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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2013 year, number 4

1.
Microcystine-Producing Cyanobacteria in Water Reservoirs of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine

O. I. BELYKH, A. S. GLADKIKH, E. G. SOROKOVIKOVA, I. V. TIKHONOVA, S. A. POTAPOV and G. A. FEDOROVA
Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 6640333 (Russia)
Keywords: toxic cyanobacteria, Microcystis, Anabaena, Lake Baikal, Lake Kotokelskoye, the Basltic Sea, Beresh water reservoir, the Svisloch River, the Dnepr River, Kanev water, microcystin, reservoir, microcystine, genetic markers
Pages: 347361

Abstract >>
A review of hepatotoxic microcystins produced by cyanobacteria of different genera is presented. The chemical structure and properties of microcystins, the mechanism of their action and toxicokinetics are considered. Methods of microcystin analysis and the genetic basis of their production are described. The results of the studies of cyanobacteria and their toxins (microcystins) in different water reservoirs of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine are presented.
																				  																		



2.
Properties of Fibrous Petroleum Collectors Obtained from Polystyrene Waste Material by Treatment with Water Vapour

E. V. VEPRIKOVA1, E. A. TERESHCHENKO1, N. V. CHESNOKOV1,2 and B. N. KUZNETSOV1,2
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russia)
22Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodny 79, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russia)
Keywords: non-isobaric thermal treatment, water vapour, polystyrene, petroleum collectors, filtering material
Pages: 363368

Abstract >>
Properties of fibrous petroleum collectors obtained by non-isobaric thermal treatment of various kinds of polystyrene raw material with water vapour were studied. It was shown that these sorbents possess high sorption capacity with respect to petroleum products and can be used as the filtering material in the process of water purification from petroleum products. It was established that fibrous sorbents possess not worse characteristics than the commercial analogues do.
																				  																		



3.
Biologically Active Substances in Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. Growing in the Middle Urals

G. I. VYSOCHINA1, T. A. KUKUSHKINA1 and E. S. VASFILOV2
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Botanical Garden, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. 8 Marta 202a, Yekaterinburg 620144 (Russia)
Keywords: Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim, flavonols, catechines, tannins, pectic susbtancesm saponins, carotenouds
Pages: 369374

Abstract >>
The plants of Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. growing in the Middle Urals can serve as a source of flavonols, catechins, tannins, saponins and carotenoids. A definite specificity in their accumulation in organs was established. The high carotenoid content in the leaves of Filipendula ulmaria was established by us for the first time.
																				  																		



4.
Distribution and Composition of Low Molecular Mass Nitrogen-Containing Bases in Highly Resinous Paraffinic Petroleum Oil Species

N. N. GERASIMOVA, T. A. SAGACHENKO and R. S. MIN
Instiutte of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
Keywords: oil, resins, paraffins, nitrogen-containing bases
Pages: 375379

Abstract >>
Low molecular mass nitrogen bases inherent in highly resinous paraffinic oil species were studied. It is demonstrated that the structural-group composition thereof does not depend on the content of resin-asphaltene substances and paraffins in the oil and substances being characterized by a set of compounds typical for the bulk of the oil species produced.
																				  																		



5.
Effect of Amino Acids on the Crystallization Kinetics of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate

O. A. GOLOVANOVA1, V. V. KOROLKOV1, YU. O. PUNIN2 and A. S. VYSOTSKIY1
1Omsk State University, Prospekt Mira, 55A, Omsk 644077 (Russia)
2Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya Naberezhnaya 7/9, Saint Petersburg 199034 (Russia)
Keywords: calcium monohydrate oxalate, growth, adsorption, amino acids, inhibition, crystallization
Pages: 381388

Abstract >>
An integrated set of problems connected with the features of calcium oxalate crystallization in the presence of amino acids is considered. It is established with the help of X-ray phase analysis that the formed precipitates are represented by calcium oxalate monohydrate (wavellite). The kinetic parameters of crystallization were determined. It was shown that the growth of crystals follows the mechanism of two-dimensional nucleation. It was established that amino acids have different effects on crystallization: glutamic acid, arginine, glycine, and lysine inhibit the process, while proline, serine, asparagine serve as the catalysts of the process; some amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine etc.) have insignificant effect on the kinetics of crystal growth. With an increase in supersaturation, the promoting action of amino acid weakens, while the inhibiting action enhances, which is connected with the competition of these effects.
																				  																		



6.
Thermal Decomposition of Biomass and Glycerol in Vibro-Liquefied Bed in the Presence of the Catalysts of Deep Oxidation

YU. V. DUBININ,  N. A. YAZYKOV,  A. D. SIMONOV  and  V. A. YAKOVLEV
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: catalyst of deep oxidation, combustion of solid fuel, pyrolysis, gasification, steam reforming, biomass, glycerol, vibro-liquefied bed, boiling bed
Pages: 389395

Abstract >>
Features of the thermal decomposition (pyrolysis, steam reforming) of carbon-containing raw material in the vibro-liquefied bed of inert material and in the presence of the catalysts of deep oxidation were studied. It was shown that the presence of catalysts in wood pyrolysis ensures more complete transformation of condensable organic substances (resins) into light gaseous products  (, 2, 2, 4). For a model oxygen-containing organic substrate (glycerol), it was shown that the conversion of glycerol during its steam reforming in pseudo-liquefied bed of the catalysts of deep oxidation follows several routes including gasification with the formation of , 2, 2 and 4, polycondensation of the products of glycerol dehydration with the formation of coke, steam gasification of coke. Similar processes are realized during the combustion of biomass at the stage of pyrolysis and gasification in the boiling bed. It was shown that efficient catalysts in the steam reforming of glycerol exhibit high activity in the process of oxidation of glycerol and biomass. Investigation of the process of catalytic combustion of aqueous solutions of glycerol showed that the degree of oxidation reaches 99.399.9 % with the use of the catalysts of deep oxidation. Oxidation process runs with the highest efficiency in the presence of PK1273 catalyst.
																				  																		



7.
Composition of the Essential Oils of Some Species Belonging to Genus Agastache Clayton ex Gronov (Lamiaceae) Cultivated under the Conditions of the Middle Ural

M. A. MYADELETS1, T. A. VOROBYEVA2 and D. V. DOMRACHEV3
1Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2Botanical Garden, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. 8 Marta 202, Yekaterinburg 620144 (Russia)
33Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: Agastache rugosa, A. scrophulariifolia, A. foeniculum, A. urticifolia, A. mexicana, essential oil, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Pages: 397401

Abstract >>
Using the technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, essential oil composition was studied for species Agastache rugosa, A. scrophulariifolia, A. foeniculum, A. urticifolia, A. mexicana, cultivated under the conditions of the Middle Ural. It has been found that there prevail menthone (42.2 %) and isomenthone (18.8 %) therein.
																				  																		



8.
Synthesizing Highly Concentrated Hydrosols of Copper Nanoparticles via Reduction by Ascorbic Acid in the Presence of Gelatose

S. V. SAIKOVA1, K. S. MURASHEVA1, S. A. VOROBYEV1, K. YU. KOCHMAREV1, E. E. KARIMOV1, A. D. EREMINA1 and YU. L. MIKHLIN2
1Siberian Federal University, Pr. Svobodny 79, Krasnoyarsk 664041 (Russia)
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia)
Keywords: copper nanoparticle synthesis, hydrosols, gelatose, ascorbic acid, guar, carrageenan
Pages: 403409

Abstract >>
A simple and environmentally safe method has been proposed for producing highly concentrated (about 0.01 mol/L) hydrosols containing copper nanoparticles with the size of 3040 nm. The method is based on the reduction of Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution of ascorbic acid in the presence of high molecular mass gelatose stabilizer, the product of high temperature hydrolysis of gelatin.
																				  																		



9.
Evaluation of the Toxicity of Nanostructural Aluminium Oxyhydroxide with the Help of Hydrobionts

N. V. SVAROVSKAYA, O. V. BAKINA, E. A. GLAZKOVA, M. I. LERNER, A. S. LOZHKOMOEV, A. N. SEROVA and E. G. KHOROBRAYA
Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 2/4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
Keywords: nanostructured aluminium oxyhydroxide, toxicity, biotesting, Daphnia Magna Straus, Vibrio fischeri, colloidal silver, aluminium ions
Pages: 411414

Abstract >>
The toxicity of the aqueous extracts from the sorption material containing the particles of nanostructured aluminium oxyhydroxide, modified with colloidal silver and non-modified ones, with respect to Daphnia and luminescent bacteria was studied. It was established that the toxicity of aqueous extracts is due to the presence of Al3+ ions migrating into water with low salt content, and oligodynamic action of silver.
																				  																		



10.
Studying the Composition and Structure of a High-Boiling Part of Heavy Pyrolysis Resin Resulting from Processing a Broad Fraction of Light Hydrocarbons

M. A. TSEUNOVA1,2, V. I. MASHUKOV2 and A. K. GOLOVKO1
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
2NIOST LLC, SIBURs Scientific Centre for Chemical Technologies, Kuzovlevskiy Trakt 2, build. 270, Tomsk 634067 (Russia)
Keywords: heavy pyrolysis resins, asphaltenes, resins, oils, pyrolysis, composition of volatile components
Pages: 415422

Abstract >>
Analysis was performed concerning heavy pyrolysis resin produced at the Tomskneftekhim Ltd and the products of  extraction and chromatographic separation thereof (oil species, resins and asphaltenes) with the use of a pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique (PGCMS). Main structural fragments were determined for the resins and asphaltenes, as well as an individual composition was obtained for oils in the course of the decomposition thereof within a pyrolytic chamber at 800 in an inert atmosphere. It has been found that the oils represent a mixture of low molecular aromatic compounds such as condensed 36 ringed aromatic hydrocarbons the molecular mass up to 300 amu, whereas the resins and asphaltenes represent high molecular mass aromatic compounds, whose molecules are consist of 12-, 45- and 12-, 34-ringed aromatic fragments, respectively. Using the methods of PGHMS and IR spectroscopy, the composition of the high-boiling part of heavy pyrolysis resin has been identified.
																				  																		



11.
Preparation and Use of Styrene-Containing Oligomer Treated by Pinane Hydroperoxide

O. N. CHERNYKH, I. N. PUGACHEVA and S. S. NIKULIN
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies, Pr. Revolyutsii 19, Voronezh 394036 (Russia)
Keywords: rubber, by-products, oligomers hydroperoxide, modification, emulsion, additive, wood protection
Pages: 423430

Abstract >>
A high temperature process of treatment by pinane hydroperoxide was studied for styrene-containing oligomer obtained from polybutadiene by-products. It is demonstrated that the oxidized product obtained could be used for the production of emulsion rubber, as well as for the protective treatment of wood and wood-ware.
																				  																		



12.
omplexation of Al(III) with Benzylpenicillin and Carbenicillin

E. N. MYASNIKOVA, V. G. ALEKSEEV and V. M. NIKOLSKIY
Tver State University, Sadovy per. 35, Tver 170002 (Russia)
myasnikova_en@mail.ru
Keywords: benzylpenicillin, carbenicillin, aluminum complexes, antibiotic complexes
Pages: 431435

Abstract >>
The interaction of Al(III) with the anions of benzylpenicillin (Bzp) and carbenicillin (Carb2)in an aqueous solution at 25 and the ionic strength of 0.1 (KNO3)solution was studied by means of the pH-metric titration. The formation of complexes AlBzp2+ (lg β = 3.60.1) and AlCarb+ (lg β = 4.100.08) in the slightly acidic medium was established.
																				  																		



13.
Complexation of Al(III) with Ampicillin and Amoxicillin

E. N. MYASNIKOVA,  V. G. ALEKSEEV and V. M. NIKOLSKIY
Tver State University, Sadovy per. 35, Tver 170002 (Russia)
E-mail: vg_alekseev@rambler.ru
Keywords: ampicillin, amoxicillin, aluminum complexes, antibiotic complexes
Pages: 437439

Abstract >>
The interaction of Al(III) with ampicillin (Amp) and amoxicillin (Axn) in an aqueous solution at 25 and the ionic strength of 0.1 (KNO3) was studied by means of pH-metric titration. The formation of complexes AlAmp2+ (log β = 5.110.06), AlHAmp3+ (log β = 9.630.07), AlAxn2+ (log β = 4.640.09), AlHAxn3+(log β = 7.950.09) was detected.