>
The six litter types, such as heavily decomposed, middle decomposed, rhizome-like (coarse decomposed), turfy, peaty and turf, were determined on the gradient of large grass-dead soil cover-sphagnum in the bog birch forest. Specificity of their biochemical transformation depends on the amount of gumic acid accumulation, mainly of the first fraction (GA-1), at the background of relatively uniform rate of the formation of fulvic acids. The intensity of GA-1 formation is closely positively connected with the biological activity of substratum, judging from the C/N ratio. However, unclear distinctions between these indices of forestry-morphological litter types limit their diagnostic reliability. Grouped biochemical litter categories mild (heavilyand middle decomposed), transitional (rhizome-like, turfy, peaty) and coarse (mossy) are significantly discriminated by the C/N ratio 20, 30, 40, as well as by the content of GA-1 14, 10, 6 %, respectively.



17.
Effects of dwarf bamboo, Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. ex Yi, on bark stripping by ungulates in a subalpine Abies faxoniana Rehder & E. H. Wilson forest, southwest China

YONG-JIAN WANG1, XUE-PING SHI1, JIAN-PING TAO2
1Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070, Chin, Wuhan
2Southwest University, 400715, Chin, Chongqing
Keywords: bark stripping, Fargesia nitida, ungulates activity, regeneration, subalpine forest

Abstract >>
Incidence and intensity of bark stripping of trees by ungulates was investigated at no bamboo (Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. ex Yi) (B–) site and understory bamboo dominant (B+) site of a subalpine Abies faxoniana forest, southwest China. The percentage of damaged trees in B site was higher than in B+ site. Bark stripping obviously occurred more frequently on Abies faxonian Rehder & E. H. Wilson compared to other tree species. Appearance of stripped bark and dead stems of the trees in different size-classes of A. faxoniana strongly depended on the density of dwarf bamboo at the site, and also on the size and bark structure of the trees, with highest damage rates occurring on the smaller DBH classes (1040 cm) in B site. The bark stripping intensity of A. faxonian decreased significantly with higher density and coverage of F. nitida around damaged trees. Therefore, there is an indirect negative effect of the distribution of dwarf bamboo, F. nitida , on bark stripping of tree species. We suggest the indirect effects of dwarf bamboo species should be taken into account while considering the succession and regeneration of natural forests.