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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2006 year, number 4

Analysis of Morpho-Ecological Features of Opisthorchosis and Metorchosis Pathogens in the Novosibirsk Region

S. M. Sous

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The present communication deals with the diagnostics of helminthic diseases opisthorchosis and metorchosis; humans and animals get infected from carp fish of water bodies in the Novosibirsk Region. Differentiation of the pathogenic trematodas Opisthorchis felineus and Metorchis bilis at the stages of ovum and metaschistosome is only weakly developed at present. The analysis of morphometric fetures and shape of ovum, larva stages - schistosome and metaschistosome, and adult worms allowed us to reveal the differences in these species at each stage of their development. Ovum of opisthorchis and metorchis differ in shape and the length to width ratio for the same length, which can serve as the diagnostic feature in the case of reliable differences. Metaschistosomes of opisthorchis and methorchis differ by the shapes of cysts and their larvae enclosed in cysts. The cysts of the two trematoda species differ by the ratio of length to width, thickness of hyaline shell to cyst length, cyst length to the diameter of abdominal suckers, and to the length of excretory bladder.

Prevalence of Trematodas Family Psilostomatidae Odhner,

E. A. Serbina

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The results of long-term investigations (1994-2003) of infectiousness of the first intermediate host (Bithyniidae snails) and final hosts (birds) of trematodas of Psilostomatidae Odhner, 1913 Family in the ecosystems of southern West Siberia are discussed. It is concluded that 14 bird species of five families (Anatidae, Rallidae, Laridae, Charadriidae and Scolopacidae) play the role of final hosts of trematodas (Psilostomatidae). Three mollusk species of the Bithyniidae Family play the role of the first intermediate hosts.
It is revealed that the representatives of Charadriiformes rarely are hosts of Psilostomatidae; they are likely to become the hosts only accidentally. Adult trematodas Psilochasmus oxyurus (

Temporal Dynamic of the Dominant Species

E. V. Pislegina

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Analysis of inter-annual and seasonal dynamics of the dominant zooplankton species of the lake Bai

Soil Arthropoda of Post-Fire Successions in the Northern Taiga of West Siberia

V. G. Mordkovich, O. G. Berezina, I. I. Lyubechansky, V. S. Andrievsky, I. I. Marchenko

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The soil arthropoda population of the northern taiga was investigated in the native pine forest which had not survived any fire for at least 100 years, and in two stages of post-fire successions in its place. The population of the native non-burnt forest is represented by 54 microarthropoda species. The meso-fauna is composed almost exceptionally of spiders; 10 species were observed. The foliage underwood develops on young burnt sites; the soil is covered with thick mossy pads with separate courtines of winnows. The density of collembolan and oribatid mite population here is about two times lower than that in non-burnt pine forests; gamasid mites are absent. The microarthropoda population is represented by the species which are common in the surrounding native pine forests. The mesofauna consists mainly of ground beetles, open-land predators, and myxophytophagues. Spiders are represented by some widespread mobile species with low density. A mixed forest with mossy-lichen cover is formed on old burnt sites (of the age of about 50 years). Diversity and density of microarthropoda increase reaching the values characteristic of native forest; however, the species composition and dominance are still different. The fraction of spiders in mesofauna increases. The ground beetle population is the most abundant and diverse.

The Night Emergence of Dragonflies (Odonata) in Temperate Latitudes of West Asia

S. N. Borisov

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The night emergence was established for 30 species and subspecies of dragonflies in temperate latitudes of West Asia. This phenomenon is most characteristic of the plains in Middle Asia, where 20 species with nigh transformation are known; for a half of them, it is obligate. In southern mountains and in West Siberia, the night emergence was observed for seven taxons. The adaptive value of dragonfly issue and flying away from water reservoirs during the dark period lies in avoidance of extremely high day temperature, dryness and insolation, on the one hand, and preying on the other.

The Spatial-Temporal Organization of Ground Beetle Population (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the Middle and Highland Parts of the North-Eastern Altay

S. B. Ivanov, R. Yu. Dudko

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Accounts of ground beetles in the middle and highland parts of the North-Eastern Altay dated from 17.05 to 31.08.2003

Ultradian Activity Rhythms of Drone-Flies (Diptera, Syrphidae) in the Southern Trans-Urals


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According to the results of analysis of diurnal changes in the abundance of drone-flies, three main boundaries of the ultradian periods of flying were revealed: morning, day and evening. The transit time and solemnity of the borders differ in spring, summer and autumn. With the help of classification of the ordered objects, six common ultradian periods were revealed; quantitative characteristics of drone-fly population are reported for each of these periods. The best similarity of species composition and abundance of Syrphidae was observed early in the morning and late in the evening. Four rhythms of drone-fly activity were revealed: morning, day, evening, and morning-evening. A jumpwise character of activity during a day is characteristic of the drone-flies of Epistrophe and Mallota genus.

Estimation of Aqueous Biological Resources of the Basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River


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Estimation of aqueous biological resources (phytoplankton, microphytoperiphyton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and ichthyofauna) in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska river, a tributary of the Enisey, was carried out. Specific composition of phytoplankton and microphytoperiphyton included 102 species and intraspecific taxons of algae, with the main contribution into the biomass from diatomaceous (90 % in phytoplankton, 75 % in microphytoperiphyton) algae. Due to high flow rates, the zooplankton does not develop and does not play any noticeable part in fish trophism. Zoobenthos is represented by 122 species and forms of bottom-dwelling animals with the largest number of species belonging to the Diptera order (39,3 %); subdominants of groups in numbers are the orders of caddies flies (21,3 %) and lake flies (13.1 %). The ichthyofauna of the Podkamenn

The Morphological Diversity of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum)) of the Kamchatka River


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A method is proposed to evaluate the biological diversity of sockeye salmon population using morphological features. In all the samples, the morphological diversity of males is greater than that of females. In addition, the inter-annual dynamics determined on the basis of separate morphological features is difference with reference to the individuals of different sex. The necessity to study biological diversity for preserving population homeostasis is considered.

The Morphological and Ecological Characterization of Chekanovsky Minnow Phoxinus czekanowskii, Dybowski (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) in Water Bodies of the Basin of the Enisy and Pyasina Rivers (East Siberia)


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Investigation of the distribution and variability of morphological and ecological indices of Chekanovsky minnow from water bodies in the basin of the Enisy and Pyasina rivers was carried out. The latitudinal borders of the natural habitat of the species are 56-69

Summer Distribution of Birds in the Urals


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The results of route bird registration carried out at the territory of the Ural mountainous land (from the Polar to South Urals inclusive) during the first half of summer (16.05-15.07) since 1948 to 2000 were analyzed. Total length of routes was about 3500 km. Total number of versions of bird population was 394. On the basis of results of multidimensional factor analysis, the features of spatial preference were revealed for 243 recorded species and the hierarchic classification was composed. Comparison with similar classifications for East European and West Siberian plains and Altai was carried out.

The Spatial Structure of Bird Population of Man-Caused Landscapes of the South Pribaikalia


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The data of bird registration carried out in man-caused ecotopes of South Pribaikalia during the first half of summer were analyzed. Using the automatic classification, analysis of structural features of the bird population was carried out taking into account its spatial non-uniformity. The territorial non-uniformity of bird population is determined mainly by the effect of afforestation, watering, land developing and industry-related impact. Different deviations in the spatial-typological structure due to industry-related impact demonstrate the specificity of its effect of bird communities. A sharp change in bird population as a result of different versions of industry-related effects determines the absence of gradual sequences of changes in the communities.

The Analysis of General Parameters of the Organisation of Steppe Communitirs of Small Mammals from Pribaikalye and Northern Kulunda


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A comparative analysis of the structure and organization of wild rodent communities from reference sites of forest-steppe located in different areas of Siberia was carried out. These were the sites of the forest-steppe zone of Northern Kulunda (Novosibirsk region) and sites of Tazheranskaja steppe in Pribaikalye (Irkutsk region). The structure of rodent communities from different sites is characterized by close values of qualitative and quantitative structure and the structure of population, which suggests the general mechanism of formation and functioning of communities in the forest-steppe and steppe landscapes.

Classification of Small Mammals of the Central Altay According to the Similarity of Distribution


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Four types of preference were distinguished for classification of the species of small mammals of the Central Altay according to the similarity of distribution. A comparison of the resulting scheme with the previously published one allowed us to reveal differences in preferences of some species of insect-eaters and rodents. The table of animal distribution over height zones in the Central Altay province is presented, the abundance indices of small mammals in the northern, north-eastern Altay and in the West Siberian Plain are compared.

Seed Productivity and Biological Features of the Seeds of Some Species of Asteraceae Family During Introduction


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The features of bearing were considered for 14 species of annual decorative plants of Asteraceae family introduced in the forest-steppe region of West Siberia and belonging to different ecological-biological groups. Laboratory germination and germinating capacity of seeds were investigated for different storage time; the dynamics of germination was also studied. The potential and actual seed productivity of inflorescences on the sprouts of different embranchment orders were determined for four model species (Dimorphotheca pluvialis, Brachycome iberidifolia, Sanvitalia procumbens, Tagetes patula). The productivity coefficients were calculated for each species per one plant and per a sprout of the corresponding order.

The Insects of Sciaridae (Diptera) Family Occurring at Different Stages of the Existence of Mushroom Fertile Bodies


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It was established in the investigation of changes in the fertile bodies of mushrooms in East Kazakhstan (the Republic of Kazakhstan) that the scyaride fauna occurring at different stages of the life cycle of mushroom fertile bodies accounts for 20 species belonging to 10 geni. Dominant species are those of Bradysia genus (6 species) and Corynoptera genus (4 species); Lycoriella genus is represented by three species. Pnyxia, Scatopsciara, Cratyna, Ostroverchovana, Phytosciara, Camptochaeta and Epidapus geni are represented by one species each.