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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2010 year, number 3

Soil Cover of Novosibirsk Scientific Center and its Environmental and Agrochemical Assessment

A. I. Syso, B. A. Smolentsev, V. N. Yakimenko
Keywords: soil cover, soil types, composition and properties of soils, macro- and microelements, heavy metals
Pages: 363-377

Abstract >>
The survey of soil cover of Novosibirsk Scientific Center showed that the soils prevalent here, such as sod-podzolic and gray forest ones, had been conserved in the native state in the areas with the low human impact. As for the areas with the reduced human impact, local pollution with phosphorus, calcium and heavy metals was revealed in natural soils and urbanozems; at the same time, complete deterioration of agrochemical properties was discovered in the soils of experimental fields.

Mires of the Kuznetsk Alatau as Natural Filters of Natural Water

I. I. Volkova, A. I. Syso, K. S. Baikov
Keywords: peat swamps, heavy metals, peat biogeochemistry, ecology
Pages: 379-388

Abstract >>
The paper describes the results of the work aimed at elucidation of the ecological role of mountain mires in the Kuznetsk Alatau and evaluation of their modern ecological state on the basis of the investigation of geo- and hydrochemical features of peat deposits, mire and river water of the typical mountain mire system - Krestovskie Bolota - near the Chemodan mountain situated at the territory of the Kuznetskiy Alatau reserve, as well as summer atmospheric precipitation within the borders of the reserve and near its outer boundaries.

Spatial-Temporal Symmetries of Physical Phenomena in Soil

A. V. Chichulin
Keywords: complex systems, physical characteristics of soil, group theory, similarity, superposition of symmetries
Pages: 389-398

Abstract >>
A number of methodological aspects concerning the application of group-theoretical methods in soil physics is considered. The interconnection between the choice of the space-time geometry in which the phenomen under investigation are localized, and the physical laws governing these phenomena is analyzed. The dependence between the choice of quantitative standards of physical values and invariance of the laws describing the interconnections of these values is considered as a specific case. For some examples, the procedures of generalization of traditionl symmetries are demonstrated. In particular, the principle of superposition of the symmetries of similarity is formulated for the theoretical description of the humidity characteristics of soil (HCS) and the thermophysical coefficients; the possibility of mathematical modeling of the temperature regime of soil without solving the heat conductivity equation is indicated. The possibility of deeper understanding, from the symmetry analysis viewpoint, of the structural and functional concept of the physical properties of soil is stressed. The considered problems are illustrated with specific equations.

Sterlitamak Steppe Passage and its Modern Status

A. A. Kiekbaev
Keywords: climate, snow cover, ordinary chernozem, humus, forest-steppe zone, stability, anthropogenic transformation
Pages: 399-405

Abstract >>
Evaluation of the modern state of climate, soil and plant cover of the southern forest-steppe of the Bashkir Pre-Urals is presented. Analysis of the functioning of natural complexes under the changing climatic conditions is carried out. Their dynamics and transformation under the action of natural and anthropogenic factors are investigated. Modern vegetative cover and its synanthropization level are studied.

Soil Functioning in Hilly-Lowland Ecosystems of the Upper Angara Region

A. A. Kozlova, V. A. Kuz'min, E. V. Naprasnikova
Keywords: hilly-lowland ecosystems, soil functioning, biogeocoenotic diversification, fracture-polygonal forms, heterogeneity of soil cover
Pages: 407-417

Abstract >>
Hilly-lowland relief is common in the upper Angara region, which provides nonhomogeneity of soil cover, its complex character. The soil behavior of microelements (elemental composition), exchangeable Ca and Mg, biogenic indices - humus composition, biological activity was considered. Debatable aspects concerning the origin of the object under investigation are considered.

CLEANSOIL as a Perspective Method for the On-Site Remediation of Oil Polluted Soil under Existing Infrastructures

Y. V. Korzhov, E. D. Lapshina, D. I. Khoroshev, A. V. Zaharchenko, . G. Kulkov, D. M. Yarkov
Keywords: oil-polluted soil, new purification method, CLEANSOIL technology
Pages: 419-428

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of the two-years investigation of a new method of restoration of the oil-polluted soil - CLEANSOIL, which combines the physicochemical and biological methods of the removal of oil pollution. It is shown that application of this combined technology allows one to decrease the concentration of oil pollution in soil within a short time down to the level at which the possibility of self-purification of the soil arises.

Humus Profiles of Mountainous Chestnut Soils of the Complex Catena (Central Tuva)

M. I. Dergacheva, E. E. Ondar, E. G. Zakharova
Keywords: soil, humus profile, complex catena
Pages: 429-436

Abstract >>
Anlysis of the data obtained in the investigation of humus profiles of mountain-chestnut soil of the complex catena situated in the limits of Khemchik dry steppe region of the Central Tuva Depression is presented. It is shown that the characteristics of humus profiles depend both on the slope exposure and on the position of soil over the catena. The humus profiles of soils clearly fix all the changes of the ecological conditions of formation and functioning of soil even in the case when they are not depicted in the morphological appearance of soil. The data obtained may serve as the starting point for supplementary monitoring of the behavior of soil at the slopes and for revealing the variability of the soils of local level under the effect of changing natural environment.

Changes of the Main Components of the Destruction Link of Biological Turnover during the Evolution of Plain Soils in the Depression of Large Lakes in Western Mongolia

M. V. Yakutin, V. S. Andrievsky, CH. Lhagvasuren
Keywords: semi-desert zone, soil, catenic profile, destructor complex, microbial biomass, oribatid mites, abundance, species richness
Pages: 437-444

Abstract >>
The purpose of the present research consists in the study of peculiarities of transformation of the main components of destruction link of the biological turnover during the evolution of plain soils in the Depression of Large Lakes in Western Mongolia. It is shown that there is soil evolution from meadow typical soil to solonchak and further to brown typical soils during the lake-drying process. Changes of the soil microbial biomass occur; both the number and species composition of oribatid mites in this soils series change.

Peat Mass Changing During Decomposition in the Mires of Poland and Western Siberia

N. G. Koronatova, S. V. Shibareva
Keywords: ombrotrophic mire, decay, peat, degree of peat decomposition, living underground plant organs
Pages: 445-451

Abstract >>
In the article, results of field experiment on peat decomposition in peat deposits of mires in Western Siberia and Poland are presented. Two principal factors determining the dynamics of peat mass changing are revealed: position in a relief and contribution from the underground organs of grassy plants. The maximal values of peat mass loss were obtained for the raised bog, an upland mire microlandscape, the upper layer of peat; the mass loss was minimal in the deeper layer. In all the fen ecosystems which are the lowland microlandscapes, similar values of peat mass losses at different depths were obtained. In mire ecosystems with the high share of grasses in phytocenosis, the peat deposit in the upper half-meter layer is replenished with dying off underground plant organs.

Landscape-Ecological and Population Aspects of the Strategy of Recovery of Disturbed Land

A. K. Makhnev, N. E. Makhnev??
Keywords: land disturbed by industry, recovery strategy, direction of biological recultivation, cultural dendrocoenosis, natural reproduction
Pages: 453-459

Abstract >>
Major stages of the formation of strategy aimed at the recovery of land disturbed by industry and land monitoring are characterized, the examples of the positive application of this strategy are described.

Technogenic Salinization of Soils and Their Microbiological Characteristics

V. S. Artamonova, L. Y. Ditz, T. N. Elizarova, I. V. Lyutykh
Keywords: soil salinization, pollution, microbes, cyanobacteria, fungi, mesophaun
Pages: 461-470

Abstract >>
The soil-microbiological investigation of technogenically polluted soils revealed the space-time structure of microbial communities. The basic microbiological indicators of the degree of technogenic pollution and natural salinization were revealed. The stability of separate microorganism species is noted, depending on the soil-ecological conditions

Group Composition of Iron in the Embryozems of Technogenic Landscapes in the Steppe Kernel of the Kuznetsk Basin

V. G. Dvurechensky
Keywords: embryozems; technogenic landscapes; forms of iron; genesis of soils; orientation of soil formation
Pages: 471-477

Abstract >>
Comparison between the parity of forms of iron in the structure of embryozems of the technogenic landscapes in the steppe kernel of the Kuznetsk Basin and zonal soils allowed revealing the genetic distinctions which are essential. In turn, this is considered as the diagnostic parameter of the character, intensity and orientation of soil processes.

Effect of Pollution with Fluorides from Aluminum Production on the State of Humus in Different Types of Soil in the Baikal Region

S. Y. Zorina, L. V. Pomazkina, A. S. Lavrentyeva, T. V. Zasukhina
Keywords: pollution of arable soil with fluorides from aluminum production, humus state, transformation of carbon and nitrogen in humus substances
Pages: 479-485

Abstract >>
Effect of pollution with fluorides form aluminum production on the state of humus in different types of arable soil was studied in field experiments. They included the version modeling the high level of pollution by introducing NaF, the component that prevails in aerial industrial emissions. The negative effect of fluorides on the state of humus, connected with an increase in the mobility of humus substances, was exhibited in the gray forest soil stronger than in the sod meadow soil. This was dependent on the physicochemical properties of soil determining the buffer characteristics with respect to NaF, and the concentration of water-soluble fluorides.

Specificity of the Distribution of Oxidized Substance Fractions in the Soils of Technogenic Landscapes

D. A. Sokolov
Keywords: technogenic landscapes, oxidation-reduction processes, restorable substances, initials, organic-accumulative, turfen, humic-accumulative embryozems
Pages: 487-493

Abstract >>
For the first time, the features of accumulation and distribution of the fractions of oxidized substances in the soils of technogenic landscapes formed on the piles of coal mines are investigated.

Distribution of Radioactive Elements in the Environment in Pribaikalia (Communication 2 . Th and 137Cs)

V. I. Grebenshchikova, N. A. Kitaev, E. E. Lustenberg, V. I. Medvedev, I. S. Lomonosov, A. N. Karchevsky
Keywords: radioactive elements, environment, soil, water, bottom sediments, ledge rocks, natural and technogenic sources
Pages: 493-503

Abstract >>
Results of the reconnissance exploration of the abundance and distribution of radioactive chemical elements (Th, 137Cs) in various environmental components (ledge rocks, soil, bottom sediments, surface water) of Pribaikalia are presented. Wide occurrence and high variability of the concentrations of these elements in the environment, often several times higher than the regionl background values, were demonstrated. The dual genesis of anomalous fields was established: ntural and technogenic.

Soil Formation on Young Moraines in the Aktru Basin (Central Altay, Severo-Chuysky Ridge)

V. V. Davydov, E. E. Timoshok
Keywords: moraines, permafrost, successions, forest litter, humus composition
Pages: 505-514

Abstract >>
Formation of soil in the mountain regions of the Severo-Chysky Ridge is considered for the dated sediments of the Malyi Aktru glacier as example. It is shown that the development of plant cover under the severe conditions of near-glacial moraines causes changes of rocks and the stage-by-stage formation of young soil. It is determined that the pioneering stages of soil formation last for 300-500 years and finish with the formation of sub-brown soil and cryozem.

Factors Regulating the Production Process of Soy Culture (Glicine hispida m.) in Dry Steppe Zone of the Republic of Tyva

K. D. Seren, L. A. Ignatyev
Keywords: Climate, soya culture, technogenic factors
Pages: 515-522

Abstract >>
Effect of the application of mineral fertilizers in the regulation of production process of soya at the background of different versions of hydrothermal regime is strictly differentiated. Nitrogen fertilizers have a positive effect on the grain productivity of this culture under the favorable water supply for the plants, while phosphorus fertilizers have the same effect under the extremal conditions. The role of potassium fertilizers in the formation of this index is most often indifferent. Along with this, the diversity of response reactions of soya plants is due to the interaction between the functions of trophic provision with the elements of mineral nutrition and regulation in changing thei ecological stability.