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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2007 year, number 5

Microbial Complexes of Soils of Urban Territories

V. S. Artamonova, S. B. Bortnikova, I. B. Ivshina, T. N. Kamenskykh, N. V. Smirnova, N. A. Shaporina
Pages: 797808

Abstract >>
Results of microbiological monitoring of urban soils are presented. It is revealed that degraded soils and urbanozems of residential and transport functional zones turn out to be the environment of survival and reproduction of photoauto- and chemo-organoheterotrophic microorganisms. A spectrum of the species of sanitary significance is reported.

Genesis, Classification and Zoning of Floodplain Soil of River Valleys of the Siberian Region

P. N. Balabko, A. A. Sneg
Pages: 737740

Abstract >>
Features of genesis, classification, the problem of zoning of the floodplain soil of river valleys in the taiga forest, forest-steppe and steppe regions of Siberia are discussed. It is stressed that sod, meadow and meadow-fen soils are formed in river valleys as a result of two groups of processes: floodplain-alluvial and properly soil-forming ones. It is also stressed that each group of soil types is characterized by its own set of elementary soil-forming processes; the main features of zoning in floodplain soils are established. It is shown that the mobility of ferriferrous, humus-ferrous and clayish plasma in meadow soil should be taken into account when carrying out drainage land improvement since there is a danger of plugging up the drainage tubes and the danger of slitization of the plough layer of soil during ploughing up.

Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia: Landscape Dynamic Aspects

L. I. Gerasko
Pages: 719724

Abstract >>
Specific features of soil formation within the limits of sub-taiga

Analysis of Quantitative Characteristics of Landscape Components Calculated According to Polyzonal and Radio-locating Survey

Pages: 859867

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the results of calculation and an

Structural Mineralogical and Genetic Features of the Soils of Siberian Region

B. P. Gradusov
Pages: 733735

Abstract >>
On the basis of the data of structural mineralogical and genetic investigations carried out in the joint work with R. V. Kovalev and his apprentices, some genetic geographic aspects of the features of soil and top soil of Siberia are considered. They include super-dispersed clay minerals in soda solonetz of the Baraba as a manifestation of nanoscopic particles in soils, the problem of the formation of melkozem and the soil of mountainous-steppe type in the extracontinental regions of Siberia, the features of the differentiation of the solid phase of sod-deep-podzolic soils of low-mountainous regions of the Salair and the Altay.

About Some Problems of Biochemistry in the South of Western Siberia

V. B. Ilyin, A. I. Syso, G. A. Konarbaeva, Yu. V. Ermolov
Pages: 753761

Abstract >>
The soil geochemical heterogeneity of the territory in the south of Western Siberia is considered from the position of geochemistry. Examples of extremal situations connected with fluxes of chemical elements in the system soil

Biomass of Microorganism in Soils Formed in Drying of Flood-Lands of Lake Declines of the Baraba

M. V. Yakutin, L. Yu. Anopchenko
Pages: 817822

Abstract >>
Features of the profile distribution of microbiomass and its metabolic activity in the soils of different age formed in the regions of drying off bottom of a salty lake are investigated. It is shown that the investigated microbiological indices are closely connected with the level of soil salinity; they decrease with an increase in salinity degree.
The first stage of soil formation

Humus Profile of Soils as a Reflection of Stage Sequence in Soil Formation

E. V. Kallas, M. I. Dergacheva
Pages: 711717

Abstract >>
Possibilities and limitations of the use of humus profiles of soils for the reconstruction of stages and phases of soil formation are considered. It is shown that the humus profile is more reflective in comparison with the soil one. Its structure and properties fix the information about all the stages and phases of soil formation, even those the formation period of which is shorter than the characteristic time of formation of a morphologically expressed index. A range of aspects that require further work on solving the problem of soil formation stages involving humus profiles of soils is discussed.

Prospects of the Use of Deposits of Urban Waste Water as a Soil Conditioner

S. Yu. Klekovkin
Pages: 849854

Abstract >>
For the example of slime pit of the Abagur agglomeration plant, the possibility to use the deposits of urban waste water (DWW) for reclamation of phytotoxic rocks is considered. The advantage of DWW over the substrate of the slime pit is proved; the efficiency of the introduction of different DWW doses is tested in field experiments; the state of embryozems is described; conclusions concerning the prospects of the use of DWW as a soil conditioner are made.

Humus as a System of Ecologically Sustainable Compounds

Pages: 789795

Abstract >>
Humus formation was shown to be a peculiar natural selection of the most sustainable organic aromatic compounds that takes place in the course of decomposition of heterogeneous material. Humic acids were found to be the most sustain

Initial Soil Formation on Post-Mined Quarries in the Northern Taiga of Western Siberia

N. G. Koronatova
Pages: 829836

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of initial soil-forming processes on sandy revegetative post-mined quarries of different ages situated in the northern taiga subzone are shown. Morphology, hydrothermal properties, accumulation of potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon in young soils (embryozems) are characterized.

Granulometric Diagnostics of Intersoil Erosion of Detritus in Man-Caused Landscapes

A. V. Kusov
Pages: 837842

Abstract >>
Processes involved in the erosion of detritus (sandstone, siltstone, mudstone) in embryozems of industry-related landscapes of the Kuznetsk Basin are investigated. Differentiation of the intensity and character of erosion at different stages of soil evolution is demonstrated.

Structure of the Top Soil (STS) of the Lenkoran District of Azerbaijan

S. Z. Mamedova
Pages: 729731

Abstract >>
The role of R. V. Kovalev in the investigation of soils of the Lenkoran District is stressed, a brief characterization of the structure of top soil of this economically important region of Azerbaijan is given, and the data on morphological, bioecological features and agricultural significance are reported.

Carbon Balance in the Peat Bog Ecosystems of Western Siberia

A. V. Naumov, N. P. Kosykh, N. P. Mironycheva-Tokareva, E. K. Parshina
Pages: 771779

Abstract >>
The article deals with the components and processes of carbon cycle in the northern peat bogs of Western Siberia. The features of carbon cycle functioning under the contrasting conditions of wetlands in the middle taiga and forest tundra are considered. The questions of the northern peatland functional condition are discussed in connection with the modern climatic trend.

The Red Book of Soils and Natural Complexes of Siberia as a Condition of the Conservation of the Russian Super-Region of Biosphere

E. D. Nikitin, S. A. Shoba, E. B. Skvortsova, O. G. Nikitina, E. P. Sabodina
Pages: 725727

Abstract >>
The necessity to conserve soils and natural complexes of Siberia that make up the largest unit of biosphere, i.e. noosphere of the Earth, but come as the most vulnerable and difficultly retrievable environmental objects is substantiated.

Humus of Soil in Tuva

E. E. Ondar
Pages: 869873

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of humus composition of the soils in poorly investigated territory of Tuva are presented. The soils are formed under sharply different conditions: from mountainous tundra to steppe-semi-desert landscapes. The humus was revealed to resemble the humus of similar soils of extracontinental regions in the south of Siberia (Transbaikalia, South-Eastern Mountainous Altay), but it possesses a definite specificity manifesting itself as higher

Decomposition of Plant Biomass in Forest-Tundra Subzone

E. K. Parshina
Pages: 781787

Abstract >>
Global warming leads to permafrost degradation, an increase in peat degradation and changes in the parameters of macroelement balance. The experimental investigation of the decomposition of plant matter in the forest-tundra zone showed that this process in the active 30-cm top layer is slower than in middle and southern taiga subzones. Due to their chemical composition Sphagnum mosses are the most stable to decomposition

Specific Features of the Transformation of Mineral Forms of Phosphates During Soil Formation in Industry-Related Landscapes

O. V. Polokhin
Pages: 843847

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of transformation of phosphate forms and their differentiation during the formation of soil profile in industry-related landscapes of the Kans-Achinsk Fuel and Energy Complex are considered. The objects of investigation were uneven-aged dumps of stripping and enclosing rocks of the Nazarovo open-pit mine. The processes of transformation of phosphorus-containing compounds in the strata were revealed to be syngenetic to elementary soil processes and the features of the development of soil biota.

Principles of the Basin Concept in the Investigation of Soil Erosion Processes, Resources of Organic Carbon in the Top Soil of Forest-Steppe Near the Ob River Involving GIS Technologies

A. F. Putilin, L. Yu. Ditz, S. Ya. Kudryashova, A. V. Chichulin, A. M. Shcaruba
Pages: 741751

Abstract >>
Possibilities and prospects of the application of the basin concept to modern geographic and temporal description of soil erosion processes, transport of matter and energy, dyn

Changes in the Metabolic Profile of the Bacterial Community of Soil After the Removal of Soil Solution

O. A. Savenkov, N. B. Naumova, M. Rutgers
Pages: 823827

Abstract >>
Removal of soil solution by centrifugation changes significantly the CLPP-physiological profile of soil bacterial community, decreasing its ability to metabolise a wide variety of the substrates of low molecular weight, as well as polymeric ones, and increasing its ability to metabolise carbonic acids and phenol derivatives

Experience of the Application of General and Partial Coefficients for Estimations of the Degree of Differentiation of the Profile of Heteronomous Soils

E. N. Smolentseva
Pages: 855858

Abstract >>
Quantitative estimation of the differentiation degree of the profiles of heteronomous soils of the Sokur Hills is carried out. General and partial differentiation coefficients proposed by B. G. Rozanov are used [1]. As a result, addition

Net Primary Production of Grasslands and Peat Lands

A. A. Titlyanova
Pages: 763770

Abstract >>
Paper presents the estimations of above-ground, below-ground and total production in grasslands, meadows and steppe of the forest-steppe and steppe regions, and production in moss peat ecosystems of the northern, middle and southern taiga. Total production varies in grasslands from 520 to 6670 g/(m2 * year) and depends on hydrothermal conditions and the regime of the use of herbage, in moss peat it varies within 360

Our Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry: They Were the First

V. A. Khmelev, V. A. Kulshin
Pages: 693700

Abstract >>
Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of SB RAS was organized in 1968, after the establishment of a powerful scientific center in Siberia. The article presents information about the persons who had been at the beginnings of the Institute: the first Director, the first Heads of Laboratories, the first Scientific Secretary and the first post-graduate of the new Institute.

Regularities of Strontium Distribution over Soil-Forming Rocks and Soils in the Southern Country Between the Ob and the Irtysh

S. A. Khudyaev
Pages: 809816

Abstract >>
Regularities are considered and common character is revealed in the geographic and inter-profile distribution of total, acid- and water-soluble Sr in soil-forming rocks and soils of the southern territory between the Ob and the Irtysh. Dependence of Sr content on their mineralogical, granulometric composition and on the amount of carbon