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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2013 year, number 6

Model estimates of anthropogenic black carbon concentration in the Russian Arctic atmosphere

A.A. Vinogradova1, A.O. Veremeichik2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 119017, Moscow, Pyzhevskii per., 3
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-3, Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119899, Russia
Keywords: black carbon, soot, atmospheric transport, Arctic, atmospheric pollution, environment, Russian Nature Reserves

Abstract >>
The first model estimates of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) transport in the atmosphere from Russian towns and regions to Nenetzky Nature Reserve (in the Pechora River Delta) have been made. The analysis was based on 10-year (20012010) everyday air mass transport trajectories for January, April, July, and October (HYSPLIT4 model, The average (through 10 years) spatial distributions of source efficiancy in air pollution near the Reserve were calculated and presented on maps for different seasons. These results could be of use to analyze atmospheric pollution transport with fine aerosol particles from man-made sources existing today or planed, as well as from extended sources (such as wood and grass fires). The numerical estimates of anthropogenic BC concentrations in air and precipitations, as well as fluxes onto the surface in the area of Nenetzky Reserve are included in the article. The computed results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and other calculations. Also, we discuss the main aspects of modeling BC atmospheric transport and present short review of recent measuring and modeling investigations in this brunch for the Russian Arctic.

On possible methane emissions from the East Arctic Seas

V.V. Malakhova, E.N. Golubeva
Russian Academy of Sciences Mathematical Department Novosibirsk Scientific Centre Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS, prospect Akademika Lavrentjeva, 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: dissolved methane transport, methane flux, methane emissions, Arctic, East Siberian shelf

Abstract >>
Based on the regional model the Arctic OceanNorth Atlantic, developed in ICMMG SB RAS, the variability of the Arctic Ocean water masses state was simulated for the period from 1948 to 2010. The analysis of the thermohaline characteristics of the East Siberia Shelf water in the model results showed a positive trend in the bottom temperature, which is in agreement with the observational data. Assuming the increase in the gas permeability of the perennial frozen sediment caused by climate change, the numerical simulation of the dissolved methane transport from the bottom reservoirs in the shelf water was performed. According to numerical results obtained in the period from 2002 to 2010, the total methane emission in the Eastern Arctic shelf waters can be estimated from 16 to 54 kilotons per year.

Results of tropospheric thermodynamics monitoring on the base of multichannel microwave system data

E.N. Kadygrov, A.G. Gorelik, E.A. Miller, V.V. Nekrasov, A.V. Troitsky, T.A. Tochilkina, A.N. Shaposhnikov
Central Aerological Observatory, 3, Pervomayskaya str., Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700, Russia
Keywords: microwave remote sensing, atmospheric temperature profiles, integral water vapour, integral liquid water

Abstract >>
Results of the tropospheric thermodynamics monitoring on the base of multichannel microwave radiometric system Microradcom are presented in the paper. The system includes 4 microwave radiometers with the frequencies of 5358 (6 channels), 56.6 (scanning), 22.235, and 37 GHz, a dopler radar for liquid precipitations measurements, and video system for cloud observations. Passive microwave system provides continuous unattended measurements of the tropospheric temperature profiles in altitude range 010 km, and also integral water vapour (IWV) and integral liquid water (ILW). Observations were provided in Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, from 1 March 2012 up to 31 December 2012. The comparison between radiometric and radiosonde measurements shows almost no bias, but a considerable scatter. The scatter is most probably due to radiosondes drifting away from an upright flight route.

Peculiarities of chemistry of atmospheric precipitations at stations Listvyanka (Irkutsk region) and Primorskaya (Primorye territory)

O.G. Netsvetayeva1, E.V. Chipanina1, V.A. Obolkin1, E.A. Zimnik2, N.P. Sezko1, I.N. Lopatina1, T.V. Khodzher1
1Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
2The V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, 1, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: monitoring, precipitation, chemical composition, mineralization, ion concentration, pH, transboundary transport, back trajectories, model HYSPLIT

Abstract >>
Results of studies of ion composition and acidity of atmospheric precipitations at two rural stations of EANET network Listvyanka (Irkutsk district) and Primorskaya (Primorskiy district) are considered for period 20052011. The studies have shown that precipitations at Listvyanka station in average have lower mineralization but higher acidification as compared with Primorskaya site. During considered period at Listvyanka station the mineralization and pH of precipitations increased while at Primorskaya station they decreased. The contribution of nitrates into precipitation and their concentrations acidity have been growing during the considered period and their concentrations. Model HYSPLIT was used to estimate the influence of possible external sources on formation of chemical composition of precipitation. Analysis of air mass back trajectories has shown that the lowest precipitation pH at Primorskaya station in 2011 was observed during the entering of south-west cyclones from territories of China and Korea. In Listvyanka, higher precipitation acidity took place with air mass transfer from north-west, when precipitations were formed over industrial regions of East Siberia.

Results of studies of the ionic composition of aerosols in Mongolia

G.S. Zhamsueva1, A.S. Zayakhanov1, A.V. Starikov1, V.V. Tsydypov1, T.S. Balzhanov1, D. Azzaya2, D. Oyunchimeg2, T.V. Khodzher3, L.P. Golobokova3, Yu.S. Balin4, M.V. Panchenko4
1Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str
2Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Mongolia, 210646, Ulan-Bator, , 5, Mongolia
3Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
4V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: aerosol, chemical composition of aerosols, Gobi desert, partical mater

Abstract >>
Results of aerosols composition researches in the atmosphere of Mongolia, obtained during the RussianMongolian expedition in 2011 are presented. The chemical composition of aerosols in the Southern Gobi (Hanbogd and Dalanzadgad) during the winter period depends on emissions connected with the mining industry. It is revealed that long-range transport of pollutants from China is the main factor in formation of aerosols in Sainshand, where no large sources of anthropogenic emissions are situated. The comparative analysis of aerosols showed that the chemical composition of aerosol particles in Ulaanbaatar is considerably similar to aerosols in Beijing in winter time.

Retrieval of the aerosol extinction coefficients on a long near-ground path from data on the aerosol parameters in a local volume

Yu.A. Pkhalagov, V.N. Uzhegov, V.S. Kozlov, M.V. Panchenko, S.A. Terpugova, E.P. Yausheva
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: spectral dependence, aerosol extinction coefficients, absorption and scattering of optical radiation

Abstract >>
A two-parameter model is presented in this paper, which allows retrieving the aerosol extinction coefficients in the visible and IR wavelength ranges on a horizontal near-ground path using a small number of parameters obtained in a local volume of air. The input parameters of the model are the aerosol angular scattering coefficient at an angle of 45 at a wavelength of 0.52 mm and the mass concentration of crystal carbon in aerosol particles. The spectral dependence of the single scattering albedo in the wavelength range 0.43.9 mm is estimated.

The effect of forest fires on mass concentration, disperse and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale

M.A. Bizin1, S.A. Popova1, O.V. Chankina1, V.I. Makarov1, M.P. Shinkarenko2, B.S. Smolyakov2, K.P. Kutsenogii1
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: smoke emission, submicron mass concentration, organic carbon, ion composition

Abstract >>
This paper presents the dynamics of principal chemical components of particulate matter in a smoke screen over Novosibirsk and its suburb resulting from forest fires of the Tomsk region and Krasnoyarsk territory. It has been found that the levels of submicron mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol (AA) increased significantly in 2012 as compared to 2010 and 2011. This increase is correlated with the high presence of organic matter in the atmosphere accompanied by the raised acidity and higher concentration of potassium K+ and formiate HCOO ions. Changes in the element composition of AA are absent.

Mercury in aerosols of Tomsk

E.E. Lyapina
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: mercury, snow, aerosol, monitoring, toxicity, concentration

Abstract >>
Technogenic geochemical transformation of atmospheric air of the urbanized territories is one of important problems of modern ecology. The most sensitive, accessible, and authentic indicator of pollution level of atmospheric air and the area of distribution of streams of polluting substances in the conditions of a city is the snow cover.

The ionic composition of atmospheric precipitation in the south of East Siberia

V.E. Pavlov1, I.V. Khvostov1, O.G. Netsvetaeva2
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str. IWEP SB RAS
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: precipitation, ionic composition, long-term monitoring

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of concentrations of ten ions (NO2, HCO3, SO42, NO3, CL, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) measured in atmospheric precipitation of the Baikal region for 12 years. Strong diurnal variations (in some cases up to two orders of magnitude) are recordet. The calculation results of smoothed average values are indicative of seasonal variations of all mentioned above ionic concentrations: their content in winter is 23 times higher than in summer. In most cases, the unified hierarchy of mean ionic composition of atmospheric precipitation sampled in Irkutsk, Listvyanka settlement, and at the mountain observatory Mondy (2005 m asl) is noted. This paper contains tabular data on the geometric mean concentrations of ten ions and the corresponding variances.

Weekly cycles in tropospheric NO2 content over urban regions

S.A. Sitnov, T.G. Adix
A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 119017, Pyzhevskii per., 3, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: nitrogen dioxide NO2, tropospheric NO2 column, weekly cycle, urban agglomeration, Moscow region, KruskalWallis test, diurnal cycle, seasonal dependence

Abstract >>
Using tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns obtained by OMI instrument, the analysis of NO2 intraweek changes over the world largest urban agglomerations (including Moscow) was carried out. With the help of Kruskal–Wallis test the estimates of statistical significance of differences in NO2 content between different days of the week were obtained. It was found that over all considered agglomerations tropospheric NO2 content is higher during workdays than during weekend. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of the statistically significant weekly cycles vary in the range from 14 (Cairo, Jakarta) up to 64% (Los Angeles). Intraweek differences of NO2 over densely populated Shanghai and Delhi are statistically insignificant and do not exceed 7%. The NO2 weekly cycle over the Moscow agglomeration is investigated in more detail. The changes in the spatial distribution of tropospheric NO2content over the Moscow region in the course of week were analysed. Using the data from three ground-based stations of air pollution control network in Moscow the weekly cycles in surface NO2 concentrations were investigated and statistical significance of the intraweek differences of them was tested. The weekly cycle in tropospheric NO2 column over Moscow was compared with those in surface NO2 concentrations and a satisfactory agreement was found. The transformation of diurnal courses in surface NO2 concentrations during a week in the summer and winter periods was also analyzed.

Definition of total cloudiness using the intencity blue in the sky image

S.V. Zuev, V.A. Levikin
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: total cloudiness, blue of the sky

Abstract >>
Method for the definition of total cloudiness by searching a blue of the sky on a color total sky images is described. For image analysis is used an additive RGB color model. Total cloud amount is defined as the relative number of pixels marked as "no blue of the sky". A comparison of the proposed method for the definition of total cloudiness with traditional visual method is given.

Deteremination of the sedimentation rate of pollen particulates (both single grains and their agglomerates) of the plants growing in West Siberia

V.V. Golovko1, V.L. Istomin2, K.P. Koutzenogii1
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 3, Institutskaya str
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 15, Ac. Lavrentieva ave
Keywords: sedimentation rate, pollen grains, agglomerates, anemophilic plants, air impact

Abstract >>
A study was made of the sedimentation of the pollen particulates of Siberian silver fir, ash maple, corn, manchzhursky nutwood, sea-buckthorn. It is shown that the dispersion of the pollen of these six species provides a considerable number of agglomerates of two or more grains, composing from 33.3 to 44.8% of the resulting particles. In this case, these agglomerates contain from 60.4 to 72.3% of the pollen dispersed. The sedimentation rate of the agglomerates, including from 1 to 6 pollen grains, was determined. The dependence of the agglomerate sedimentation rate on the number of the pollen grains included was established.

On the interannual variability of the latitudinal distribution of microphysical and chemical parameters of near-water aerosol of Eastern Atlantic in 20062010

V.V. Polkin1, Vas.V. Polkin1, L.P. Golobokova2, M.V. Panchenko1, S.A. Terpugova1, A.B. Tikhomirov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: ion composition, number and mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol and soot, latitudinal, interannual variability

Abstract >>
In 2006–2010 in the 5256th Russian Antarctic Expedition on the route RV "Akademik Fedorov" detailed measurements of the microphysical and chemical properties of aerosols were carried out along with detailed measurements of meteorological parameters and the parameters of the navigation upper ocean layer. We analyze the latitudinal distribution and interannual variability of integral aerosol parameters: aerosol number concentration Na, aerosol mass concentration Ma and aerosol mass concentration of “soot” (black carbon) M, the chemical composition of the soluble fraction of aerosol in the drive due to the variability of meteorological parameters on the transatlantic sectional view, taken in 20062010 years.

Estimate of ecological risks of oil spills using satellite data

M.N. Alekseeva, T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: environmental risk, pipelines, oil spills, land cover, atmospheric corrosion, satellite images, vegetation index, weather, geographic information program

Abstract >>
The purpose of this paper is to assess the ecological risks of oil spills using satellite data. This paper presents the use of data Landsat and TERRA satellites from 1999 to 2007. We used archives of thematic products TERRA/MODIS (MOD11A1 and MOD13Q1) and Landsat satellite images. The approach, using MOD11A1 and archived weather data for estimate the probability of the atmospheric corrosion of pipelines, was developed. The paper presents a graph of average NDVI values ​​for 2000, 2001, and 2007 on the mechanically disturbed and contaminated territories. The coefficients of correlation between MOD13Q1 in oil fields and indicators of weather conditions were calculated.