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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2009 year, number 5

Dynamics of the Accumulation of the Top Phytomass in Industry-Related Communities during Natural Progressive Succession in the Norilsk Industrial Region

A. A. Fesko
Keywords: technogene, ntural progressive succession, phytomass, demutation
Pages: 643-647

Abstract >>
It was revealed that a sharp increase in the top phytomass occurs in the groupings, formed at the pit walls, at the first stage: during active colonization of open territories by plants. At subsequent stages, an increase in the phytomass slows down, only the relations between the botanic groups comprising the phytomass changes substantially. In phytocenoses developing on dumps, an increase in the phytomass proceeds gradually at all the stages.

Change of Ecological Conditions during Spontaneous Succession of Vegetation in a Broad-Leaved Landscape (by the Example of Polessye Province, Belarus)

A. P. Gusev
Keywords: progressive succession, ecotope, broad-leaved forest landscape, microclimate, Belarus
Pages: 649-656

Abstract >>
Features of the spontaneous succession in a broad-leaved forest landscape (Polessye province, Belarus) are considered. The regularities of changes of the vegetation (specific structure, vital forms, phytocoenotic structure) and the characteristics of ecotope (on the basis of phytoindicator scales) over the succession gradient were revealed. It was established that the most essential changes of microclimate and soil occur at the stage of formation of the wood ecosystem.

Post-pasture Demutation in the Communities of Forest-Steppe near the Ob River

G. K. Zvereva
Keywords: forest-steppe near the Ob river, reservation rate, digression stages, grass productivity
Pages: 657-664

Abstract >>
Influence of reservation rate on natural degraded pasture areas at different stages of pasture digression was studied during the years 1994-2004 under the conditions of the right-bank forest-steppe near the Ob river. It was revealed that the isolation of pasture phytocoenoses of a steppe meadow from pasturing causes an increase in the productivity of grass but due to different economic-botanical groups of plants. An increase in the productivity at the initial stage of digression occurs due to overgrowth of legumes and motley grass, while at the final stages mainly due to an increase in the mass of cereals. Removal of pasture load promotes the formation of intermediate communities; in this situation, an increase in their species diversity is to a high extent due to the presence of closely located phytocenoses which are richer from the floristic viewpoint.

On the Assessment of the Indicative Role of Herb-Dwarf Shrub Layer in Mountain Phytocenoses of the Polar Urals (with Special Reference to the Environs of the Chernaya Mountain)

N. V. Peshkova, N. I. Andreyashkina
Keywords: stages of forest formation process, the Polar Urals, moistening of ecotopes, herb-dwarf shrub layer
Pages: 665-672

Abstract >>
Correlations between the structure of phytocenoses representing different stages of the process of forest formation in the Polar Urals mountains and moistening of ecotopes, as well as between the lower layers and forest stand are considered. Current density of trees and undergrowth is not exhaustive of the ecotope capacity, and therefore open woodland can be transformed into closed forest. Perspectives of such a transformation within a certain plot may be assessed by percentage of mesophilic and relatively thermophilous (hypoarctic + boreal) species in the herb-dwarf shrub layer.

Development of Grass Vegetation in Field-Protective Belts of Different Species Composition under the Conditions of the Shira Steppe in Khakasia

O. P. Kovylina, N. V. Sukhenko
Keywords: field-protective forest plantations, species composition, structure and biomass of grass cover
Pages: 673-680

Abstract >>
The experience of growing field-protective forest belts of different species composition under arid conditions of the Shira steppe of Khakasia is considered. The results of the investigation of species variety, distribution of grass plants over ecological groups, and revelation of the regularities of species composition dynamics, structure and biomass of living grass cover in field-protective forest plantations are reported. The question concerning the influence of development stage of the living grass cover on the forest belts growth is considered.

Natural Reasons of Differentiation of the Soil Ecological State of the Turan-Uyuk Depression

E. A. Gurkova, O. I. Kalnaya
Keywords: soil ecological state, Turan-Uyuk depression, ring zoning, soil formation conditions
Pages: 681-686

Abstract >>
Specific role of climatic, geographic, lithologic, hydrochemical etc. conditions of soil formation in the differentiation of the soil cover in the Turan-Uyuk depression in Tuva is considered.

Woodland Belts as a Factor for Improvement of Ecological Situation in Steppe Kulunda

Y. G. Paramonov, Y. N. Ishutin
Keywords: ecological framework, desertification, soil degradation, dry steppe, forest belt
Pages: 687-691

Abstract >>
Current state of woodland belts in the Altai Territory is anlyzed; forestry activities aimed at the protection of the existing forests and planting the new ones to improve the ecological situation in steppe Kulunda are planned.

Dynamics of Weather and Climatic Characteristics and Ecological Functions of a Small Forest Basin

N. K. Kozhevnikova
Keywords: air temperature, precipitation, river basin, parent forest, water flow, ecological functions
Pages: 693-703

Abstract >>
Investigations of the climatic parameters and protective characteristics of forest ecosystems were carried out at a small drainge area in the upper reach of the Ussuri river (Southern Sikhote Alin') as an example. Anlysis of the 40 years dynamics of air temperature and the regime of atmospheric precipitation showed that changes of the temperature background and preciitation redistribution within a year occur: a trend to an increase in the average annual air temperature is observed as a result of warming during the cold and transition periods of a year, the number of years with insufficient wetting during the summer and autumn seasons and with snowy winters increases. The ecological potential of the basin, expressed in the quantitative indices of water-regulative and water protection role of parent forests, is decreased after the experimental felling of main use. With the general increasing negative dynamics of the forest resources of the region, climatic changes may cause an increase in the surface drainage during spring, a decrease in the channel runoff, worsening of watering and water quality of large river basins.

Functioning of Rare Plant Species Populations of Central Siberia

T. G. Boikov
Keywords: Central Siberia, rare plants, habitat, range of possibilities, behavior strategy, population structure
Pages: 705-714

Abstract >>
Rare plant species of Central Siberia, included in the regionl Red Books, are considered from the positions of their population strategies. The analysis of potential possibilities and positions of species populations is given. The functionl approach to the evaluation of rare plants behavior is proposed.
The functionl typology of rare plants and specific features of their behavior is recommended to be used for the development of protection modes for rare plants.

Structure of the Crown of Siberian Larch as a Complex Index of the Stability of Trees in the Plantations of Krasnoyarsk

I. V. Tikhonova, O. M. Shabalina, O. A. Minakova
Keywords: crown structure, correlation signs, tree state
Pages: 715-721

Abstract >>
Results of the comparative anlysis of the state of larch plantations in the regions of Krasnoyarsk differing in the levels of air pollution are presented. The features of the structure of crown and the correlation structure of habitus signs and tree states observed in the regions with medium and high level of air pollution are shown. It is concluded that the sensitivity of correlation signs is higher and they are suitable to reveal changes that cannot be diagnosed with the help of the eye survey of tree state.

Population Structure of Potentilla bifurca L. in the Altay-Sayan Mountain Region

V. N. Godin
Keywords: Potentilla bifurca L., pollen, variability, Altay-Sayan mountain region
Pages: 723-730

Abstract >>
On the basis of investigation of the features of pollen of 16 coenopopulations of Potentilla bifurca in five provinces of the Altay-Sayan mountain region, two groups of coenopopulations were revealed: western and eastern. Both groups are characterized by the high intrapopulation (44,7-63,9 %) and lower interpopulation (11,4-42,2 %) variability. The observed similarity between the groups of coenopopulations of P. bifurca from different geobotanical provinces is determined by their common origin in the steppe communities of Pliocene-Pleistocene.

Coniogramme intermedia Hieron (Hemionitidaceae PichiI Sermolli) at the North Sikhote-Alin'

M. V. Kryukova
Keywords: Coniogramme intermedia, Far East, unique relic, plant grouping, preservation
Pages: 731-737

Abstract >>
Peculiarities of the distribution Coniogramme intermedia within the Russian Far East are marked. The characteristics of location, species diversity and structure of plant groupings in the inhabited placed are presented. Some measures to preserve endangered communities of coniferous and broad leaf forests with the particiation of Coniogramme intermedia are proposed.

Seasonal Dynamics of Akinetes of Anbaen flos-aquae in Bottom Sediments and Water Column of a Small Siberian Reservoir

E. S. Kravchuk
Keywords: Siberian reservoir, bottom sediments, kinetes, seasonl dynmics
Pages: 739-745

Abstract >>
Seasonl dynamics of Anbaena flos-aquae (Lyngb.) Breb., including vegetative cells, akinetes and akinete envelopes in bottom sediments and water column in a small Siberian reservoir was studied. It was assumed that even in a rather shallow mixed water reservoir, water bloom with cyanobacteriae starts in the littoral zone and then spreads over the whole water reservoir. Two types of akinetes were observed: in the first half of summer Anbaen formed akinetes, which served for vegetative reproduction and germinated in water column soon after differentiation, while in the second half of summer the akinetes served as resting stages, which were deposited to bottom sediments. It was demonstrated that even in the comparatively shallow unstratified reservoir the summer developments of the A. flos-aquae population started in littoral and no rise of akinetes from the sediments of the deeper central station occurred. Thereby, bottom sediments of the profundal parts of reservoirs seem to be a "cemetery" for akinetes of cyanobacteria, which never will germinte from these sediments. At littoral and open-water stations, abundance and seasonal dynmics of akinetes in water column and their sinking pattern were very similar. However, seasonl dynmics of the abundance of akinetes in sediments in these two reservoir locations differed: whereas the abundance of akinetes in open water increased permanently during the summer, that in the littoral decreased soon after their sedimentation. During winter, the abundance of akinetes in bottom sediments tended to decrease. The reasons of this phenomenon are unknown yet.

About the Asexual Multiple Reproduction of Asterionella formosa Hass. from Lake Baikal and the Angara Reservoirs

G. I. Kobanova
Keywords: Asterionella formosa, multile asexual reproduction, Lake Baikal, new facts
Pages: 747-751

Abstract >>
The living plankton diatom - Asterionella formosa of Lake Baikal and of the Irkutsk reservoir was studied with the use of light microscopy. The new facts were obtained which provide evidence of the occurrence of multile asexual reproduction of Asterionella formosa.

Phytoecdysteroids of Caryophyllaceae Juss.

L. N. Zibareva
Keywords: phytoecdysteroids, Caryophyllaceae, Selene frivaldszkyan
Pages: 753-764

Abstract >>
Distribution of phytoecdysteroids in the Caryophyllaceae family is anlyzed; the largest number of ecdysteroid-containing species was discovered in this family. The species of this family synthesize the wide variety of steroid compounds - the hormones of moult and metamorphosis of insects, many of which are not detected in other plants. The major part of the species of the Caryophyllaceae is characterized by the high levels of phytoecdysteroids. The flowers of the perrenial Silene frivaldszkyan accumulate up to 7 % of 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Ecological Relations of the Agropopultions of Ecdysteroid-Containing Plants Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin and Serratula coronata L. with the Insects-Phytophagans Report 1

N. P. Timofeev
Keywords: Rhaponticum carthamoides, Serratula coronta, , agropopulations, ecdysteroids, phytophagan insects
Pages: 765-780

Abstract >>
Accumulation of phytoecdysteroids in the agropopulations of R. carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin and S. coronata L., as well as their resistivity to phytophagans over the age periods of ontogenesis were investigated for 16 years. As a result of the investigations, the species-specific features of the accumulation of ecdysteroids in vegetative and reproductive organs of plants were determined; interrelations between the distribution of phytoecdysteroids in the structure of plants and the ecological relations with insects were revealed; the factors promoting damage were outlined; the damage caused by pests was evaluated.