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Region: Economics and Sociology

2013 year, number 2

Modeling the Spatial Economy: Genesis, Current State, and Prospects

V.I. Suslov
Keywords: models, economic space, regional economy, economic equilibrium, paradigm, agent-oriented modeling, geo-information systems

Abstract >>
The paper presents a brief review of spatial economy models known since the beginning of the XX century with special focus on the models offered by Prof. Granberg and further applied by the IEIE SB RAS for more than 40 years. Here we show what is supposed to be modified in these models for the application within this research project, i.e. the project approach, database management, geo-information systems, agent-oriented modeling, and super-calculations.

Modeling the Economic Space: Problems Discussed in Modern Studies

L.V. Melnikova
Keywords: space, economic and mathematical models, bibliography, prospects of modeling

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes problems of the spatial economy modeling and approaches to their solving; to what degree an economic space is conceptualized; advantages and disadvantages of major classes of spatial models; and experts' assessments of prospects of spatial modeling. Conceptualization of the economic space is proved to be far from its completion, and still the economic space modeling could be regarded as an unresolved intellectual problem since the researchers' efforts to determine spatial development endogenously have faced the difficulties concerning analytical solutions and micro-data required for models. Researches of different schools agree on prospects of spatial modeling -they are the application of more micro- and geocoded data for the purposes of a direct inclusion of time factors and combination of the models developed for different sectors of spatial economy (in particular, agent-oriented models) into the integrated models to allow overcoming limits of constituted models.

Northern Identity of Russia

Yu.V. Popkov, Ye.A. Tyugashev
Keywords: sociology of world development, civilization, North, Russia, identity, Northern identity

Abstract >>
The paper brings into focus the North - South divide (the Global North and Global South) to use it as a methodological tool to analyze an identity of the Russian civilization. Being sure that Russian identity may not be regarded as the Global North and Global West, the authors prove the Northern identity of Russia. To admit this fact is important for identifying the future development trends of the Russian domestic and foreign policies.

Identification of Russian Regions from the Point of View of Spatial Heterogeneity

S.A. Kirillova, O.G. Kantor
Keywords: region, spatial differentiation, development, efficiency, Arctic regions, criteria weights normalization, metric analysis

Abstract >>
The paper offers the methodical tools for building a set of complex indicators of regional efficiency which reflect the resource, processing, and resulting components of major subsystems of a regional socio-economic system. We present our multidimensional assessment of the spatial heterogeneity observed for the Russian regions in 2000-2010 in the terms of the parameters of regional efficiency, and also a comparative analysis of spatial differentiation. Having analyzed the data concerning the resource-oriented regions in the Russian Arctic, we can state that high values of an economic component in their regional efficiency do not adequately reflect the actual socio-economic results.

Disparities in the Resource Economies of a Federative Type

S.D. Ageeva
Keywords: federalism, region, resource economy, horizontal and vertical disparities, localization of effects, innovations, investments, infrastructure bonds

Abstract >>
The paper analyses how some experts assess the Russian economy considered as a resource economy, and how institutions of a resource economy influence the unequal efficiency of regional innovation processes. We show what the administrations of the RF subjects could do both for localization of development effects in the resource sector and attraction of investments from the stock market in the context of «a manually managed economy», and what key tools they have to apply to perform a direct control and carry out negotiations.

How Public Finances Regulation Influences the Regional Economies and Budgets

V.A. Shirobokova
Keywords: regions, Siberian Federal District, regulation, intergovernmental fiscal relations, financial independence, fiscal capacity, differentiation, vertical balance, horizontal equalization, sales tax

Abstract >>
The paper presents a case study on budget analysis for regions included in the Siberian Federal District, and how public finances regulation influences their regional economies and budgets. We can state that intergovernmental regulation negatively impacts on the situation in several regions, and effectiveness of the current policies in relation to regional public finances is open to serious question. To solve many such problems, we would like to propose some other approaches to building intergovernmental fiscal regulation. For example, according to our calculations made on actual data, a value-added tax replaced by a sales tax would be more effective since such approach, instead of the ongoing practice to correct mechanisms of intergovernmental fiscal regulation, would allow higher regional revenues and more incentives to have revenues high.

The Declared and Actual Priorities of Regional and Local Authorities: How to Identify and Compare

B.S. Zhykharevich, N.B. Zhunda, O.V. Rusetskaya
Keywords: priority, fiscal policy, strategic planning, budget expenditures, municipality, region

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the approaches which could allow identifying, comparing and explaining a correspondence (or discrepancy) between the declared priorities of the socio-economic policies carried out by regional or municipal authorities (for example, strategic plans) and actual one (for example, those reflecting how public funds are handled). We tested such approaches for several city districts of the North-West areas of Russia through decomposing the project documents and using tools of budget analysis to show that representation and comparison of such declared and actual priorities in a formal manner is principally realizable.

Current Trends in the Shaping of Self-Developing Regions

Ye.A. Zakharchuk, A.F. Pasynkov, A.A. Nekrasov
Keywords: self-development, regions, GRP, regional financial balance

Abstract >>
The paper describes what place «a self-developed socio-economic system» occupies among the nearest equivalent economic terms. We propose our criteria to identify a self-developed region such as an advanced GRP growth and fiscal self-provision. Our calculations for all subjects of the Russian Federation made on the base of the approach proposed allow, identifying four types of economic development according to such criteria. We also describe the differences between the federal districts and present a classification of the self-developed regions according by types of economic development.

The Oil-and-Gas Sector in Development of the Russian Economy

V.A. Kryukov, V.D. Marshak
Keywords: oil-and-gas sector, rent, money flows model, assessments, hydrocarbon prices, export

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the theoretical issues of an institutional rent by presenting a case study for the Russian oil-and-gas sector and how this sector influences the economy under different conditions of the world market. The calculations are made by applying the dynamic optimization models for money flows in the national economy. We assess how hydrocarbon prices of the world market influence the GDP dynamics, consolidated budget, and direct investments, and what minimal level of the oil prices should be to ensure a minimal effective level of the economic development. Our calculations show that there are resources to diversify the federal fiscal revenue but very few effective projects to realize this.

The State and Problems of Transportation Infrastructure in the Siberian Strategy

V.I. Psarev, T.V. Psareva, I.A. Goncharov
Keywords: Siberian Federal District, strategy, transportation infrastructure, efficiency, Trans-Siberian Railroad, Baikal-Amur Railway, routing schemes

Abstract >>
Having analyzed the course, problems, and prospects of the development in the Siberian transportation sector which we consider as one of the most important factor of the successful implementation of the Siberian Socio-Economic Development Strategy up to 2020, we can conclude that the infrastructure failed to meet the current requirements and prospects of future development of the region and country. Our proposals are to speed up the implementation of the infra-structural projects and change the approaches to their management and financing. We also present our assessment of the volumes of investments required for modernization of the Siberian Federal District infrastructure.

Diagnostics of Siberian Innovation Development

M.A. Kaneva, G.A. Untura
Keywords: regions, Siberian Federal District, innovation strategy, R&D, factor analysis, cluster analysis, regression analysis, regional innovation profile

Abstract >>
The paper considers methodological aspects of diagnosing the regional innovation development and illustrates such aspects by the results obtained by the factor, regression and cluster analysis of the innovation development indicators. This allowed identifying the innovation profiles of Russia and the Siberian Federal District in 2007 and 2010. We show how the sets of factors and indicators which statistically explain the innovation development in the country and Siberia in different years differ from each other. By a cluster analysis we identify three groups of the Siberian regions which have similar innovation profiles, and we also build the GRP regressions on innovation indicators for the SFD regions.

Social Trends in Siberian Regions

Z.I. Kalugina
Keywords: Siberia, Human Development Indices, regional social differences, social policy, Siberia in public opinion

Abstract >>
This article focuses on the regional social inequalities observed in Russia. The objects of our analysis are the regions of the Siberian Federal District and Russian Federation in whole. We use the human development indicators as criteria of regional social differences. We can conclude that, despite positive trends observed, Siberia could not get out of the accustomed grooves of being a deprived region, and this fact does influence the current public opinion and migratory orientations of the Siberians.

Reproductive Health as a Factor of the Reduced Birth Rates in Siberia

Yu.A. Grigoryev, S.V. Soboleva
Keywords: reproductive health, risk factors, maternal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, infertility, innovation technologies of reproductive medicine

Abstract >>
Reproductive health is considered as an important part of the population health and a quantitative characteristic of reproduction of the population. To assess a current state of the reproductive health in the present social and sanitary environment of the Siberian Federal District, we use such indicators as the female sickness rates among women in their gestation period and those whose sickness were caused by a pre-pregnancy disease; number of abortions; maternal, perinatal, and infant mortality; and infertility. We also analyze the features of reproductive health related to the life styles of women who consume alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. Major risks of reproductive health are venereal infections, cancer of reproductive organs, and abortions.

Development Problems of the Oil Refining and Petrochemistry Sectors

V.N. Parmon
Keywords: Russia, Siberia, petroleum refining, petrochemistry, engineering infrastructure, Skolkovo Foundation, technological safety

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the problems of the petroleum refining and petrochemistry sectors in Russia and Siberia, prospects of using modern technologies and processes in the deep processing of hydrocarbon resources, development of the engineering infrastructure, interaction between science and business, and technological safety in Russia.

Fuel and Energy Complex of the Eastern Russia: Current State and Prospects

B.G. Saneyev
Keywords: Eastern Siberia, Far East, eastern energy policy, fuel and energy industry, international cooperation, energy cooperation, mechanisms of implementation of the energy strategy

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes what specific features of the Russian development in new economic environment caused a necessity to revise energy priorities. We describe the initial conditions, targets, and strategic development priorities of the fuel and energy industry in the East of the country. We present our proposals on the conditions and initiatives required for successful implementation of the East Russia Energy Strategy and a list of priorities of the cooperation between Russia and the Northeast Asian countries.

Analyzing Global and Local Efficiency of a Large Investment Project

A.B. Kogan
Keywords: large investment project, local efficiency, global efficiency, speed index of value growth, investments, optimization intersectoral interregional model

Abstract >>
The paper presents the calculations of the local and global efficiencies of a large investment project; a technique for identifying conflicts which could arise between an investor and society; and a growth of national final consumption obtained by implementation of such project. To make our calculations, we apply an optimization intersectoral interregional model, and an approach to selecting the best project based on comparison of local and global alternatives to find the Pareto-optimal solutions. The assessment of efficiency is made by a speed index of value growth developed by the author.

The Impact of the By-Pass Ring Road in St. Petersburg on the Development of Adjacent Suburbs

Ye.V. Korchagina
Keywords: St. Petersburg, ring road, regional development, industrial structure, type of the building development

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes how the by-pass ring road in St. Petersburg impacts on the development of the suburb industries and infrastructure located at the intersections of town mains and this ring road. We present our classification of the territories under study by growth rates and factors of uneven development of St. Petersburg suburbs adjacent to the ring road. We can state that the closer to the city any exit from the ring road, the higher the growth rates in adjacent suburbs are observed.

Environment Pollution and Damage to Health: Current State and Compensation Mechanisms

A.P. Kireyenko, G.D. Rusetskaya, O.I. Gorbunova
Keywords: Baikal region, environment pollution, people health, assessments, compensation, mechanism

Abstract >>
The paper assesses the ecological situation in the Baikal region and how it affects the people health. We propose a technique for assessing the damage to health; application of tax tools to compensate damages; and a new technique for calculation of individual income taxes reflecting the level of pollution of territories where people reside.

Social Infrastructure in Rural Areas: Applicability of Integrated Assessments

K.N. Kalashnikov, G.V. Belekhova, M.A. Antonova
Keywords: social infrastructure, rural areas, integrated assessment, standard of life, Vologda Oblast

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes a current state of the social infrastructure in rural areas of the Vologda Oblast applying an integrated index of the social structure development offered by the authors. We show that the social infrastructure includes not only material object, but also a wide set of services and programs aimed at the human and regional development. We test an approach to assessing the social structure development by applying a set of statistical indicators which reflect the state of major economic sectors and infrastructure for municipalities of the Vologda Oblast.

Organizational Competences as a Factor of Higher Enterprises' Competitiveness

V.D. Markova, S.A. Kuznetsova, I.V. Tsomayeva
Keywords: enterprises, organizational competences, competitive advantages, technique for identifying key competences

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes key organizational competences, describes difficulties which any enterprise may face in identifying such competences and control over them. The paper offers a methodical approach to identifying such competences and tests it on the base of a case study for the instrument engineering facility.

Promoting the Stability of China-Russia Regional Development

Shuang Liu
Keywords: Russia, China, economic cooperation, programs, projects, risks, regional markets

Abstract >>
The paper describes major sectors and projects of the Russia and China cooperation and shows that adjustment of mutual interests could be regarded as a key factor of a continuous commercial cooperation between regions of Russia and China. The volume of trade between the Heilongjiang Province and Russian neighbouring regions amounts to 49% of a total volume of foreign trade of China provinces. The paper also describes the risks of the implementation projects on cooperation between regions of the North-East of China and Far-East of Russia, and prospects of Russia-China regional cooperation.