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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2013 year, number 2

1.
POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUD TRANSFER FROM ARCTIC REGIONS TO TOMSK IN JANUARY, 2010

A.A. Cheremisin, V.N. Marichev, P.V. Novikov
Keywords: lidar, polar stratospheric clouds, back trajectories

Abstract >>
Clearly expressed maxima of aerosol scattering were recored in Tomsk in January, 2010 from lidar observations in stratosphere at altitudes from 14 to 24 km. Calculations of back trajectories of air mass transfer to Tomsk demonstrated that enhanced aerosol scattering was directly related to air mass cooling for 6–12 h before its occurrence over Tomsk in the regions below thresholds for polar stratospheric cloud formation. The calculated back trajectories demonstrated that the polar stratospheric clouds registered in Tomsk at altitudes of 16–24 km could be formed over the Scandinavian mountains, and the clouds at altitudes of 11–14 km could be formed over mountain ridges of Polar Ural Mountains and Novaya Zemlya Archipelago. The presence of the stratospheric aerosol of synoptic scales in these regions in January, 2010 was confirmed by the data of CALIOP satellite lidar
																								



2.
SIMULATION OF SOLAR RADIATIVE FLUXES IN THE ATMOSPHERE USING DIFFERENT MODELS OF WATER VAPOR CONTINUAL ABSORPTION IN TYPICAL CONDITION OF WESTERN SIBERIA

T.Yu. Chesnokova, T.B. Zhuravleva, I.V. Ptashnik, A.V. Chentsov
Keywords: water vapor continuum, molecular absorption, atmospheric radiative transfer

Abstract >>
A calculation of total, direct, and diffuse solar radiation fluxes in 0.2–5 mm spectral region in the cloudless atmosphere for different water vapor continuum absorption models at the variable atmospheric total water vapor content, typical for winter and summer conditions of Western Siberia is made. It is shown that the CAVIAR continuum absorption model, based on new experimental data, can give a higher sensitivity of the simulated fluxes to the total water vapor content than the MT_CKD model, widely used in the radiative calculations. It is caused by the fact that the water vapor continuum in the CAVIAR data exceeds the MT_CKD prediction on average by the order of magnitude in the atmospheric windows of the near infrared spectral region
																								



3.
Basic statistical characteristics of the temperature field in the ground atmospheric layer above the Russia and contiguous states

V.A. Krutikov, A.I. Kuskov, V.A. Tartakovskii, E.V. Ivanova
Keywords: thermal decomposition of a field into components, global scale

Abstract >>
We propose a method of temperature fields for orthogonal decomposition of components. The territory of Russia and CIS countries was studied, as well as Northern Europe. Value of the long-term trend, the amplitude of the annual progress and the anomaly were calculated. Fields were built of multi-year minimum and maximum temperatures, the trend, the amplitude, and the seasonal component. The effect of the Gulf stream in the cold season was shown. Characteristics of temperature field for winter and summer periods were revealed
																								



4.
LONG-TERM AND SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF TRANSPARENCY DISTRIBUTION IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN BLACK SEA

A.S. Kukushkin
Keywords: beam attenuation coefficient, chlorophyll a, river run-off, hydrometeorological conditions, variability

Abstract >>
Using long-term observational data on beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) and depth of visibility of Secchi Disk, the main peculiarities of annual cycle of transparency distribution in surface water layer of the north-western Black Sea were considered. Statistical estimations of seasonal and intra-seasonal variations of BAC in the areas which differ in the degree of influence on their hydrophysical characteristics of river and open-sea water flow were obtained, and their good agreement with variations of content of suspended matter components was noted. Seasonal values of BAC on chlorophyll a concentration were calculated, based on the use of regressive dependence between these parameters being measured simultaneously. It is shown that long-term (1978–2010) seasonal variations of BAC (measured and calculated) and, connected with them, variations of chlorophyll a concentration depend on variability of the river flow capacity, coverage of its distribution on the north western shelf and regional hydrometeorological conditions
																								



5.
Seasonal dynamics of suspended matter in waters of lake Khanka

V.S. Filimonov, A.D. Aponasenko
Keywords: surface water, turbidity, mineral particle, clay

Abstract >>
Outline maps of the distribution of mineral suspension in waters of the lake Hanka in summer, spring, autumn, and winter seasons have been created. The analysis revealed seasonal differences in the distribution of mineral suspension of the lake and showed that the lake ecosystem is functioning under a constant rhythmic annual cycle of changing the concentration of the suspended matter
																								



6.
Long-term changes of humidity conditions within the atmospheric boundary layer over Siberia. Part 1. Changes of annual average humidity

V.S. Komarov, N.Ya. Lomakina, S.N. Il’in, D.P. Nakhtigalova
Keywords: long-term changes, linear trends, average annual air humidity, the atmospheric boundary layer, Siberian region

Abstract >>
It has been found that the type of change of annual average humidity within the atmospheric boundary layer of Siberia for the last 30 years approximately repeats the spatial distribution of annual average temperature. In this case while the appreciable warming and air humidity rising is observed in the polar regions (70°N) and in the subpolar zone (60–70°N) of Eastern Siberia, their synchronous fall is occurred in the same zone of West Siberia. Changes of annual average humidity do not correspond to the changes of annual average temperature (at 30-year increase of temperature, the humidity decreases) in the moderate zone of Siberian region practically within the all atmospheric boundary layer. It is shown that in 2001-2010 the appreciable fall of air temperature and humidity predominates in the all atmospheric boundary layer of the most part of Siberia
																								



7.
Long-term changes of humidity conditions within the atmospheric boundary layer over Siberia. Part 2. Changes of seasonal average humidity

V.S. Komarov, N.Ya. Lomakina, S.N. Il’in, D.P. Nakhtigalova
Keywords: long-term changes, linear trends, average seasonal air humidity, the atmospheric boundary layer, Siberian region

Abstract >>
The research results of the long-term change trends of seasonal average air humidity within the atmospheric boundary layer of Siberian region over last 30 years (1981-2010) estimated by the observed data of 25 aerological stations for winter, spring, summer, and autumn are presented. It has been found that changes of seasonal average humidity observed within the atmospheric boundary layer over the territory of Siberia for the last 30 years depend on the geographical position of the station and make a different contribution to the long-term fluctuations of annual average humidity in the different seasons. Namely, while the negative trends making for annual average humidity fall within all atmospheric boundary layer predominate in winter and in a small degree in summer (only in the subpolar and the moderate zones of Western Siberia), the positive trends are typical in spring and autumn for all regions. It is shown as well that in the last ten years almost everywhere seasonal average air humidity fall was observed in the atmospheric boundary layer of the most part of Siberian region for every season, especially in winter. Seasonal average air humidity rises predominates only in the polar regions of Siberia (for every season) and in the subpolar zone of Eastern Siberia (in spring, summer and autumn), and at every altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer
																								



8.
Aggregate composition of anemophilic plant pollen, entering the atmosphere

V.V. Golovko, K.P. Kutsenogii, V.L. Istomin
Keywords: pollen, atmospheric aerosol, number concentration, mass concentration, diurnal dynamics

Abstract >>
A study is made of the aggregate composition of anemophilic plants pollen, which both is sprayed artificially and enters the atmosphere upon pollination. All experiments on the pollen of all the species studied have revealed a substantial number of agglomerates consisting of two or more pollen grains. In some cases, these agglomerates contain more than 50% of the total number of the captures pollen grains
																								



9.
On the choice of the measuring area for dual-channel optical rain gauge

V.V. Kalchikhin, A.A. Kobzev, V.A. Korolkov, A.A. Tikhomirov
Keywords: precipitation particles, optical rain gauge, measuring area

Abstract >>
The paper presents description of the optical rain gauge, virtual measuring area, and criteria of the measuring area defining. The probability calculation for simultaneous registration of multiple precipitation particles is performed. It is shown that the developed device should provide simultaneous recording of two raindrops at least. Estimations of the transmitted data traffic and calculation of the instrument sensitivity have been made. It was concluded that this gauge has wider possibilities and related prospects in comparison with traditional rain gauges
																								



10.
Influence of non-stationary electric field on an array of weakly interactting carbon nanotubes

N.R. Sadykov, N.A. Scorkin
Keywords: nanoelectromagnetism, microwave radiation, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, electric field, nanosecond electrical pulse

Abstract >>
The mechanism of influence of non-stationary electric field on system of weakly interacting carbon nanotubes is considered. For current density the equation is received, which is the operator-difference equation of the second order on the space, where “grid points” coincide with grapheme atomic arrangement. It is offered to replace the difference operator by Laplace operator in two-dimensional case. The received results allow to consider the effect of generation of millimeter radiation
																								



11.
Research of samples of soil and dust aerosol by method of IR spectroscopy

S.F. Abdullaev, T. Shukurov, R. Marupov, B.I. Nazarov
Keywords: IR spectrum, aerosol, dust haze, dust storm, method IR spectroscopy, stretching vibrations, bending vibrations, hydrocarbon group, the organic

Abstract >>
The studies have shown that the proposed method of determining the likely areas of dust storms by IR spectroscopy in the frequency range 4000–400 cm–1 can quickly determine the source of the dusty haze formation (dust storms) in a comparative analysis of infrared spectrum of the data bank. When they coincide with the spectrum of a zone, the origin of dust storms (dust haze is determined). The advantage of the proposed method is technically simpler, accurate, faster, and more economical as compared to others
																								



12.
Parallel computing for solving problems of reconstruction of the earth surface reflection coefficient from satellite data

A.V. Kozhevnikova, M.V. Tarasenkov, V.V. Belov
Keywords: optical radiation transfer, Monte Carlo method, spherical geometry, parallel computing

Abstract >>
The problem of application of parallel computing for solving the problem of atmospheric correction of satellite images is considered in the paper. It is demonstrated that parallel computing of trajectory packages for the Monte Carlo algorithms allows the computation time to be decreased significantly
																								



13.
Adaptive system for forming laser beams in atmosphere with the use of incoherent images as reference sources

V.P. Lukin
Keywords: correction, reference source, image, phase, coherence

Abstract >>
The adaptive focusing of the coherent radiation beam in the turbulent atmosphere is considered. The calculation is executed of the distribution of average intensity of the field of the coherent laser beam, focused in turbulent ambience when using the adaptive phase correction with the incoherent source image as a reference source. Possibility of using the measurement data of image jitter is shown under adaptive focusing of the coherent radiation beam. The phase measurements can be implemented in such a scheme by means of a Hartmann wave-front sensor